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1.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 10(1): 32, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe mental ill health (SMI) includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder and is associated with premature deaths when compared to people without SMI. Over 70% of those deaths are attributed to preventable health conditions, which have the potential to be positively affected by the adoption of healthy behaviours, such as physical activity. People with SMI are generally less active than those without and face unique barriers to being physically active. Physical activity interventions for those with SMI demonstrate promise, however, there are important questions remaining about the potential feasibility and acceptability of a physical activity intervention embedded within existing NHS pathways. METHOD: This is a two-arm multi-site randomised controlled feasibility trial, assessing the feasibility and acceptability of a co-produced physical activity intervention for a full-scale trial across geographically dispersed NHS mental health trusts in England. Participants will be randomly allocated via block, 1:1 randomisation, into either the intervention arm or the usual care arm. The usual care arm will continue to receive usual care throughout the trial, whilst the intervention arm will receive usual care plus the offer of a weekly, 18-week, physical activity intervention comprising walking and indoor activity sessions and community taster sessions. Another main component of the intervention includes one-to-one support. The primary outcome is to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and to scale it up to a full-scale trial, using a short proforma provided to all intervention participants at follow-up, qualitative interviews with approximately 15 intervention participants and 5 interventions delivery staff, and data on intervention uptake, attendance, and attrition. Usual care data will also include recruitment and follow-up retention. Secondary outcome measures include physical activity and sedentary behaviours, body mass index, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, healthcare resource use, and adverse events. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, three, and six-months post randomisation. DISCUSSION: This study will determine if the physical activity intervention is feasible and acceptable to both participants receiving the intervention and NHS staff who deliver it. Results will inform the design of a larger randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical and cost effectiveness of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN83877229. Registered on 09.09.2022.

2.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enduring ethnic inequalities exist in mental healthcare. The COVID-19 pandemic has widened these. AIMS: To explore stakeholder perspectives on how the COVID-19 pandemic has increased ethnic inequalities in mental healthcare. METHOD: A qualitative interview study of four areas in England with 34 patients, 15 carers and 39 mental health professionals from National Health Service (NHS) and community organisations (July 2021 to July 2022). Framework analysis was used to develop a logic model of inter-relationships between pre-pandemic barriers and COVID-19 impacts. RESULTS: Impacts were largely similar across sites, with some small variations (e.g. positive service impacts of higher ethnic diversity in area 2). Pre-pandemic barriers at individual level included mistrust and thus avoidance of services and at a service level included the dominance of a monocultural model, leading to poor communication, disengagement and alienation. During the pandemic remote service delivery, closure of community organisations and media scapegoating exacerbated existing barriers by worsening alienation and communication barriers, fuelling prejudice and division, and increasing mistrust in services. Some minority ethnic patients reported positive developments, experiencing empowerment through self-determination and creative activities. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic some patients showed resilience and developed adaptations that could be nurtured by services. However, there has been a reduction in the availability of group-specific NHS and third-sector services in the community, exacerbating pre-existing barriers. As these developments are likely to have long-term consequences for minority ethnic groups' engagement with mental healthcare, they need to be addressed as a priority by the NHS and its partners.

