Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
PhytoKeys ; 233: 1-200, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37811332

RESUMO

Monodoreae (Annonaceae) is a tribe composed of 11 genera and 90 species restricted to the tropical African rain forests. All the genera are taxonomically well circumscribed except the species rich genera Uvariodendron and Uvariopsis which lack a recent taxonomic revision. Here, we used a robust phylogenomic approach, including all the 90 currently accepted species, with several specimens per species, and based on more than 300 Annonaceae-specific nuclear genes, to infer the phylogenetic tree of the Monodoreae and test the limits between the genera and species. We recover all the genera as monophyletic, except the genus Uvariopsis for which the species Uvariopsistripetala falls outside this clade. We thus reinstate the monotypic genus Dennettia for its single species Dennettiatripetala. We also erect a new tribe, Ophrypetaleae trib. nov., to accommodate the genera Ophrypetalum and Sanrafaelia, as we recover them excluded from the Monodoreae tribe with good support. Below the genus level, the genera Isolona, Monodora, Uvariastrum, Uvariodendron and Uvariopsis show weakly supported nodes and phylogenetic conflicts, suggesting that population level processes of evolution might occur in these clades. Our results also support, at the molecular level, the description of several new species of Uvariodendron and Uvariopsis, as well as several new synonymies. Finally, we present a taxonomic revision of the genera Dennettia, Uvariodendron and Uvariopsis, which contain one, 18 and 17 species respectively. We provide a key to the 11 genera of the Monodoraeae and describe four new species to science: Uvariodendronkimbozaense Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., Uvariodendronmossambicense Robson ex Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., Uvariodendronpilosicarpum Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov. and Uvariopsisoligocarpa Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., and provide provisional descriptions of three putatively new species. We also present lectotypifications and nomenclatural changes implying synonymies and new combinations (Uvariodendroncitriodorum (Le Thomas) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov., Uvariodendronfuscumvar.magnificum (Verdc.) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov., Uvariopsiscongensisvar.angustifolia Dagallier & Couvreur, var. nov., Uvariopsisguineensisvar.globiflora (Keay) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov., and Uvariopsissolheidiivar.letestui (Pellegr.) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov.).


RésuméLa tribu des Monodoreae (Annonaceae) est composée de 11 genres et 90 espèces des forêts tropicales humides d'Afrique. Tout les genres sont taxonomiquement bien résolus, à part les genres Uvariodendron et Uvariopsis qui manquent d'une révision taxonomique récente. Ici, nous avons utilisé une approche phylogénomique robuste pour estimer l'arbre phylogénétique des Monodoreae, et tester les limites de genres et d'espèces. Pour cela, nous avons inclut les 90 espèces acceptées, et avons séquencé plus de 300 gènes. Tous les genres sont retrouvés monophylétiques, à part le genre Uvariopsis pour lequel l'espèce Uvariopsistripetala se retrouve exclue. Nous rétablissons donc le genre monotypique Dennettia et son unique espèce Dennettiatripetala. Nous érigeons une nouvelle tribu, les Ophrypetaleae trib. nov., pour accueillir les genres Ophrypetalum et Sanrafaelia, car nous les retrouvons exclus de la tribu des Monodoreae avec un bon support. Au niveau infra-générique, les genres Isolona, Monodora, Uvariastrum, Uvariodendron et Uvariopsis montrent de faibles supports de noeuds et des conflits phylogénétiques, ce qui suggère que des processus d'évolution se déroulent au niveau des populations. Nos résultats soutiennent également, sur un plan moléculaire, la description de plusieurs nouvelles espèces d'Uvariodendron et d'Uvariopsis, de même que plusieurs synonymies. Enfin, nous présentons une révision taxonomique des genres Dennettia, Uvariodendron et Uvariopsis, qui contiennent respectivement un, 18 et 17 espèces. Nous fournissons une clé des 11 genres de Monodoreae, et décrivons quatre nouvelles espèces pour la science: Uvariodendronkimbozaense Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., Uvariodendronmossambicense Robson ex Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., Uvariodendronpilosicarpum Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov. et Uvariopsisoligocarpa Dagallier & Couvreur, sp. nov., et fournissons une description provisoire de trois autres potentielles. Nous effectuons des lectotypifications et des changements nomenclaturaux tels que des synonymies et des nouvelles combinaisons (Uvariodendroncitriodorum (Le Thomas) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov., Uvariodendronfuscumvar.magnificum (Verdc.) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. et stat. nov., Uvariopsiscongensisvar.angustifolia Dagallier & Couvreur, var. nov., Uvariopsisguineensisvar.globiflora (Keay) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. stat. nov., et Uvariopsissolheidiivar.letestui (Pellegr.) Dagallier & Couvreur, comb. stat. nov.).

