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1.
Health Educ Behav ; : 10901981221096100, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668635

RESUMO

Dietary intake can affect the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development of young children. Few studies have explored the relationships between dietary intake and the cognitive and socioemotional dimensions of school readiness. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations between children's dietary intake in early childhood, and cognitive and socioemotional school readiness indicators at age 4-5 years using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A total of 4,253 children were included in the analysis. Multiple linear regression models were built to investigate whether dietary intake (measured by questionnaire at parent interview) at age 2-3 years predicted school readiness indicators of socioemotional and behavioral functioning (measured by parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ total score and pro-social scale]), verbal (assessed by Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition [PPVT-III]) and nonverbal (assessed by "Who Am I" test [WAI] cognitive skills) at age 4-5 years. Furthermore, using cross-sectional data at age 4-5 years, four multiple linear regression models were built to investigate if dietary intake was correlated with the aforementioned school readiness indicators. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. It was found that every one-point increase in child dietary intake score at age 2-3 years led to a decrease in SDQ total score by 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.10, 0.28], and an increase in SDQ pro-social scale, WAI score and PPVT score by 0.07 (95% CI = [0.03, 0.10]), 0.27 (95% CI = [0.13, 0.41]), and 0.20 (95% CI = [0.09, 0.30]), respectively, at age 4-5 years. Children's dietary intake was also a correlate of their school readiness at age 4-5 years. These results add to the limited evidence base suggesting that children's early dietary intake may play an important role in later socioemotional and behavioral development, and the development of cognitive skills, which are critical school readiness indicators.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 201, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) and multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIAs), a simple and fast imaging method that can identify ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) may have great clinical value. We sought to use the aneurysm-specific prediction score to identify RIAs in patients with MIAs and evaluate the aneurysm-specific prediction score. METHODS: Between May 2018 and May 2021, 134 patients with 290 MIAs were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had an SAH due to IA rupture. CT angiography (CTA) was used to assess the maximum diameter, shape, and location of IAs to calculate the aneurysm-specific prediction score. Then, the aneurysm-specific prediction score was applied to RIAs in patients with MIAs. RESULTS: The IAs with the highest aneurysm-specific prediction scores had not ruptured in 17 (12.7%) of the 134 patients with 290 MIAs. The sensitivity, specificity, false omission rate, diagnostic error rate, and diagnostic accuracy of the aneurysm-specific prediction score were higher than those of the maximum diameter, shape, and location of IAs. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that the aneurysm-specific prediction score has high diagnostic accuracy in identifying RIAs in patients with MIAs and SAH, but that it needs further evaluation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 150, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common outpatient bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated and characterized an extensively-drug resistant (XDR) NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli EC1390 from a UTI patient by using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in combination with phenotypic assays. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility to 23 drugs was determined by disk diffusion method. The genome sequence of EC1390 was determined by Nanopore MinION MK1C platform. Conjugation assays were performed to test the transferability of EC1390 plasmids to E. coli recipient C600. Phenotypic assays, including growth curve, biofilm formation, iron acquisition ability, and cell adhesion, were performed to characterize the function of EC1390 plasmids. RESULTS: Our results showed that EC1390 was only susceptible to tigecycline and colistin, and thus was classified as XDR E. coli. A de novo genome assembly was generated using Nanopore 73,050 reads with an N50 value of 20,936 bp and an N90 value of 7,624 bp. WGS analysis showed that EC1390 belonged to the O101-H10 serotype and phylogenetic group A E. coli. Moreover, EC1390 contained 2 conjugative plasmids with a replicon IncFIA (pEC1390-1 with 156,286 bp) and IncFII (pEC1390-2 with 71,840 bp), respectively. No significant difference was observed in the bacterial growth rate in LB broth and iron acquisition ability between C600, C600 containing pEC1390-1, C600 containing pEC1390-2, and C600 containing pEC1390-1 and pEC1390-2. However, the bacterial growth rate in nutrition-limited M9 broth was increased in C600 containing pEC1390-2, and the cell adhesion ability was increased in C600 containing both pEC1390-1 and pEC1390-2. Moreover, these plasmids modulated the biofilm formation under different conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we characterized the genome of XDR-E. coli EC1390 and identified two plasmids contributing to the antimicrobial resistance, growth of bacteria in a nutrition-limited medium, biofilm formation, and cell adhesion.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Ferro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268773, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression are great public health concerns among college students. The purpose of this study was to explore whether sleep quality and quality of life (QoL) play mediating roles in anxiety and depression among Chinese college students. METHOD: A total of 2757 college students (mean age = 19.07; SD = 1.14) completed the questionnaires, including a brief demographic survey. The 2-item General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) and the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) were used to assess the symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. And the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to evaluate college students' sleep quality and QoL, respectively. Mediation analyses were conducted by using PROCESS macro in the SPSS software. RESULT: Anxiety had both direct and indirect effects on depression. Sleep quality and QoL were not only independent mediators in the relationship between anxiety and depression but also chain mediators. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study highlight the crucial role of early intervention for depression with a focus on college students with anxiety, more especially, on those with poorer sleep quality and lower QoL.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Res ; 213: 113700, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716814