3.
Health Soc Care Deliv Res ; 12(1): 1-107, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314750

RESUMO

Background: Risk assessment is a key process when a child or adolescent presents at risk for self-harm or suicide in a mental health crisis or emergency. Risk assessment by a healthcare professional should be included within a biopsychosocial assessment. However, the predictive value of risk-screening tools for self-harm and suicide in children and adolescents is consistently challenged. A review is needed to explore how best to undertake risk assessment and the appropriate role for tools/checklists within the assessment pathway. Aims: To map research relating to risk assessment for child and adolescent mental health and to identify features that relate to a successful risk assessment. Objectives: To review factors within the clinical encounter that impact upon risk assessments for self-harm and suicide in children and adolescents: i. to conduct a realist synthesis to understand mechanisms for risk assessment, why they occur and how they vary by context ii. to conduct a mapping review of primary studies/reviews to describe available tools of applicability to the UK. Data sources: Databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO®, EMBASE, CINAHL, HMIC, Science and Social Sciences Citation Index and the Cochrane Library, were searched (September 2021). Searches were also conducted for reports from websites. Review methods: A resource-constrained realist synthesis was conducted exploring factors that impact upon risk assessments for self-harm and suicide. This was accompanied by a mapping review of primary studies/reviews describing risk-assessment tools and approaches used in UK child and adolescent mental health. Following piloting, four reviewers screened retrieved records. Items were coded for the mapping and/or for inclusion in the realist synthesis. The review team examined the validity and limitations of risk-screening tools. In addition, the team identified structured approaches to risk assessment. Reporting of the realist synthesis followed RAMESES guidelines. Results: From 4084 unique citations, 249 papers were reviewed and 41 studies (49 tools) were included in the mapping review. Eight reviews were identified following full-text screening. Fifty-seven papers were identified for the realist review. Findings highlight 14 explanations (programme theories) for a successful risk assessment for self-harm and suicide. Forty-nine individual assessment tools/approaches were identified. Few tools were developed in the UK, specifically for children and adolescents. These lacked formal independent evaluation. No risk-screening tool is suitable for risk prediction; optimal approaches incorporate a relationship of trust, involvement of the family, where appropriate, and a patient-centred holistic approach. The objective of risk assessment should be elicitation of information to direct a risk formulation and care plan. Limitations: Many identified tools are well-established but lack scientific validity, particularly predictive validity, or clinical utility. Programme theories were generated rapidly from a survey of risk assessment. Conclusions: No single checklist/approach meets the needs of risk assessment for self-harm and suicide. A whole-system approach is required, informed by structured clinical judgement. Useful components include a holistic assessment within a climate of trust, facilitated by family involvement. Study registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42021276671. Funding: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme (NIHR award ref: NIHR135079) and is published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research; Vol. 12, No. 1. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.


When young people up to 18 years of age present to health services, having tried to poison themselves, take an overdose or injure themselves, a health professional needs to work out whether this is likely to happen again (risk assessment). Lists of questions or things to look for (risk screening) have proved unreliable. Thorough discussion with the child or teenager may be helpful but takes much time. How can a health professional best use time spent with a young person to prevent further harm and make sure that they get the treatment that they need? This review focuses on young persons who use health services in the UK. Included studies report how health professionals work out whether young people are likely to harm themselves; either how to handle the overall discussion or to use memory aids or checklists (known as tools) to help the discussion. Tools developed in the USA many years ago have not been tested well enough with UK populations. Recent approaches within the UK are used inconsistently. Young persons do not like how they are assessed. Health professionals may use methods that have not been shown to work or use tools differently from how they were designed. This review identified 14 ways to help a young person have valued discussions with a health professional. Health professionals should not simply 'tick boxes'; tools should help them gain a full picture, including input from other family members. Health professionals should create a trusted relationship where the young person feels respected and heard. Tools should not label someone 'at risk' but should support care that reduces the risk of further harm. Health professionals should gather good-quality information that includes asking about thoughts of suicide. Staff should be supported by training, guidance and feedback from experienced colleagues.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico
4.
BMJ Ment Health ; 26(1)2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37852630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected as part of EURIPIDES, a study which assessed how patient experience data were used to improve the quality of care in National Health Service (NHS) mental health services. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a detailed realist secondary qualitative analysis of 10 interviews in which expressions of racialisation were unexpectedly reported. This theme and these data did not form part of the primary realist evaluation. METHODS: Interviews were originally conducted with the patients (18-65 years: 40% female, 60% male) from four different geographically located NHS England mental health trusts between July and October 2017. Secondary qualitative data analysis was conducted in two phases: (1) reflexive thematic analysis and retroduction; (2) refinement of context-mechanism-outcome configurations to explore the generative mechanisms underpinning processes of racialisation and revision of the initial programme theory. FINDINGS: There were two main themes: (1) absence of safe spaces to discuss racialisation which silenced and isolated patients; (2) strained communication and power imbalances shaped a process of mutual racialisation by patients and staff. Non-reporting of racialisation and discrimination elicited emotions such as feeling othered, misunderstood, disempowered and fearful. CONCLUSIONS: The culture of silence, non-reporting and power imbalances in inpatient wards perpetuated relational racialisation and prevented authentic feedback and staff-patient rapport. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Racialisation in mental health trusts reflects lack of psychological safety which weakens staff-patient rapport and has implications for authentic patient engagement in feedback and quality improvement processes. Larger-scale studies are needed to investigate racialisation in the staff-patient relationships.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Medicina Estatal , Hospitais , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
5.
Health Soc Care Deliv Res ; 11(15): 1-161, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37837344