2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6244, 2023 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828007

RESUMO

Darwin's naturalization conundrum describes two seemingly contradictory hypotheses regarding whether alien species closely or distantly related to native species should be more likely to naturalize in regional floras. Both expectations have accumulated empirical support, and whether such apparent inconsistency can be reconciled at the global scale is unclear. Here, using 219,520 native and 9,531 naturalized alien plant species across 487 globally distributed regions, we found a latitudinal gradient in Darwin's naturalization conundrum. Naturalized alien plant species are more closely related to native species at higher latitudes than they are at lower latitudes, indicating a greater influence of preadaptation in harsher climates. Human landscape modification resulted in even steeper latitudinal clines by selecting aliens distantly related to natives in warmer and drier regions. Our results demonstrate that joint consideration of climatic and anthropogenic conditions is critical to reconciling Darwin's naturalization conundrum.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Magnoliopsida , Humanos , Cidadania , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
3.
New Phytol ; 237(4): 1432-1445, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375492

RESUMO

Despite the paramount role of plant diversity for ecosystem functioning, biogeochemical cycles, and human welfare, knowledge of its global distribution is still incomplete, hampering basic research and biodiversity conservation. Here, we used machine learning (random forests, extreme gradient boosting, and neural networks) and conventional statistical methods (generalized linear models and generalized additive models) to test environment-related hypotheses of broad-scale vascular plant diversity gradients and to model and predict species richness and phylogenetic richness worldwide. To this end, we used 830 regional plant inventories including c. 300 000 species and predictors of past and present environmental conditions. Machine learning showed a superior performance, explaining up to 80.9% of species richness and 83.3% of phylogenetic richness, illustrating the great potential of such techniques for disentangling complex and interacting associations between the environment and plant diversity. Current climate and environmental heterogeneity emerged as the primary drivers, while past environmental conditions left only small but detectable imprints on plant diversity. Finally, we combined predictions from multiple modeling techniques (ensemble predictions) to reveal global patterns and centers of plant diversity at multiple resolutions down to 7774 km2 . Our predictive maps provide accurate estimates of global plant diversity available at grain sizes relevant for conservation and macroecology.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Filogenia , Clima , Modelos Lineares , Plantas
4.
Nat Plants ; 8(12): 1385-1393, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536014

RESUMO

Resurrecting extinct species is a fascinating and challenging idea for scientists and the general public. Whereas some theoretical progress has been made for animals, the resurrection of extinct plants (de-extinction sensu lato) is a relatively recently discussed topic. In this context, the term 'de-extinction' is used sensu lato to refer to the resurrection of 'extinct in the wild' species from seeds or tissues preserved in herbaria, as we acknowledge the current impossibility of knowing a priori whether a herbarium seed is alive and can germinate. In plants, this could be achieved by germinating or in vitro tissue-culturing old diaspores such as seeds or spores available in herbarium specimens. This paper reports the first list of plant de-extinction candidates based on the actual availability of seeds in herbarium specimens of globally extinct plants. We reviewed globally extinct seed plants using online resources and additional literature on national red lists, resulting in a list of 361 extinct taxa. We then proposed a method of prioritizing candidates for seed-plant de-extinction from diaspores found in herbarium specimens and complemented this with a phylogenetic approach to identify species that may maximize evolutionarily distinct features. Finally, combining data on seed storage behaviour and longevity, as well as specimen age in the novel 'best de-extinction candidate' score (DEXSCO), we identified 556 herbarium specimens belonging to 161 extinct species with available seeds. We expect that this list of de-extinction candidates and the novel approach to rank them will boost research efforts towards the first-ever plant de-extinction.


