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1.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 75: 103909, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308946

RESUMO

AIM: This project explored whether a nurse practitioner led mobile paediatric screening service in early learning centres could incorporate allied health and nursing students and develop their confidence in interprofessional collaboration. BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration is essential for health professionals across all contexts of care, including early childhood screening and intervention that enables children to thrive. METHODS: This multi-methods study (pre-test/post-test design) was conducted with nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nutrition and dietetics students attending clinical placement within the nurse practitioner led mobile paediatric service. