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2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(1): 155-158, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147057

RESUMO

After reports in 2017 of Brucella neotomae infections among humans in Costa Rica, we sequenced 12 strains isolated from rodents during 1955-1964 from Utah, USA. We observed an exact strain match between the human isolates and 1 Utah isolate. Independent confirmation is required to clarify B. neotomae zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Genômica , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Costa Rica/epidemiologia
3.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1287046, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38094632

RESUMO

Brucella abortus is a globally important zoonotic pathogen largely found in cattle hosts and is typically transmitted to humans through contaminated dairy products or contact with diseased animals. Despite the long, shared history of cattle and humans, little is known about how trade in cattle has spread this pathogen throughout the world. Whole genome sequencing provides unparalleled resolution to investigate the global evolutionary history of a bacterium such as B. abortus by providing phylogenetic resolution that has been unobtainable using other methods. We report on large-scale genome sequencing and analysis of B. abortus collected globally from cattle and 16 other hosts from 52 countries. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify genetic variation in 1,074 B. abortus genomes and using maximum parsimony generated a phylogeny that identified four major clades. Two of these clades, clade A (median date 972 CE; 95% HPD, 781-1142 CE) and clade B (median date 150 BCE; 95% HPD, 515 BCE-164 CE), were exceptionally diverse for this species and are exclusively of African origin where provenance is known. The third clade, clade C (median date 949 CE; 95% HPD, 766-1102 CE), had most isolates coming from a broad swath of the Middle East, Europe, and Asia, also had relatively high diversity. Finally, the fourth major clade, clade D (median date 1467 CE; 95% HPD, 1367-1553 CE) comprises the large majority of genomes in a dominant but relatively monomorphic group that predominantly infects cattle in Europe and the Americas. These data are consistent with an African origin for B. abortus and a subsequent spread to the Middle East, Europe, and Asia, probably through the movement of infected cattle. We hypothesize that European arrival to the Americas starting in the 15th century introduced B. abortus from Western Europe through the introduction of a few common cattle breeds infected with strains from clade D. These data provide the foundation of a comprehensive global phylogeny of this important zoonotic pathogen that should be an important resource in human and veterinary epidemiology.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1128966, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37213520

RESUMO

Brucellosis remains one of the most significant zoonotic diseases globally, responsible for both considerable human morbidity and economic losses due to its impacts on livestock productivity. Despite this, there remain significant evidence gaps in many low- and middle-income countries, including those of sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report the first molecular characterisation of Brucella sp. from Ethiopia. Fifteen Brucella sp. isolates from an outbreak in cattle from a herd in central Ethiopia were identified as Brucella abortus, using bacterial culture and molecular methods. Sequencing of the Ethiopian B. abortus isolates allowed their phylogenetic comparison with 411 B. abortus strains of diverse geographical origins, using whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (wgSNP). The Ethiopian isolates belonged to an early-branching lineage (Lineage A) previously only represented by data from two strains, both of sub-Saharan African origin (Kenya and Mozambique). A second B. abortus lineage (Lineage B), also comprised solely of strains originating from sub-Saharan Africa, was identified. The majority of strains belonged to one of two lineages of strains originating from a much broader geographical range. Further analyses based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) expanded the number of B. abortus strains available for comparison with the Ethiopian isolates and were consistent with the findings from wgSNP analysis. MLST profiles of the Ethiopian isolates expanded the sequence type (ST) diversity of the early branching lineage of B. abortus, equivalent to wgSNP Lineage A. A more diverse cluster of STs, equivalent to wgSNP Lineage B, was comprised solely of strains originating from sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, analysis of B. abortus MLVA profiles (n = 1891) confirmed that the Ethiopian isolates formed a unique cluster, similar to only two existing strains, and distinct from the majority of other strains of sub-Saharan African origin. These findings expand the known diversity of an under-represented lineage of B. abortus and suggest a potential evolutionary origin for the species in East Africa. In addition to providing information concerning Brucella species extant within Ethiopia this work serves as the basis for further studies on the global population structure and evolutionary history of a major zoonotic pathogen.

5.
J Comp Pathol ; 203: 31-35, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37244160

RESUMO

The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is a large species of shark found in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and is believed to be the longest living vertebrate. Relatively little is known about its biology, abundance, health or diseases. In March 2022, only the third reported UK stranding of this species occurred and it was the first to undergo post-mortem examination. The animal was a sexually immature female, measuring 3.96 m in length and 285 kg in weight, and was in poor nutritional state. Gross findings included haemorrhages in the skin and soft tissues, particularly of the head, and silt in the stomach suggestive of live stranding, bilateral corneal opacity, slightly turbid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and patchy congestion of the brain. Histopathological findings included keratitis and anterior uveitis, fibrinonecrotic and lymphohistiocytic meningitis of the brain and proximal spinal cord and fibrinonecrotizing choroid plexitis. A near pure growth of a Vibrio organism was isolated from CSF. This is believed to be the first report of meningitis in this species.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Tubarões , Animais , Feminino , Regiões Árticas
6.
Acta Trop ; 229: 106363, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149040

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic infection in Iran and represents a serious health problem in humans and livestock causing important economic losses. The objective of this study was to undertake molecular characterization of Brucella spp. isolated from humans and livestock in several provinces of Iran including by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), in order to understand the genotypes circulating in Iran and their relationship to genotypes globally. A total of 23 Brucella isolates were isolated from eight milk samples (seven cows, and one camel), human blood samples (seven), bovine lymph nodes (two), and samples from aborted fetuses (three sheep, two cows, and one goat). Phenotypic and molecular identification of Brucella isolates was performed on all isolated bacteria and showed that all were either Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus. B. melitensis was associated with ovine/caprine and camel samples, most human isolates, and a significant minority of cattle isolates. In contrast B. abortus from livestock was associated only with isolations from bovine samples, as well as a single human sample. These results indicate that both B. melitensis and B. abortus contribute to the human brucellosis burden in Iran. B. melitensis isolates comprised three MLST-9 genotypes, the common and globally distributed ST8, a single representative of ST7, and several additional examples of ST102, a genotype previously only reported in a single isolate from a human brucellosis case believed to be acquired through travel to Iran. B. abortus isolates represented two globally common MLST-9 genotypes (ST1 and ST2), with relationships to biotype and other PCR-based typing methods consistent with previous observations. The results provide the basis for further studies examining the molecular epidemiology of Brucella circulating in Iran and the relationships of local isolates to those present globally.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis , Brucelose , Animais , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Feminino , Genótipo , Cabras , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ovinos
9.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 191-195, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263734

RESUMO

Brucella ceti has been recovered from a number species of cetaceans worldwide over the last 25 yr. Here we report, for the first time, the recovery of B. ceti from a Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus and a killer whale Orcinus orca. Recovery from an abdominal mass in the dolphin provides further evidence of the systemic pathogenic potential for B. ceti infection in cetaceans. The isolation of B. ceti ST23 (porpoise cluster) from a killer whale from a group known to eat other marine mammals raises the possibility of infection via ingestion. This report takes the number of cetacean species in UK coastal waters from which B. ceti has been isolated to 11 and highlights the value of routine, comprehensive and specific screening for significant pathogens such as Brucella sp. by strandings networks.


Assuntos
Brucella , Caniformia , Toninhas , Orca , Animais
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 231-235, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042070

RESUMO

Fatal marine Brucella infections with histologic lesions specific to the central nervous system (CNS), known as neurobrucellosis, have been described in 5 species of odontocete cetaceans in the UK: striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus, short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and Sowerby's beaked whale Mesoplodon bidens. To date, these CNS lesions have only been associated with Brucella ceti ST26 and not with B. pinnipedialis, which is rarely isolated from cetaceans and, although commonly found in various seal species, has never been associated with any pathology. This paper describes the first report of neurobrucellosis in a common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata which was associated with the isolation of Brucella pinnipedialis ST24 and co-infection with Balaenoptera acutorostrata gamma-herpesvirus 2. This is the first report of neurobrucellosis in any species of mysticete and the first report of Brucella pinnipedialis in association with any pathology in any species of marine mammal, which may be due to co-infection with a herpesvirus, as these are known to be associated with immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Meningoencefalite , Baleia Anã , Animais , Brucella , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104865, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872784