Assuntos
Plantas , Sementes , Filogenia , Extinção Biológica
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7290, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911960

RESUMO

Regional species assemblages have been shaped by colonization, speciation and extinction over millions of years. Humans have altered biogeography by introducing species to new ranges. However, an analysis of how strongly naturalized plant species (i.e. alien plants that have established self-sustaining populations) affect the taxonomic and phylogenetic uniqueness of regional floras globally is still missing. Here, we present such an analysis with data from native and naturalized alien floras in 658 regions around the world. We find strong taxonomic and phylogenetic floristic homogenization overall, and that the natural decline in floristic similarity with increasing geographic distance is weakened by naturalized species. Floristic homogenization increases with climatic similarity, which emphasizes the importance of climate matching in plant naturalization. Moreover, floristic homogenization is greater between regions with current or past administrative relationships, indicating that being part of the same country as well as historical colonial ties facilitate floristic exchange, most likely due to more intensive trade and transport between such regions. Our findings show that naturalization of alien plants threatens taxonomic and phylogenetic uniqueness of regional floras globally. Unless more effective biosecurity measures are implemented, it is likely that with ongoing globalization, even the most distant regions will lose their floristic uniqueness.


Assuntos
Plantas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia
7.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(11): 1499-1509, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429536

RESUMO

To meet the ambitious objectives of biodiversity and climate conventions, the international community requires clarity on how these objectives can be operationalized spatially and how multiple targets can be pursued concurrently. To support goal setting and the implementation of international strategies and action plans, spatial guidance is needed to identify which land areas have the potential to generate the greatest synergies between conserving biodiversity and nature's contributions to people. Here we present results from a joint optimization that minimizes the number of threatened species, maximizes carbon retention and water quality regulation, and ranks terrestrial conservation priorities globally. We found that selecting the top-ranked 30% and 50% of terrestrial land area would conserve respectively 60.7% and 85.3% of the estimated total carbon stock and 66% and 89.8% of all clean water, in addition to meeting conservation targets for 57.9% and 79% of all species considered. Our data and prioritization further suggest that adequately conserving all species considered (vertebrates and plants) would require giving conservation attention to ~70% of the terrestrial land surface. If priority was given to biodiversity only, managing 30% of optimally located land area for conservation may be sufficient to meet conservation targets for 81.3% of the terrestrial plant and vertebrate species considered. Our results provide a global assessment of where land could be optimally managed for conservation. We discuss how such a spatial prioritization framework can support the implementation of the biodiversity and climate conventions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Vertebrados
8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(7)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892500

RESUMO

Malvaceae s.l., the most diverse family within Malvales, includes well-known species of great economic importance like cotton, cacao, and durian. Despite numerous phylogenetic analyses employing multiple markers, relationships between several of its nine subfamilies, particularly within the largest lineage /Malvadendrina, remain unclear. In this study, we attempted to resolve the relationships within the major clades of Malvaceae s.l. using plastid genomes of 48 accessions representing all subfamilies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses recovered a fully resolved and well-supported topology confirming the split of the family into /Byttneriina (/Grewioideae +/Byttnerioideae) and /Malvadendrina. Within /Malvadendrina, /Helicteroideae occupied the earliest branching position, followed by /Sterculioideae, /Brownlowioideae, /Tiliodeae, and /Dombeyoideae formed a clade sister to /Malvatheca (/Malvoideae +/Bombacoideae), a grouping morphologically supported by the lack of androgynophore. Results from dating analyses suggest that all subfamilies originated during hot or warm phases in the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This study presents a well-supported phylogenetic framework for Malvaceae s.l. that will aid downstream revisions and evolutionary studies of this economically important plant family.


Assuntos
Malvaceae , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 787127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178056

RESUMO

Herbarium sheets present a unique view of the world's botanical history, evolution, and biodiversity. This makes them an all-important data source for botanical research. With the increased digitization of herbaria worldwide and advances in the domain of fine-grained visual classification which can facilitate automatic identification of herbarium specimen images, there are many opportunities for supporting and expanding research in this field. However, existing datasets are either too small, or not diverse enough, in terms of represented taxa, geographic distribution, and imaging protocols. Furthermore, aggregating datasets is difficult as taxa are recognized under a multitude of names and must be aligned to a common reference. We introduce the Herbarium 2021 Half-Earth dataset: the largest and most diverse dataset of herbarium specimen images, to date, for automatic taxon recognition. We also present the results of the Herbarium 2021 Half-Earth challenge, a competition that was part of the Eighth Workshop on Fine-Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC8) and hosted by Kaggle to encourage the development of models to automatically identify taxa from herbarium sheet images.