RESUMO

Increasing soil carbon (C) sequestration in paddy field and improving rice nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) are vital for sustainable agriculture and environmental protection. It was a benefit practice for achieving these goals by taken rice straw and organic manure managements. However, there is still need to further investigate the effects of different long-term fertilizer managements on soil C sequestration and NUE under the double-cropping rice system in southern of China. Therefore, the effects of different long-term (36-years) fertilizer practices on soil C sequestration and NUE under the double-cropping rice system in southern of China were investigated in the present paper. The field experiment was included four different fertilizer treatments: chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), 30% organic manure and 70% chemical fertilizer (OM), and without fertilizer input as a control (CK). This result indicated that soil C content at plough layer in paddy field with RF and OM treatments were increased, compared with MF and CK treatments. Besides input C directly into paddy field, soil original organic C accumulation with RF and OM treatments were increased by 1.54% and 3.01%, compared with MF treatment. This result indicated that soil TOC content increase rate and annual topsoil organic C sequestration rate in paddy field with RF and OM treatments increased by 55.56%, 88.89% and 48.05%, 76.62%, compared with MF treatment, respectively. Compared with MF treatment, NUE with RF and OM treatments increased by 10.43% and 22.61%, respectively, mainly due to increasing soil organic C. Grain yield of double-cropping rice with RF and OM treatments increased by 1009.5 and 1166.5 kg ha-1, compared with MF treatment, respectively. This result indicated that there was significantly correlation between NUE/NUENPK and TOC content with RF and OM treatments, at early rice and late rice growth seasons. Therefore, it was benefit practice for increasing soil carbon sequestration and improving rice NUE in the double-cropping rice system with long-term application of rice straw and organic manure managements.

7.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 86-91, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish a diatom database by analyzing the quatity, species distribution and differences of diatom in water samples of the whole navigable sections of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, to provide a reference for the inference of the drowning site. METHODS: Water samples were collected at 22 sites in the navigable sections of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jining section to Yangzhou Section), and the diatoms at each site were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by using graphite digestion-scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Sampling site T (Laohuaijiang River Line, Gaoyou City, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province) had the highest number of diatoms, while sampling site O (Siyang County, Suqian City, Jiangsu Province) had the lowest number of diatoms, with a large gap of 68 times. At sampling site Q (Jiangpu District, Huaian city, Jiangsu Province), there were 19 species of diatoms. The sampling site O had the least diatoms, with 7 species. There were no significant differences in species evenness and species diversity at each sampling site (P>0.05). Some sampling sites have characterized diatoms, such as Caloneis at station A (Taibai Lake, Weishan County, Shandong Province), Rhoicosphenia at station B (Nanyang Town, Weishan County, Shandong Province), Amphora at station I (Taierzhuang District, Zaozhuang City, Shandong Province) and Epithemia at station J (Pizhou 310 national highway, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province). CONCLUSIONS: The species richness of diatoms gradually increased from north to south. Diatom species richness and species diversity might be higher in areas with complex environments and large population flow. Climate type has a certain influence on the distribution of diatoms.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Afogamento , Pequim , Humanos , Rios , Água
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712281