RESUMO

Background: Mental health crises cause significant disruption to individuals and families and can be life-threatening. The large number of community crisis services operating in an inter-agency landscape complicates access to help. It is unclear which underpinning mechanisms of crisis care work, for whom and in which circumstances. Aim: The aim was to identify mechanisms to explain how, for whom and in what circumstances adult community crisis services work. Objectives: The objectives were to develop, test and synthesise programme theories via (1) stakeholder expertise and current evidence; (2) a context, intervention, mechanism and outcome framework; (3) consultation with experts; (4) development of pen portraits; (5) synthesis and refinement of programme theories, including mid-range theory; and (6) identification and dissemination of mechanisms needed to trigger desired context-specific crisis outcomes. Design: This study is a realist evidence synthesis, comprising (1) identification of initial programme theories; (2) prioritisation, testing and refinement of programme theories; (3) focused realist reviews of prioritised initial programme theories; and (4) synthesis to mid-range theory. Main outcome: The main outcome was to explain context, mechanisms and outcomes in adult community mental health crisis care. Data sources: Data were sourced via academic and grey literature searches, expert stakeholder group consultations and 20 individual realist interviews with experts. Review methods: A realist evidence synthesis with primary data was conducted to test and refine three initial programme theories: (1) urgent and accessible crisis care, (2) compassionate and therapeutic crisis care and (3) inter-agency working. Results: Community crisis services operate best within an inter-agency system. This requires compassionate leadership and shared values that enable staff to be supported; retain their compassion; and, in turn, facilitate compassionate interventions for people in crisis. The complex interface between agencies is best managed through greater clarity at the boundaries of services, making referral and transition seamless and timely. This would facilitate ease of access and guaranteed responses that are trusted by the communities they serve. Strengths and limitations: Strengths include the identification of mechanisms for effective inter-agency community crisis care and meaningful stakeholder consultation that grounded the theories in real-life experience. Limitations include the evidence being heavily weighted towards England and the review scope excluding full analysis of ethnic and cultural diversity. Conclusions: Multiple interpretations of crises and diverse population needs present challenges for improving the complex pathways to help in a crisis. Inter-agency working requires clear policy guidance with local commissioning. Seamless transitions between services generate trust through guaranteed responses and ease of navigation. This is best achieved where there is inter-agency affiliation that supports co-production. Compassionate leaders engender staff trust, and outcomes for people in crisis improve when staff are supported to retain their compassion. Future work: Further work might explore inter-agency models of crisis delivery, particularly in rural communities. Future work could focus on evaluating outcomes across crisis care provider agencies and include evaluation of individual, as well as service-level, outcomes. The implementation and effect of mental health triage could be explored further, including via telehealth. Barriers to access for marginalised populations warrant a specific focus in future research. Study registration: The study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42019141680. Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme and will be published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research; Vol. 11, No. 15. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


A mental health crisis can be traumatic for individuals and families. There are a lot of different agencies delivering crisis care. This can make getting the right help from services difficult, confusing and slow. It is not clear which services work best or who they work best for. This research explored community mental health crisis services for adults. We focused on what is working, who it is working for and in what situations it is working. Service users, carers, mental health professionals and service managers formed an 'expert stakeholder group' to guide the project by helping the researchers make sense of what we learned. We gathered information from research reports, other documents and interviews with experts (i.e. service users, carers, professionals, managers). We focused on three questions: How can services make sure that people in crisis can get the right help, quickly? What makes crisis care compassionate? Does it help if different crisis services work together? Community crisis services are most compassionate and effective when staff from different organisations share information. When leaders of crisis care help staff to work together across services, they find better ways to help people. Close working across teams gives professionals a better understanding of what other services do and makes it easier for them to give people the right help at the right time. When leaders are kind and supportive to staff, they feel better at work and provide better crisis care. It would be useful to explore if the most effective crisis services are the same ones that service users like best. We need to know more about mental health triage, inter-agency working and telehealth. Our project did not explore diversity, but this is an important topic to investigate.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Adulto , Inglaterra
6.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 32(6): 1636-1653, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574714

