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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(10): 1633-1644, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37652998

RESUMO

Human activities are causing global biotic redistribution, translocating species and providing them with opportunities to establish populations beyond their native ranges. Species originating from certain global regions, however, are disproportionately represented among naturalized aliens. The evolutionary imbalance hypothesis posits that differences in absolute fitness among biogeographic divisions determine outcomes when biotas mix. Here, we compile data from native and alien distributions for nearly the entire global seed plant flora and find that biogeographic conditions predicted to drive evolutionary imbalance act alongside climate and anthropogenic factors to shape flows of successful aliens among regional biotas. Successful aliens tend to originate from large, biodiverse regions that support abundant populations and where species evolve against a diverse backdrop of competitors and enemies. We also reveal that these same native distribution characteristics are shared among the plants that humans select for cultivation and economic use. In addition to influencing species' innate potentials as invaders, we therefore suggest that evolutionary imbalance shapes plants' relationships with humans, impacting which species are translocated beyond their native distributions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Humanos , Clima , Plantas , Sementes
2.
Ambio ; 49(3): 693-703, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792797

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Regiões Árticas
3.
Mol Ecol ; 28(4): 818-832, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582776

RESUMO

Quaternary glaciations have played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity and distribution of plant species. Strong palaeoecological and genetic evidence supports a postglacial recolonization of most plant species to northern Europe from southern, eastern and even western glacial refugia. Although highly controversial, the existence of small in situ glacial refugia in northern Europe has recently gained molecular support. We used genomic analyses to examine the phylogeography of a species that is critical in this debate. Carex scirpoidea Michx subsp. scirpoidea is a dioecious, amphi-Atlantic arctic-alpine sedge that is widely distributed in North America, but absent from most of Eurasia, apart from three extremely disjunct populations in Norway, all well within the limits of the Weichselian ice sheet. Range-wide population sampling and variation at 5,307 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that the three Norwegian populations comprise unique evolutionary lineages divergent from Greenland with high between-population divergence. The Norwegian populations have low within-population genetic diversity consistent with having experienced genetic bottlenecks in glacial refugia, and host private alleles that probably accumulated in long-term isolated populations. Demographic analyses support a single, pre-Weichselian colonization into Norway from East Greenland, and subsequent divergence of the three populations in separate refugia. Other refugial areas are identified in North-east Greenland, Minnesota/Michigan, Colorado and Alaska. Admixed populations in British Columbia and West Greenland indicate postglacial contact. Taken together, evidence from this study strongly indicates in situ glacial survival in Scandinavia.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta)/genética , Camada de Gelo , Metagenômica/métodos , Plantas/genética , Alaska , Colúmbia Britânica , Colorado , Demografia , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Groenlândia , Michigan , Minnesota , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Mol Ecol ; 20(2): 376-93, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21156004

RESUMO

Biogeographers claimed for more than a century that arctic plants survived glaciations in ice-free refugia within the limits of the North European ice sheets. Molecular studies have, however, provided overwhelming support for postglacial immigration into northern Europe, even from the west across the Atlantic. For the first time we can here present molecular evidence strongly favouring in situ glacial persistence of two species, the rare arctic-alpine pioneer species Sagina caespitosa and Arenaria humifusa. Both belong to the 'west-arctic element' of amphi-Atlantic disjuncts, having their few and only European occurrences well within the limits of the last glaciation. Sequencing of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA revealed only limited variation. However, two very distinct and partly diverse genetic groups, one East and one West Atlantic, were detected in each species based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), excluding postglacial dispersal from North America as explanation for their European occurrences. Patterns of genetic diversity and distinctiveness indicate that glacial populations existed in East Greenland and/or Svalbard (A. humifusa) and in southern Scandinavia (S. caespitosa). Despite their presumed lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, intermixed populations in several regions indicate postglacial contact zones. Both species are declining in Nordic countries, probably due to climate change-induced habitat loss. Little or no current connectivity between their highly fragmented and partly distinct populations call for conservation of several populations in each geographic region.


Assuntos
Arenaria/genética , Arenaria/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Regiões Árticas , Clima Frio , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico
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