RESUMO

Remarkable genetic diversity and breadth of host species has been uncovered in the Brucella genus over the past decade, fundamentally changing our concept of what it means to be a Brucella. From ocean fishes and marine mammals, to pond dwelling amphibians, forest foxes, desert rodents, and cave-dwelling bats, Brucella have revealed a variety of previously unknown niches. Classical microbiological techniques have been able to help us classify many of these new strains but at times have limited our ability to see the true relationships among or within species. The closest relatives of Brucella are soil bacteria and the adaptations of Brucella spp. to live intracellularly suggest that the genus has evolved to live in vertebrate hosts. Several recently discovered species appear to have phenotypes that are intermediate between soil bacteria and core Brucella, suggesting that they may represent ancestral traits that were subsequently lost in the traditional species. Remarkably, the broad relationships among Brucella species using a variety of sequence and fragment-based approaches have been upheld when using comparative genomics with whole genomes. Nonetheless, genomes are required for fine-scale resolution of many of the relationships and for understanding the evolutionary history of the genus. We expect that the coming decades will reveal many more hosts and previously unknown diversity in a wide range of environments.


Assuntos
Brucella/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Brucella/classificação , Genômica , Filogenia
12.
J Comp Pathol ; 182: 1-8, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494901

RESUMO

Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Brucella ceti infection has been described in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), which are all within the family Delphinidae. We report B. ceti-associated neurobrucellosis in three juvenile male Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) that all had typical lesions of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis, which increased in severity from rostral to caudal regions of the brain. In two cases there was loss of ependymal cells lining the cerebral ventricular system, with large numbers of lymphocytes in the underlying neuropil. This finding suggests that B. ceti gains access to, and multiplies in, the cerebrospinal fluid, and confirms that this is the sample of choice for bacteriological recovery of the causative organism. These findings expand the increasing range of cetaceans susceptible to neurobrucellosis to members of the family Ziphiidae.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Baleias/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/veterinária , Evolução Fatal , Masculino
13.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760355

RESUMO

The bacterial family Brucellaceae is currently composed of seven genera, including species of the genus Brucella, a number of which are significant veterinary and zoonotic pathogens. The bacteriological identification of pathogenic Brucella spp. may be hindered by their close phenotypic similarity to other members of the Brucellaceae, particularly of the genus Ochrobactrum. Additionally, a number of novel atypical Brucella taxa have recently been identified, which exhibit greater genetic diversity than observed within the previously described species, and which share genomic features with organisms outside of the genus. Furthermore, previous work has indicated that the genus Ochrobactrum is polyphyletic, raising further questions regarding the relationship between the genus Brucella and wider Brucellaceae. We have applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) and pan-family multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) approaches to a comprehensive panel of Brucellaceae type strains, in order to characterize relationships within the family. Phylogenies based on WGS core genome alignments were able to resolve phylogenetic relationships of 31 non-Brucella spp. type strains from within the family, alongside type strains of twelve Brucella species. A phylogeny based on concatenated pan-family MLSA data was largely consistent with WGS based analyses. Notably, recently described atypical Brucella isolates were consistently placed in a single clade with existing species, clearly distinct from all members of the genus Ochrobactrum and wider family. Both WGS and MLSA methods closely grouped Brucella spp. with a sub-set of Ochrobactrum species. However, results also confirmed that the genus Ochrobactrum is polyphyletic, with seven species forming a separate grouping. The pan-family MLSA scheme was subsequently applied to a panel of 50 field strains of the family Brucellaceae, isolated from a wide variety of sources. This analysis confirmed the utility of the pan-Brucellaceae MLSA scheme in placing field isolates in relation to recognized type strains. However, a significant number of these isolates did not cluster with currently identified type strains, suggesting the existence of additional taxonomic diversity within some members of the Brucellaceae. The WGS and pan-family MLSA approaches applied here provide valuable tools for resolving the identity and phylogenetic relationships of isolates from an expanding bacterial family containing a number of important pathogens.