10.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 96(1): 16-51, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924323

RESUMO

Tropical Africa is home to an astonishing biodiversity occurring in a variety of ecosystems. Past climatic change and geological events have impacted the evolution and diversification of this biodiversity. During the last two decades, around 90 dated molecular phylogenies of different clades across animals and plants have been published leading to an increased understanding of the diversification and speciation processes generating tropical African biodiversity. In parallel, extended geological and palaeoclimatic records together with detailed numerical simulations have refined our understanding of past geological and climatic changes in Africa. To date, these important advances have not been reviewed within a common framework. Here, we critically review and synthesize African climate, tectonics and terrestrial biodiversity evolution throughout the Cenozoic to the mid-Pleistocene, drawing on recent advances in Earth and life sciences. We first review six major geo-climatic periods defining tropical African biodiversity diversification by synthesizing 89 dated molecular phylogeny studies. Two major geo-climatic factors impacting the diversification of the sub-Saharan biota are highlighted. First, Africa underwent numerous climatic fluctuations at ancient and more recent timescales, with tectonic, greenhouse gas, and orbital forcing stimulating diversification. Second, increased aridification since the Late Eocene led to important extinction events, but also provided unique diversification opportunities shaping the current tropical African biodiversity landscape. We then review diversification studies of tropical terrestrial animal and plant clades and discuss three major models of speciation: (i) geographic speciation via vicariance (allopatry); (ii) ecological speciation impacted by climate and geological changes, and (iii) genomic speciation via genome duplication. Geographic speciation has been the most widely documented to date and is a common speciation model across tropical Africa. We conclude with four important challenges faced by tropical African biodiversity research: (i) to increase knowledge by gathering basic and fundamental biodiversity information; (ii) to improve modelling of African geophysical evolution throughout the Cenozoic via better constraints and downscaling approaches; (iii) to increase the precision of phylogenetic reconstruction and molecular dating of tropical African clades by using next generation sequencing approaches together with better fossil calibrations; (iv) finally, as done here, to integrate data better from Earth and life sciences by focusing on the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of tropical African biodiversity in a wider geodiversity context.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Fósseis , Filogenia , Plantas/genética
11.
Syst Biol ; 70(3): 508-526, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483631

RESUMO

The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine the origin and early evolution of the globally diverse legume family (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). Legumes are ecologically (co-)dominant across many vegetation types, and the fossil record suggests that they rose to such prominence after the KPB in parallel with several well-studied animal clades including Placentalia and Neoaves. Furthermore, multiple WGD events are hypothesized to have occurred early in legume evolution. Using a recently inferred phylogenomic framework, we investigate the placement of WGDs during early legume evolution using gene tree reconciliation methods, gene count data and phylogenetic supernetwork reconstruction. Using 20 fossil calibrations we estimate a revised timeline of legume evolution based on 36 nuclear genes selected as informative and evolving in an approximately clock-like fashion. To establish the timing of WGDs we also date duplication nodes in gene trees. Results suggest either a pan-legume WGD event on the stem lineage of the family, or an allopolyploid event involving (some of) the earliest lineages within the crown group, with additional nested WGDs subtending subfamilies Papilionoideae and Detarioideae. Gene tree reconciliation methods that do not account for allopolyploidy may be misleading in inferring an earlier WGD event at the time of divergence of the two parental lineages of the polyploid, suggesting that the allopolyploid scenario is more likely. We show that the crown age of the legumes dates to the Maastrichtian or early Paleocene and that, apart from the Detarioideae WGD, paleopolyploidy occurred close to the KPB. We conclude that the early evolution of the legumes followed a complex history, in which multiple auto- and/or allopolyploidy events coincided with rapid diversification and in association with the mass extinction event at the KPB, ultimately underpinning the evolutionary success of the Leguminosae in the Cenozoic. [Allopolyploidy; Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary; Fabaceae, Leguminosae; paleopolyploidy; phylogenomics; whole genome duplication events].


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Fabaceae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/genética , Fósseis , Filogenia , Poliploidia
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4488, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901040

RESUMO

Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we establish high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Fonio diversity is shaped by climatic, geographic, and ethnolinguistic factors. Two genes associated with seed size and shattering showed signatures of selection. Most known domestication genes from other cereal models however have not experienced strong selection in fonio, providing direct targets to rapidly improve this crop for agriculture in hot and dry environments.