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Having a COVID-19 vaccination, getting tested, and self-isolating if symptomatic are some of the most important mitigation strategies for preventing the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are associated with mothers' willingness to vaccinate their 4-year-old children against COVID-19 if a suitable vaccine becomes available or to get tested and self-isolate if they themselves have COVID-19 symptoms and whether the willingness could be influenced by the Greater Sydney lockdown 2021. Methods: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between 24th February and 26th October 2021. Questions from the NSW Adult Population Health Survey and from previously published studies were used to assess family demographics, mothers' willingness to vaccinate their young children, and willingness to get tested and self-isolate if symptomatic. The survey involved 604 mothers of children aged 4 years who participated in an existing trial in Sydney, Australia. Results: Mothers were more willing to vaccinate their children when the child's father had a tertiary education or higher, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.60 (95% CI 1.67-4.04). Mothers who were older than 30 years or who completed the survey during the lockdown were more willing to get tested if symptomatic, with AOR 2.50 (95% CI 1.17-5.36) and AOR 3.36 (95% CI 1.41-8.02), respectively. Mothers who were married or had de-facto partners were more willing to self-isolate if symptomatic [AOR 17.15 (95% CI 3.56-82.65)]. Conclusion: Fathers' educational level, mothers' age, and marital status were associated with mothers' willingness to vaccinate their young children if a suitable vaccine were available, to get tested, and self-isolate if symptomatic respectively. The promotion of mitigation strategies for tackling the COVID-19 pandemic needs to take into account specific family demographics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
9.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 890767, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722477

RESUMO

Objective: Current knowledge on the global burden of infant sepsis is limited to population-level data. We aimed to summarize global case fatality rates (CFRs) of young infants with sepsis, stratified by gross national income (GNI) status and patient-level risk factors. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on CFRs among young infants < 90 days with sepsis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published between January 2010 and September 2019. We obtained pooled CFRs estimates using the random effects model. We performed a univariate analysis at patient-level and a meta-regression to study the associations of gestational age, birth weight, onset of sepsis, GNI, age group and culture-proven sepsis with CFRs. Results: The search yielded 6314 publications, of which 240 studies (N = 437,796 patients) from 77 countries were included. Of 240 studies, 99 were conducted in high-income countries, 44 in upper-middle-income countries, 82 in lower-middle-income countries, 6 in low-income countries and 9 in multiple income-level countries. Overall pooled CFR was 18% (95% CI, 17-19%). The CFR was highest for low-income countries [25% (95% CI, 7-43%)], followed by lower-middle [25% (95% CI, 7-43%)], upper-middle [21% (95% CI, 18-24%)] and lowest for high-income countries [12% (95% CI, 11-13%)]. Factors associated with high CFRs included prematurity, low birth weight, age less than 28 days, early onset sepsis, hospital acquired infections and sepsis in middle- and low-income countries. Study setting in middle-income countries was an independent predictor of high CFRs. We found a widening disparity in CFRs between countries of different GNI over time. Conclusion: Young infant sepsis remains a major global health challenge. The widening disparity in young infant sepsis CFRs between GNI groups underscore the need to channel greater resources especially to the lower income regions. Systematic Review Registration: [www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero], identifier [CRD42020164321].

10.
Dalton Trans ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722662

RESUMO

Two bimetallic complexes of 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitropyrazole, [K2Mn(DNPO)2(H2O)4]n·2H2O (BMEP-1) and [K2Zn(DNPO)2(H2O)6]n (BMEP-2), were synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of BMEP-1 and BMEP-2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It is noteworthy that these complexes presented different metal-organic frameworks. The thermal behaviors of BMEP-1 and BMEP-2 were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis measurements. These bimetallic complexes exhibited high thermal stability (348.0 °C and 331.0 °C) due to their large coordination bonds and three-dimensional interconnected structure. The catalytic performances of BMEP-1 and BMEP-2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate were investigated by TGA-DSC, TGA-FTIR, and non-isothermal kinetic analyses. The results showed that BMEP-1 and BMEP-2 exhibited excellent catalytic performance in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Notably, there was only a single exothermic peak at 302.6 °C and 318.6 °C, and the activation energy values of ammonium perchlorate decreased to 123.88 kJ mol-1 and 128.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. TGA-FTIR results showed that BMEP-1 and BMEP-2, as effective components of catalysis, will promote the production of H2O, N2O, NO2, and HCl in advance, during the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. BMEP-1 and BMEP-2 are expected to be two candidate additives for the catalytic decomposition of ammonium perchlorate in composite solid propellants.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 4290922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693704