RESUMO

Mental health crises cause significant distress and disruption to the lives of individuals and their families. Community crisis care systems are complex, often hard to navigate and poorly understood. This realist evidence synthesis aimed to explain how, for whom and in what circumstances community mental health crisis services for adults work to resolve crises and is reported according to RAMESES guidelines. Using realist methodology, initial programme theories were identified and then tested through iterative evidence searching across 10 electronic databases, four expert stakeholder consultations and n = 20 individual interviews. 45 relevant records informed the three initial programme theories, and 77 documents, were included in programme theory testing. 39 context, mechanism, outcome configurations were meta-synthesized into three themes: (1) The gateway to urgent support; (2) Values based crisis interventions and (3) Leadership and organizational values. Fragmented cross-agency responses exacerbated staff stress and created barriers to access. Services should focus on evaluating interagency working to improve staff role clarity and ensure boundaries between services are planned for. Organizations experienced as compassionate contributed positively to perceived accessibility but relied on compassionate leadership. Attending to the support needs of staff and the proximity of leaders to the front line of crisis care are key. Designing interventions that are easy to navigate, prioritize shared decision-making and reduce the risk of re-traumatizing people is a priority.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Humanos
7.
BMJ Ment Health ; 26(1)2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37463794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-standing ethnic inequalities in access and mental healthcare were worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Stakeholders coproduced local and national implementation plans to improve mental healthcare for people from minority ethnic groups. METHODS: Experience-based codesign conducted in four areas covered by National Health Service (NHS) mental health trusts: Coventry and Warwickshire, Greater Manchester, East London and Sheffield. Data were analysed using an interpretivist-constructivist approach, seeking validation from participants on their priority actions and implementation plans. Service users (n=29), carers (n=9) and health professionals (n=33) took part in interviews; focus groups (service users, n=15; carers, n=8; health professionals, n=24); and codesign workshops (service users, n=15; carers, n=5; health professionals, n=21) from July 2021 to July 2022. FINDINGS: Each study site identified 2-3 local priority actions. Three were consistent across areas: (1) reaching out to communities and collaborating with third sector organisations; (2) diversifying the mental healthcare offer to provide culturally appropriate therapeutic approaches and (3) enabling open discussions about ethnicity, culture and racism. National priority actions included: (1) co-ordination of a national hub to bring about system level change and (2) recognition of the centrality of service users and communities in the design and provision of services. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholder-led implementation plans highlight that substantial change is needed to increase equity in mental healthcare in England. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Working with people with lived experience in leadership roles, and collaborations between NHS and community organisations will be essential. Future research avenues include comparison of the benefits of culturally specific versus generic therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Etnicidade , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inglaterra , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
8.
Health Expect ; 26(4): 1453-1466, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37292036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Service user involvement is increasingly considered essential in mental health service development and delivery. However, the impact of this involvement on services is not well documented. We aimed to understand how user involvement shapes service commissioning, development and delivery, and if/how this leads to improved service-level outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases) was undertaken in June and November 2022 for studies that incorporated patient involvement in service development, and reported service-level outcomes. Included studies were synthesised into a logic model based on inputs (method of involvement), activities (changes to service) and outputs (indicators of improvement). PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines were followed when conducting this review. RESULTS: From 10,901 records identified, nine studies were included, of which six were judged to have used co-production or co-design approaches. Included studies described service user involvement ranging from consultation to co-production. We identified a range of outputs associated with service user involvement in service planning and delivery, and reported these in the form of a logic model. These service-level outputs included improved treatment accessibility, increased referrals and greater service user satisfaction. Longer-term outcomes were rarely reported and hence it was difficult to establish whether outputs are sustained. CONCLUSION: More extensive forms of involvement, namely, co-design and co-production, were associated with more positive and substantial outputs in regard to service effectiveness than more limited involvement methods. However, lived experience contributions highlighted service perception outputs may be valued more highly by service users than professionals and therefore should be considered equally important when evaluating service user involvement. Although evidence of longer term outcomes was scarce, meaningful involvement of service users in service planning and delivery appeared to improve the quality of mental health services. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Members of a lived experience advisory panel contributed to the review findings, which were co-authored by a peer researcher. Review findings were also presented to stakeholders including service users and mental health professionals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Pacientes
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070953, 2023 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37208136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The shortage of healthcare staff is a global problem. UK mental health services have, on average, a higher turnover of staff than the NHS. Factors affecting retention of this staff group need to be explored in more depth to understand what is working for whom, for what reasons and in what circumstances. This review aims to conduct a realist synthesis to explore evidence from published studies, together with stakeholder involvement to develop programme theories that hypothesise how and why retention occurs in the mental health workforce and identify additional evidence to explore and test these theories thereby highlighting any persistent gaps in understanding. This paper develops programme theories that hypothesise why retention occurs and in what context and tests these theories thereby highlighting any persistent gaps in understanding. METHODS: Realist synthesis was used to develop programme theories for factors affecting retention of UK mental health staff. This involved: (1) stakeholder consultation and literature scoping to develop initial programme theories; (2) structured searches across six databases to identify 85 included relevant literature relating to the programme theories; and (3) analysis and synthesis to build and refine a final programme theory and logic model. RESULTS: Phase I combined findings from 32 stakeholders and 24 publications to develop six initial programme theories. Phases II and III identified and synthesised evidence from 88 publications into three overarching programme theories stemming from organisational culture: interconnectedness of workload and quality of care, investment in staff support and development and involvement of staff and service users in policies and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Organisational culture was found to have a key underpinning effect on retention of mental health staff. This can be modified but staff need to be well supported and feel involved to derive satisfaction from their roles. Manageable workloads and being able to deliver good quality care were also key.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Adulto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reino Unido