Assuntos
Digitaria/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , África , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Digitaria/classificação , Domesticação , Grão Comestível/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442164

RESUMO

Natural history collections and tropical tree diversity are both treasure troves of biological and evolutionary information, but their accessibility for scientific study is impeded by a number of properties. DNA in historical specimens is generally highly fragmented, complicating the recovery of high-grade genetic material. Furthermore, our understanding of hyperdiverse, wide-spread tree assemblages is obstructed by extensive species ranges, fragmented knowledge of tropical tree diversity and phenology, and a widespread lack of species-level diagnostic characters, prohibiting the collecting of readily identifiable specimens which can be used to build, revise or strengthen taxonomic frameworks. This, in turn, delays the application of downstream conservation action. A sizable component of botanical collections are sterile-thus eluding identification and are slowing down progress in systematic treatments of tropical biodiversity. With rapid advances in genomics and bioinformatic approaches to biodiversity research, museomics is emerging as a new field breathing life into natural collections that have been built up over centuries. Using MIGseq (multiplexed ISSR genotyping by sequencing), we generated 10,000s of short loci, for both freshly collected materials and museum specimens (aged >100 years) of Lithocarpus-a widespread tropical tree genus endemic to the Asian tropics. Loci recovery from historical and recently collected samples was not affected by sample age and preservation history of the study material, underscoring the reliability and flexibility of the MIGseq approach. Phylogenomic inference and biogeographic reconstruction across insular Asia, highlights repeated migration and diversification patterns between continental regions and islands. Results indicate that co-occurring insular species at the extremity of the distribution range are not monophyletic, raising the possibility of multiple independent dispersals along the outer edge of Wallacea. This suggests that dispersal of large seeded tree genera throughout Malesia and across Wallacea may have been less affected by large geographic distances and the presence of marine barriers than generally assumed. We demonstrate the utility of MIGseq in museomic studies using non-model taxa, presenting the first range-wide genomic assessment of Lithocarpus and tropical Fagaceae as a proof-of-concept. Our study shows the potential for developing innovative genomic approaches to improve the capture of novel evolutionary signals using valuable natural history collections of hyperdiverse taxa.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Quercus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , DNA/genética , Fagaceae/genética , Museus/tendências , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 150: 106854, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439485

RESUMO

Paleo-environmental data show that the distribution of African rain forests was affected by Quaternary climate changes. In particular, the Dahomey Gap (DG) - a 200 km wide savanna corridor currently separating the West African and Central African rain forest blocks and containing relict rain forest fragments - was forested during the mid-Holocene and possibly during previous interglacial periods, whereas it was dominated by open vegetation (savanna) during glacial periods. Genetic signatures of past population fragmentation and demographic changes have been found in some African forest plant species using nuclear markers, but such events appear not to have been synchronous or shared across species. To better understand the colonization history of the DG by rain forest trees through seed dispersal, the plastid genomes of two widespread African forest legume trees, Anthonotha macrophylla and Distemonanthus benthamianus, were sequenced in 47 individuals for each species, providing unprecedented phylogenetic resolution of their maternal lineages (857 and 115 SNPs, respectively). Both species exhibit distinct lineages separating three regions: 1. Upper Guinea (UG, i.e. the West African forest block), 2. the area ranging from the DG to the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL), and 3. Lower Guinea (LG, the western part of the Central African forest block) where three lineages co-occur. In both species, the DG populations (including southern Nigeria west of Cross River) exhibit much lower genetic diversity than UG and LG populations, and their plastid lineages originate from the CVL, confirming the role of the CVL as an ancient forest refuge. Despite the similar phylogeographic structures displayed by A. macrophylla and D. benthamianus, molecular dating indicates very contrasting ages of lineage divergence (UG diverged from LG since c. 7 Ma and 0.7 Ma, respectively) and DG colonization (probably following the Mid Pleistocene Transition and the Last Glacial Maximum, respectively). The stability of forest refuge areas and repeated similar forest shrinking/expanding events during successive glacial periods might explain why similar phylogeographic patterns can be generated over contrasting timescales.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/classificação , Plastídeos/genética , Benin , Camarões , Fabaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/classificação , Floresta Úmida
15.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340211