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with insufficient placental perfusion attributed to maldevelopment of the placental vasculature. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in angiogenesis, but their regulatory effects and mechanisms in placental vascular development remain unclear. Methods: Placental oxidative stress was determined throughout gestation by measuring 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The antioxidant MitoQ was administered to pregnant mice from GDs 7.5 to 11.5; placental morphology and angiogenesis pathways were examined on GDs 11.5 and 18.5. Moreover, we established a mouse mFlt-1-induced PE model and assessed blood pressure, urine protein levels, and placental vascular development on GDs 11.5 and 18.5. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with various H2O2 concentrations to evaluate cell viability, intracellular ROS levels, and tube formation capability. MitoQ, an AKT inhibitor and an ERK1/2 inhibitor were applied to validate the ROS-mediated mechanism regulating placental angiogenesis. Results: First-trimester placentas presented significantly higher MDA and 4HNE levels. MitoQ significantly reduced the blood vessel density and angiogenesis pathway activity in the placenta on GDs 11.5 and 18.5. Serum sFlt-1 levels were elevated, and we observed poor placental angiogenesis and PE-like symptoms in cases with mFlt-1 overexpression. Moderate H2O2 treatment promoted HUVEC proliferation and angiogenesis, whereas these improvements were abolished by MitoQ, AKT inhibitor, or ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment. Conclusions: Moderate ROS levels are essential for placental angiogenesis; diminishing ROS with potent antioxidants during placentation decreases placental angiogenesis and increases PE risk. Therefore, antioxidant therapy should be considered carefully for normal pregnant women during early gestation.


Assuntos
Placenta , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Placentação , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Mol Pharm ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704773

RESUMO

Activated T cells played critical roles in immunotherapy and adoptive T cell therapy, and a non-invasive imaging strategy can provide us useful information concerning the transportation, accumulation, and homing of T cells in vivo. In this paper, by utilizing the long half-life radionuclide iodine-124 (124I) and CD25 specific monoclonal antibody Basiliximab, we have fabricated a novel probe, namely, 124I-Basiliximab, which was highly promising in the immuno-PET imaging of T cells. In vitro, 124I-Basiliximab had superior affinity to CD25 protein (Kd = 5.31 nM) and exhibited much higher accumulation in CD25 high-expression lymphoma cell line Karpas299 than that in CD25-negative cell line Daudi. In vivo, 124I-Basiliximab was excreted slowly from the body of mice, rendering it a relatively high effective dose (0.393 mSv/MBq) when applied in the immuno-PET imaging. In Karpas299 tumor xenograft, 124I-Basiliximab probe was observed to accumulate in the tumor quickly after tracer administration, with the optimal image acquired at 24 h post-injection. More importantly, PHA-activated hPBMC had much higher uptake of 124I-Basiliximab, indicating the potential utility of 124I-Basiliximab to discriminate activated hPBMC from its non-activated status. In summary, 124I-Basiliximab was fabricated for the first time, which can be applied in CD25-targeted immuno-PET imaging of activated T cells in vivo.

13.
Med Res Rev ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707917

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-based drug discovery has gained more and more attention during the last few decades. Resin glycoside is a kind of novel and complex glycolipids mainly distributed in plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Over the last decade, a number of natural resin glycosides and derivatives have been isolated and identified, and exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as cytotoxic, multidrug-resistant reversal on both microbial pathogens and mammalian cancer cells, antivirus, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, vasorelaxant, laxative, and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects, indicating their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. A systematic review of the literature studies was carried out to summarize the chemistry and biological activity of resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae species, based on various data sources such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar. The keyword "Convolvulaceae" was paired with "resin glycoside," "glycosidic acid," "glycolipid," or "oligosaccharide," and the references published between 2009 and June 2021 were covered. In this article, we comprehensively reviewed the structures of 288 natural resin glycoside and derivatives newly reported in the last decade. Moreover, we summarized the biological activities and mechanisms of action of the resin glycosides with pharmaceutical potential. Taken together, great progress has been made on the chemistry and biological activity of resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae species, however, more exploratory research is still needed, especially on the mechanism of action of the biological activities.

14.
RSC Adv ; 12(23): 14377-14383, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702233

RESUMO

Using the first-principle calculations combined with the Boltzmann transport theory, we studied the thermoelectric properties of Y2CT2 (T = O, F, OH) MXenes. Specifically, the Seebeck coefficient, thermal and electrical conductivities under constant relaxation time approximation were calculated. Results show that for p-type carriers, Y2CO2 has the largest power factor of up to 0.0017 W m-1 K-2 when the carrier concentration is 4.067 × 1013 cm-2 at 900 K, at the same temperature, for n-type carriers, the concentration is 9.376 × 1013 cm-2, the power factor in Y2C(OH)2 is 0.0026 W m-1 K-2. In particular, the figure of merit in Y2CF2 is 1.38 at 900 K because of its low thermal conductivity, indicating that it can be considered a potential medium-temperature thermoelectric material. In addition, the thermodynamics properties within 32 GPa and 900 K, such as bulk modulus, heat capacity and thermal expansion, are also estimated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Our results may offer some valuable hints for the potential application of Y2CT2 (T = O, F, OH) in the thermoelectric field.