10.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281667, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36780483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness experience worse physical health and greater mortality than the general population. Crude rates of A&E attendance and acute hospital admission are higher in people with serious mental illness than other hospital users. We aimed to further these findings by undertaking a standardised comparison of urgent and emergency care pathway use among users of mental health services and the general population. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis using routine data from 2013-2016 from the CUREd dataset for urgent and emergency care contacts (NHS 111, ambulance, A&E and acute admissions) and linked mental health trust data for Sheffield, England. We compared annual age- and sex-standardised usage rates for each urgent and emergency care service between users of mental health services and those without a recent history of mental health service use. RESULTS: We found marked differences in usage rates for all four urgent and emergency care services between the general population and users of mental health services. Usage rates and the proportion of users were 5-6 times and 3-4 times higher in users of mental health services, respectively, for all urgent and emergency care services. Users of mental health services were often more likely to experience the highest or lowest acuity usage characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Current users of mental health services were heavily over-represented among urgent and emergency care users, and they made more contacts per-person. Higher service use among users of mental health services could be addressed by improved community care, more integrated physical and mental health support, and more proactive primary care. A complex pattern of service use among users of mental health services suggests this will need careful targeting to reduce avoidable contacts and optimise patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ambulâncias , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
12.
Psychol Med ; 53(2): 458-467, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black, Asian and minority ethnicity groups may experience better health outcomes when living in areas of high own-group ethnic density - the so-called 'ethnic density' hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis for the treatment outcome of compulsory admission. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2011 Mental Health Minimum Dataset (N = 1 053 617) was linked to the 2011 Census and 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation. Own-group ethnic density was calculated by dividing the number of residents per ethnic group for each lower layer super output area (LSOA) in the Census by the LSOA total population. Multilevel modelling estimated the effect of own-group ethnic density on the risk of compulsory admission by ethnic group (White British, White other, Black, Asian and mixed), accounting for patient characteristics (age and gender), area-level deprivation and population density. RESULTS: Asian and White British patients experienced a reduced risk of compulsory admission when living in the areas of high own-group ethnic density [odds ratios (OR) 0.97, 95% credible interval (CI) 0.95-0.99 and 0.94, 95% CI 0.93-0.95, respectively], whereas White minority patients were at increased risk when living in neighbourhoods of higher own-group ethnic concentration (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.26). Higher levels of own-group ethnic density were associated with an increased risk of compulsory admission for mixed-ethnicity patients, but only when deprivation and population density were excluded from the model. Neighbourhood-level concentration of own-group ethnicity for Black patients did not influence the risk of compulsory admission. CONCLUSIONS: We found only minimal support for the ethnic density hypothesis for the treatment outcome of compulsory admission to under the Mental Health Act.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Internação Involuntária , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Densidade Demográfica , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Povo Asiático/psicologia , Povo Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , População Negra/psicologia , População Negra/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Inglaterra , Etnicidade/psicologia , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Internação Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto
13.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 16(1): 9, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typically, specialist mental health professionals deliver psychological interventions for individuals with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related mental health problems. However, such interventions are not generalizable to low- and middle-income countries, due to the dearth of trained mental health professionals. Individuals with little or no experience in the field of mental health (referred to as non-specialists) may have an important role to play in bridging this treatment gap. AIM: To synthesise evidence for the effectiveness of non-specialist delivered psychological interventions on glycaemic control and mental health problems in people with T2DM. METHODS: Eight databases and reference lists of previous reviews were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes distress and depression. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used for risk of bias assessment. Data from the included studies were synthesized using narrative synthesis and random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: 16 RCTs were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. The 11 studies that were pooled in the meta-analysis demonstrated a reduction in HbA1c in favor of non-specialist delivered psychological interventions when compared with control groups (pooled mean difference = - 0.13; 95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.04, p = 0.005) with high heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 71%, p = 0.0002). The beneficial effects of the interventions on diabetes distress and depression were not consistent across the different trials. CONCLUSION: Non-specialist delivered psychological interventions may be effective in improving HbA1c. These interventions have some promising benefits on diabetes distress and depression, although the findings are inconclusive. More studies of non-specialist delivered psychological interventions are needed in low- and middle-income countries to provide more evidence of the potential effectiveness of these interventions for individuals living with T2DM.