RESUMO

Palms are conspicuous floristic elements across the tropics. In continental Africa, even though there are less than 70 documented species, they are omnipresent across the tropical landscape. The genus Raphia has 20 accepted species in Africa and one species endemic to the Neotropics. It is the most economically important genus of African palms with most of its species producing food and construction material. Raphia is divided into five sections based on inflorescence morphology. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of Raphia is problematic with no intra-generic phylogenetic study available. We present a phylogenetic study of the genus using a targeted exon capture approach sequencing of 56 individuals representing 18 out of the 21 species. Our results recovered five well supported clades within the genus. Three sections correspond to those based on inflorescence morphology. R. regalis is strongly supported as sister to all other Raphia species and is placed into a newly described section: Erectae. Overall, morphological based identifications agreed well with our phylogenetic analyses, with 12 species recovered as monophyletic based on our sampling. Species delimitation analyses recovered 17 or 23 species depending on the confidence level used. Species delimitation is especially problematic in the Raphiate and Temulentae sections. In addition, our clustering analysis using SNP data suggested that individual clusters matched geographic distribution. The Neotropical species R. taedigera is supported as a distinct species, rejecting the hypothesis of a recent introduction into South America. Our analyses support the hypothesis that the Raphia individuals from Madagascar are potentially a distinct species different from the widely distributed R. farinifera. In conclusion, our results support the infra generic classification of Raphia based on inflorescence morphology, which is shown to be phylogenetically useful. Classification and species delimitation within sections remains problematic even with our phylogenomic approach. Certain widely distributed species could potentially contain cryptic species. More in-depth studies should be undertaken using morphometrics, increased sampling, and more variable markers. Our study provides a robust phylogenomic framework that enables further investigation on the biogeographic history, morphological evolution, and other eco-evolutionary aspects of this charismatic, socially, and economically important palm genus.

16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106752, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028029

RESUMO

The legume subfamily Detarioideae is exceptionally diverse in tropical Africa and Madagascar, compared to South America or Asia, a trend contrary to that shown by most other pantropical plant groups. We aim to elucidate the process of diversification giving rise to these high diversity levels by focussing our investigations on the Daniellia clade, which is present in both Africa and Madagascar. The Daniellia clade is an early-diverging lineage of subfamily Detarioideae (Leguminosae; pea family) and consists of three genera: Daniellia, Brandzeia and Neoapaloxylon. The species belonging to this group exhibit a wide range of habitat types. The Madagascar endemics Brandzeia (1 species) and Neoapaloxylon (3 species) occupy dry woodlands and arid succulent habitats respectively. Daniellia alsteeniana and D. oliveri are found in savannahs while the remaining eight species within Daniellia all occupy rainforest habitats. Phylogenetic analyses were generated from a dense, multi-individual species level sampling of the clade. Divergence time estimates were carried out using a molecular clock method to investigate biogeographical patterns and shifts in habitat types within the Daniellia clade, and conservation assessments were conducted to determine the levels of extinction risks these species are facing. We estimate that the Daniellia clade first emerged during the Early Eocene from an ancestor present in the rainforests of North Africa at that time, reflecting an ancestral habitat preference. There was a first major split over the course of the Eocene, giving rise to both African rainforest and Madagascan savannah lineages. With the emergence of a drier climate and vegetation type in Africa during the Eocene, it is likely that a dry-climate adapted lineage from the Daniellia clade ancestor could have dispersed through suitable savannah or woodland regions to reach Madagascar, subsequently giving rise to the savannah-adapted ancestor of Brandzeia and Neoapaloxylon in the Early Miocene. The African rainforest lineage gave rise to the genus Daniellia, which is postulated to have first diversified in the Middle Miocene, while savannah species of Daniellia emerged independently during the Pliocene, coinciding with the global rise of C4-dominated grasslands. More than half of the species in the Daniellia clade are near threatened or threatened, which highlights the need to understand the threats of anthropogenic pressures and climate change these species are facing to prioritise their conservation.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/classificação , África , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/genética , Pradaria , Madagáscar , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Floresta Úmida , Clima Tropical
17.
New Phytol ; 225(3): 1355-1369, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665814