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7081, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341414

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Pastoralists are at high risk of infection but data on brucellosis from these communities are scarce. The study objectives were to: estimate the prevalence of human brucellosis, identify the Brucella spp. causing illness, describe non-Brucella bloodstream infections, and identify risk factors for brucellosis in febrile patients from a pastoralist community of Tanzania. Fourteen (6.1%) of 230 participants enrolled between August 2016 and October 2017 met study criteria for confirmed (febrile illness and culture positivity or ≥four-fold rise in SAT titre) or probable (febrile illness and single SAT titre ≥160) brucellosis. Brucella spp. was the most common bloodstream infection, with B. melitensis isolated from seven participants and B. abortus from one. Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also isolated. Risk factors identified for brucellosis included age and herding, with a greater probability of brucellosis in individuals with lower age and who herded cattle, sheep or goats in the previous 12 months. Disease prevention activities targeting young herders have potential to reduce the impacts of human brucellosis in Tanzania. Livestock vaccination strategies for the region should include both B. melitensis and B. abortus.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucella melitensis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Ovinos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2611-2615, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160144

RESUMO

Five strains of an unidentified Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming coccus-shaped organism recovered from sheep in Scotland were characterized using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Based on morphological and biochemical criteria, the strains were tentatively identified as streptococci but they did not appear to correspond to any recognised species of the genus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the strains were highly related to each other and confirmed their placement in the genus Streptococcus, with a maximum nucleotide identity of around 97 % to extant species. Best matches were with Streptococcus hillyeri followed by Streptococcus porci. Average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values determined from whole-genome sequence were also consistent with the group representing a novel species. Best matches, again seen to S. hillyeri, followed by S. porci and S. plurextorum, were below accepted cut-off values for species delineation. Based on biochemical criteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from sheep be assigned to a new species of the genus Streptococcus as Streptococcus caledonicus sp. nov. The type strain of Streptococcus caledonicus is S784/96/1T=CCUG 73951T=NCTC 14363T.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Pleura/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Streptococcus/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Escócia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 81: 104235, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the recent past (1997-2012), Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom suffered an outbreak of Brucella abortus, which at its height affected over 200 cattle herds. Initially, isolates were characterized using multi-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). While informative in this setting, hyper-variability in some loci limited the resolution necessary to infer fine-scale disease transmission networks. Consequently, we applied whole-genome sequencing to isolates from this outbreak to evaluate higher resolution markers for disease epizootiology. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the B. abortus outbreak in Northern Ireland was caused by two distinct pathogen lineages. One contained isolates consistent with the 1997-2012 outbreak being linked to a previous endemic infection thought eradicated. The dominant second lineage exhibited little genetic diversity throughout the recrudescent outbreak, with limited population sub-structure evident. This finding was inconsistent with prior MLVA molecular characterizations that suggested the presence of seven clonal complexes. Spatio-temporal modeling revealed a significant association of pairwise SNP differences between isolates and geographic distances. However, effect sizes were very small due to reduced pathogen diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Genome sequence data suggested that hyper-variability in some MLVA loci contributed to an overestimate of pathogen diversity in the most recent outbreak. The low diversity observed in our genomic dataset made it inappropriate to apply phylodynamic methods to these data. We conclude that maintaining data repositories of genome sequence data will be invaluable for source attribution/epizootiological inference should recrudescence ever re-occur. However genomic epizootiological methods may have limited utility in some settings, such as when applied to recrudescent/re-emergent infections of slowly-evolving bacterial pathogens.