14.
BMJ ; 376: o326, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172977
15.
Dev Psychopathol ; 34(1): 37-54, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283694

RESUMO

Children of mothers with serious mental health difficulties are at increased risk of developing mental health difficulties themselves in their own lifetime. Specialist interventions delivered in perinatal mental health services offer an opportunity to support the infant's development and long-term mental health. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the shared elements of successful perinatal mental health interventions that underpin improved outcomes for infants whose mothers experience perinatal mental health difficulties. Nine electronic databases were searched comprehensively for relevant controlled studies of perinatal mental health interventions, and a narrative synthesis undertaken to assess whether statistically significant benefits were noted. Sixteen studies, trialing 19 interventions, were analyzed using a narrative approach and grouped according to reported effectiveness. Eight interventions demonstrated significant improvements in infant outcomes and/or mother-infant relationship outcomes and were used to inform the analysis of the included interventions' components. While the interventions identified were diverse, there were common components which potentially underpin successful interventions for infants whose mothers are experiencing mental health difficulties, including: facilitation of positive Mother×Infant interactions; helping mothers to understand their infant's perspective or inner world; and the use of video feedback.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Mães , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
16.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(3): 1006-1017, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440023

RESUMO

Around 246 million people globally suffer from depression. Physical activity (PA) can reduce the risk of depression by 30% and is recognised as an effective treatment for mild-to-moderate depression (MMD). However, a high proportion of patients with MMD are currently inactive and the implementation of PA as an adherent treatment for MMD is not well understood. This study contributes to a growing body of research exploring how to support people who are experiencing MMD to increase their PA levels (i.e. initiation and maintenance). It investigated which factors individuals with MMD perceived to be important for integrating PA into the treatment of depression in adults. In-depth interviews were carried out with individuals with MMD (N = 6), and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Two main theories of social capital that of Bourdieu and Putnam informed the discussion of findings. The initiation and maintenance of PA were linked to individual factors including health (i.e. nature of depression; comorbidities); abilities and tastes; socioeconomic status (e.g. financial position) and positive encouragement. In addition, maintenance emerged as dependent upon the choice, enjoyment, and meaningfulness of PA itself, and, for those who engaged in group PA, on social capital. PA interventions need to be personalised. This goes beyond a simple exercise prescription based on functional ability, but instead takes into account the needs, desires and capabilities of the whole person. The nature of MMD, the wider physical and socio-economic context and the social capital that is available to the individual also need to be harnessed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Depressão/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sedentário
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e048341, 2021 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate delivery of smoking cessation interventions, recorded quit attempts and successful quitting rates within primary care in smokers with depression or severe mental illness (SMI) compared with those without. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using primary healthcare records. SETTING: English primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 882 849 patients registered with participating practices recorded as current smokers during 2007-2014, including three groups: (1) 13 078 with SMI, (2) 55 630 with no SMI but recent depression and (3) 814 141 with no SMI nor recent depression. OUTCOMES: Recorded advice to quit smoking, referrals to smoking cessation services, prescriptions for smoking cessation medication, recorded quit attempts and changes of smoking status. RESULTS: The majority (>70%) of smokers had recorded smoking cessation advice. This was consistently higher in those with SMI than the other cohorts of patients, although the gap greatly reduced in more recent years. Increases in smoking cessation advice over time were not accompanied by increases in recorded attempts to quit or changes of smoking status. Overall nicotine replacement therapy prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) was higher in those with SMI (10.1%) and depression (8.7%) than those without (5.9%), but a downward time trend was observed in all groups. Bupropion and varenicline prescribing was very low and lower for those with SMI. Few smokers (<5%) had referrals to stop smoking services, though this increased over time, but no significant differences were observed between those with and without mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of consistent inequalities in access to GP-delivered smoking cessation interventions for people with mental health conditions. Smoking cessation advice was widely reported as taking place in all groups. In order to address the widening gap in smoking prevalence in those with poor mental health compared with those without, the emphasis should be on addressing the quality of advice and support given.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
18.
Sleep Med Rev ; 60: 101556, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607184