RESUMO

Phylogenomics is increasingly used to infer deep-branching relationships while revealing the complexity of evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization/introgression and polyploidization. We investigate the deep-branching relationships among subfamilies of the Leguminosae (or Fabaceae), the third largest angiosperm family. Despite their ecological and economic importance, a robust phylogenetic framework for legumes based on genome-scale sequence data is lacking. We generated alignments of 72 chloroplast genes and 7621 homologous nuclear-encoded proteins, for 157 and 76 taxa, respectively. We analysed these with maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and a multispecies coalescent summary method, and evaluated support for alternative topologies across gene trees. We resolve the deepest divergences in the legume phylogeny despite lack of phylogenetic signal across all chloroplast genes and the majority of nuclear genes. Strongly supported conflict in the remainder of nuclear genes is suggestive of incomplete lineage sorting. All six subfamilies originated nearly simultaneously, suggesting that the prevailing view of some subfamilies as 'basal' or 'early-diverging' with respect to others should be abandoned, which has important implications for understanding the evolution of legume diversity and traits. Our study highlights the limits of phylogenetic resolution in relation to rapid successive speciation.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Genes de Cloroplastos , Funções Verossimilhança , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
New Phytol ; 225(5): 2196-2213, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665816

RESUMO

Determining where species diversify (cradles) and persist (museums) over evolutionary time is fundamental to understanding the distribution of biodiversity and for conservation prioritization. Here, we identify cradles and museums of angiosperm generic diversity across tropical Africa, one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth. Regions containing nonrandom concentrations of young (neo-) and old (paleo-) endemic taxa were identified using distribution data of 1719 genera combined with a newly generated time-calibrated mega-phylogenetic tree. We then compared the identified regions with the current network of African protected areas (PAs). At the generic level, phylogenetic diversity and endemism are mainly concentrated in the biogeographically complex region of Eastern Africa. We show that mountainous areas are centres of both neo- and paleo-endemism. By contrast, the Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest region is characterized by widespread and old lineages. We found that the overlap between centres of phylogenetic endemism and PAs is high (> 85%). We show the vital role played by mountains acting simultaneously as cradles and museums of tropical African plant biodiversity. By contrast, lowland rainforests act mainly as museums for generic diversity. Our study shows that incorporating large-scale taxonomically verified distribution datasets and mega-phylogenies lead to an improved understanding of tropical plant biodiversity evolution.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Museus , África , Filogenia , Plantas
19.
Sci Adv ; 5(11): eaaz0414, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807712

RESUMO

A key feature of life's diversity is that some species are common but many more are rare. Nonetheless, at global scales, we do not know what fraction of biodiversity consists of rare species. Here, we present the largest compilation of global plant diversity to quantify the fraction of Earth's plant biodiversity that are rare. A large fraction, ~36.5% of Earth's ~435,000 plant species, are exceedingly rare. Sampling biases and prominent models, such as neutral theory and the k-niche model, cannot account for the observed prevalence of rarity. Our results indicate that (i) climatically more stable regions have harbored rare species and hence a large fraction of Earth's plant species via reduced extinction risk but that (ii) climate change and human land use are now disproportionately impacting rare species. Estimates of global species abundance distributions have important implications for risk assessments and conservation planning in this era of rapid global change.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Embriófitas , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Embriófitas/classificação , Embriófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Grana ; 58(2): 81-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828285

RESUMO

The palm family, Arecaceae, is notoriously depauperate in Africa today, and its evolutionary, paleobiogeographic, and extinction history there are not well documented by fossils. In this article we report the pollen of two new extinct species of the small genus, Sclerosperma (Arecoideae), from a late Oligocene (27-28 Ma) stratum exposed along the Guang River in Chilga Wereda of north-western Ethiopia. The pollen are triporate, and the two taxa can be distinguished from each other and from modern species using a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy, which reveals variations in the finer details of their reticulate to perforate exine sculpture. We also report a palm leaf fragment from a stratum higher in the same section that is in the Arecoideae subfamily, and most likely belongs to Sclerosperma. The implications of these discoveries for the evolutionary history of this clade of African arecoid palms is that their diversification was well underway by the middle to late Oligocene, and they were much more widespread in Africa at that time than they are now, limited to West and Central Africa. Sclerosperma exhibits ecological conservatism, as today it occurs primarily in swamps and flooded forests, and the sedimentology of the Guang River deposits at Chilga indicate a heterogeneous landscape with a high water table. The matrix containing the fossil pollen is lignite, which itself indicates standing water, and a variety of plant macrofossils from higher in the section have been interpreted as representing moist tropical forest or seasonally inundated forest communities.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...