15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of shear wave elastography (SWE) with that of shear wave dispersion (SWD) in evaluation of hepatic parenchyma in patients with liver tumors before resection. METHODS: A total of 174 patients with liver tumors were prospectively enrolled. SWE and SWD examinations were performed. Fibrosis stage and necroinflammatory activity were determined histopathologically according to the Scheuer standard. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of SWE and SWD. RESULTS: Both SWE and SWD values of the liver were highly correlated with liver fibrosis stage (P < .05, respectively). Both SWE and SWD values of the liver were moderately correlated with necroinflammatory activity (P < .05, respectively). Both SWE and SWD values of the liver were not correlated with steatosis (P > .05, respectively). Both SWE and SWD values were significantly different among the patients with different stages of liver fibrosis (P < .001, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of SWE value was 0.982, 0.977, 0.969, and 0.984 for predicting S ≥ 1, S ≥ 2, S ≥ 3, and S = 4, respectively. The optimal cutoff SWE values were 6.9, 7.9, 8.7, and 10.6 kPa for S ≥ 1, S ≥ 2, S ≥ 3, and S = 4, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of SWD value was 0.967, 0.960, 0.925, and 0.954 for predicting S ≥ 1, S ≥ 2, S ≥ 3, and S = 4, respectively. The optimal cutoff SWD values were 11.2, 12.0, 13.2, and 16.0 m/s/kHz for S ≥ 1, S ≥ 2, S ≥ 3, and S = 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SWE and SWD could be noninvasive and accurate for predicting the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with liver tumors before surgery. SWE was more accurate than SWD in predicting severe fibrosis (S ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (S = 4).

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731579

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nephropathy is a severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, the interaction between the PDHA1-regulated mechanism and CD4 + T cells in the early stage of kidney tubular injury remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of PDHA1 in the regulation of tubular cells and CD4 + T cells and further to study its interaction in tubular cell injury in T1DM. METHODS: Plasma and total RNA were collected from T cells of T1DM patients (n=35) and healthy donors (n=33) and evaluated for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), PDHA1 and biomarkers of CD4 + T cells including T helper 1 cells (Th1) and Regulatory T cells (Treg) markers. HK-2 cells cocultured with CD4 + T cells from T1DM patients or HDs to evaluate the interaction with CD4 + T cells. RESULTS: Increased PDHA1 gene expression levels in CD4 + T cells were positively associated with the plasma level of NGAL in T1DM patients and HDs. Our data demonstrated that the Th1/Treg subsets skewed Th1 in T1DM. Knockdown of PDHA1 in kidney tubular cells decreased ATP/ROS production, NAD/NADH ratio, mitochondrial respiration and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, PDHA1 depletion induced impaired autophagic flux. Coculture of tubular cells and T1DM T cells showed impaired CPT1A, upregulated FASN, and induced kidney injury. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that Th1 cells induced tubular cell injury through dysregulated metabolic reprogramming and autophagy, thereby indicating a new therapeutic approach for kidney tubular injury in T1DM.

17.
Neuroscience ; 495: 74-85, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660453

RESUMO

Itch (pruritus) is a common cutaneous symptom widely associated with many skin complaints, and chronic itch can be a severe clinical problem. The onset and perpetuation of itch are linked to cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-31, IL-4, IL-13, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and chemokines, such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10. This review highlights research that has attempted to determine the attributes of various cytokines and chemokines concerning the development and modulation of itch. Through such research, clinical approaches targeting cytokines and/or chemokines may arise, which may further the development of itch therapeutics.