Assuntos
Brucella abortus/genética , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Gado/genética , Gado/microbiologia , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14338, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605019

RESUMO

Neisseria animaloris is considered to be a commensal of the canine and feline oral cavities. It is able to cause systemic infections in animals as well as humans, usually after a biting trauma has occurred. We recovered N. animaloris from chronically inflamed bite wounds on pectoral fins and tailstocks, from lungs and other internal organs of eight harbour porpoises. Gross and histopathological evidence suggest that fatal disseminated N. animaloris infections had occurred due to traumatic injury from grey seals. We therefore conclude that these porpoises survived a grey seal predatory attack, with the bite lesions representing the subsequent portal of entry for bacteria to infect the animals causing abscesses in multiple tissues, and eventually death. We demonstrate that forensic microbiology provides a useful tool for linking a perpetrator to its victim. Moreover, N. animaloris should be added to the list of potential zoonotic bacteria following interactions with seals, as the finding of systemic transfer to the lungs and other tissues of the harbour porpoises may suggest a potential to do likewise in humans.


Assuntos
Genética Forense , Neisseria/patogenicidade , Focas Verdadeiras/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Neisseria/genética , Focas Verdadeiras/genética , Focas Verdadeiras/microbiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/microbiologia
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3170-3177, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395108

RESUMO

Ten strains of an Actinobacillus-like organism were isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in the UK over a period of 5 years, with no known epidemiological linkages. The isolates are distinct, based on both phenotype and genotype, from any previously described Actinobacillus species. Molecular analysis, based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and infB gene sequences, placed the isolates as a novel, early branching, lineage within the currently recognised Actinobacillus sensu stricto. In agreement with the results of the single-gene analysis, average nucleotide identity values, based on whole genome sequences, showed very similar identities to a number of members of the Actinobacillus sensu stricto notably Actinobacillus equuli, Actinobacillus suis and Actinobacillus ureae. At least two phenotypic characteristics differentiate the alpaca isolates from other Actinobacillus sensu stricto species, and from taxa likely falling within this group but awaiting formal species description, with Actinobacillus anseriformium and A. equulisubsp. haemolyticus being the most closely related phenotypically. The alpaca isolates can be differentiated from A. anseriformium by production of ß-galactosidase (ONPG) and acid from raffinose, and from A. equulisubsp. haemolyticus by production of acid from d-sorbitol and failure to produce acid from d-xylose. Isolates were obtained from multiple sites in alpaca including respiratory tract, alimentary tract and internal organs although further evidence is required to understand any pathogenic significance. Based on the results of characterization described here, it is proposed that the isolates constitute a novel species, Actinobacillus vicugnae sp. nov. The type strain is W1618T (LMG30745T NCTC14090T) isolated in the UK in 2012 from oesophageal ulceration in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).


Assuntos
Actinobacillus/classificação , Camelídeos Americanos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reino Unido
20.
Vet Res Forum ; 10(4): 315-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206227

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a costly contagious disease of human, domestic and wild animals. It is a serious health problem in Iran causing significant economic losses therefore, control approaches to prevent its spread are of great importance. In Iran, the species and biovars of virulent Brucella species are still under-reported due to the inadequate diagnostic protocols and insufficient laboratory facilities. The objective of this study was to characterize Brucella isolates obtained from passive animal and human surveillance in Iran from 2011 to 2018 in order to understand the current epidemiological situation of the disease. A total of 419 samples (milk, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, abomasum content and aborted fetus tissues) were collected from 65 cases/case series (human and animals) and examined bacteriologically. The initially identified Brucella isolates were further characterized using phenotypic and molecular approaches. All recovered isolates were either B. abortus or B. melitensis. The infection in sheep appeared to be exclusively associated with B. melitensis, but both B. abortus and B. melitensis were common in bovine samples. Samples from one sheep and one goat were confirmed to be infected by the B. melitensis vaccine strain Rev1. In spite of B. abortus burden in animals (14 cases in cattle and camel), brucellosis in human was predominantly associated with B. melitensis (15 cases). The results confirmed that B. melitensis biovar 1 and B. abortus biovar 3 remain the most prevalent biovars in Iran. This report builds a picture of the significance of different Brucella species in different hosts in Iran and provides applicable information for the healthcare professionals about the public health risks of brucellosis and relevant preventive strategies.

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