RESUMO

The extent to which sleep is causally related to mental health is unclear. One way to test the causal link is to evaluate the extent to which interventions that improve sleep quality also improve mental health. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that reported the effects of an intervention that improved sleep on composite mental health, as well as on seven specific mental health difficulties. 65 trials comprising 72 interventions and N = 8608 participants were included. Improving sleep led to a significant medium-sized effect on composite mental health (g+ = -0.53), depression (g+ = -0.63), anxiety (g+ = -0.51), and rumination (g+ = -0.49), as well as significant small-to-medium sized effects on stress (g+ = -0.42), and finally small significant effects on positive psychosis symptoms (g+ = -0.26). We also found a dose response relationship, in that greater improvements in sleep quality led to greater improvements in mental health. Our findings suggest that sleep is causally related to the experience of mental health difficulties. Future research might consider how interventions that improve sleep could be incorporated into mental health services, as well as the mechanisms of action that explain how sleep exerts an effect on mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Ansiedade , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono , Qualidade do Sono
19.
BJPsych Open ; 7(4): e136, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK, acute mental healthcare is provided by in-patient wards and crisis resolution teams. Readmission to acute care following discharge is common. Acute day units (ADUs) are also provided in some areas. AIMS: To assess predictors of readmission to acute mental healthcare following discharge in England, including availability of ADUs. METHOD: We enrolled a national cohort of adults discharged from acute mental healthcare in the English National Health Service (NHS) between 2013 and 2015, determined the risk of readmission to either in-patient or crisis teams, and used multivariable, multilevel logistic models to evaluate predictors of readmission. RESULTS: Of a total of 231 998 eligible individuals discharged from acute mental healthcare, 49 547 (21.4%) were readmitted within 6 months, with a median time to readmission of 34 days (interquartile range 10-88 days). Most variation in readmission (98%) was attributable to individual patient-level rather than provider (trust)-level effects (2.0%). Risk of readmission was not associated with local availability of ADUs (adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.80-1.15). Statistically significant elevated risks were identified for participants who were female, older, single, from Black or mixed ethnic groups, or from more deprived areas. Clinical predictors included shorter index admission, psychosis and being an in-patient at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse and readmission to acute mental healthcare are common following discharge and occur early. Readmission was not influenced significantly by trust-level variables including availability of ADUs. More support for relapse prevention and symptom management may be required following discharge from acute mental healthcare.

20.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 53, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social Prescribing is increasingly popular, and several evaluations have shown positive results. However, Social Prescribing is an umbrella term that covers many different interventions. We aimed to test, develop and refine a programme theory explaining the underlying mechanisms operating in Social Prescribing to better enhance its effectiveness by allowing it to be targeted to those who will benefit most, when they will benefit most. METHODS: We conducted a realist evaluation of a large Social Prescribing organisation in the North of England. Thirty-five interviews were conducted with stakeholders (clients attending Social Prescribing, Social Prescribing staff and general practice staff). Through an iterative process of analysis, a series of context-mechanism-outcome configurations were developed, refined and retested at a workshop of 15 stakeholders. The initial programme theory was refined, retested and 'applied' to wider theory. RESULTS: Social Prescribing in this organisation was found to be only superficially similar to collaborative care. A complex web of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes for its clients are described. Key elements influencing outcomes described by stakeholders included social isolation and wider determinants of health; poor interagency communication for people with multiple needs. Successful Social Prescribing requires a non-stigmatising environment and person-centred care, and shares many features described by the asset-based theory of Salutogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Prescribing model studied is holistic and person-centred and as such enables those with a weak sense of coherence to strengthen this, access resistance resources, and move in a health promoting or salutogenic direction.


Assuntos
Polimedicação , Prescrições , Inglaterra , Humanos , Participação Social
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