18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 781801, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719604

RESUMO

Background: The international increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity has hastened in recent decades. This rise has coincided with the emergence of comorbidities in childhood-such as type II diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, sleep apnoea and hypertension-formerly only described in adulthood. This phenomenon suggests global social and economic trends are impacting on health supportive environments. Obesity prevention is complex and necessitates both long-term and systems approaches. Such an approach considers the determinants of health and how they interrelate to one another. Investment in the early years (from conception to about 5 years of age) is a key life stage to prevent obesity and establish lifelong healthy habits relating to nutrition, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep. In Australia, obesity prevention efforts are spread across national and state/territory health departments. It is not known from the literature how, with limited national oversight, state and territory health departments approach obesity prevention in the early years. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study including policy mapping and interviews with senior officials from each Australian state/territory health department. A series of questions were developed from the literature to guide the policy mapping, drawing on the World Health Organisation Ending Childhood Obesity Report, and adapted to the state/territory context. The policy mapping was iterative. Prior to the interviews initial policy mapping was undertaken. During the interviews, these policies were discussed, and participants were asked to supply any additional policies of relevance to obesity prevention. The semi-structured interviews explored the approaches to obesity prevention taken in each jurisdiction and the barriers and enablers faced for policy implementation. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data, using NVivo software. Results: State and territory approaches to obesity prevention are eclectic and while there are numerous similarities between jurisdictions, no two states are the same. The diversity of approaches between jurisdictions is influenced by the policy culture and unique social, geographic, and funding contexts in each jurisdiction. No Australian state/territory had policies against all the guiding questions. However, there are opportunities for sharing and collaborating within and between Australian jurisdictions to establish what works, where, and for whom, across Australia's complex policy landscape. Conclusions: Even within a single country, obesity prevention policy needs to be adaptable to local contexts. Opportunities for jurisdictions within and between countries to share, learn, and adapt their experiences should be supported and sustained funding provided.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
ANZ J Surg ; 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716163

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: We intended to identify the incidence and risk factors (RFs) for Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) after applying a risk-stratified catheterization optimization method in enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)-total joint arthroplasty (TJA). METHODS: A total of 381 patients were prospectively monitored for POUR. POUR diagnosis was done by a perioperative specialist. Data on potential risk factors (RFs) for POUR were accumulated. Univariate analysis (UA) was conducted to identify possible indicators of POUR, followed by multivariate analysis (MA) of identified indicators. RESULTS: POUR occurred in 5.5% of cases, including 8 (3.4%) patients underwent total knee arthroplasty and 13 (10.4%) patients underwent total hip arthroplasty. In UA, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and the type of operation were significantly different on UA (P = 0.046, P = 0.022, P = 0.000 and P = 0.049, respectively). Other additional predictors, including body mass index (BMI), international prostate symptom score (IPSS) score, preoperative haemoglobin (Hb), duration of operation, estimated intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluid volume, fluid infusion volume within 24 h postoperatively were not associated with POUR (P > 0.05). MA results demonstrated that age, ASA score, type of operation and standard intraoperative placement of an indwelling bladder catheter (SIP-IBC) were strongly associated with POUR development risk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overall, we had a low POUR incidence in our study cohort. However, with the shift from non-ERAS TJA to ERAS TJA protocol, it is crucial to closely monitor the male gender, advanced age, THA and SIP-IBC, as these variables can markedly enhance POUR risk.

20.
J Surg Oncol ; 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with nonmetastatic pT3-4 colon cancers are prone to develop metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis (mPC). Risk factors for mPC and the influence of mutant kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS)/neuroblastoma rat sarcoma (NRAS)/v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status on mPC remain to be described in these patients. METHOD: All enrolled patients were identified from the prospectively collected colorectal cancer database of a tertiary referral hospital between 2013 and 2018. Multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with mPC. RESULTS: Of the 1689 patients with nonmetastatic pT3-4 colon carcinoma, 8.4% (142/1689) progressed to mPC. Endoscopic obstruction (HR = 3.044, p < 0.001), elevated CA125 (HR = 1.795, p = 0.009), pT (T4a vs. T3, HR = 2.745, p < 0.001; T4b vs. T3, HR = 3.167, p = 0.001), pN (N1 vs. N0, HR = 2.592, p < 0.001; N2 vs. N0, HR = 4.049, p < 0.001), less than 12 lymph nodes harvested (HR = 2.588, p < 0.001), mucinous or signet ring cell carcinoma (HR = 1.648, p = 0.038), perineural invasion (HR = 1.984, p < 0.001), and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 1.522, p = 0.039) were strongly related to mPC but that mutant KRAS/NRAS/BRAF and MMR status was not associated with mPC. CONCLUSION: This study identified the high-risk factors for mPC in patients with nonmetastatic pT3-4 colon carcinoma, and these factors should be considered in selective preventive therapy and close follow-up for patients subsequently deemed to have high risk for mPC.

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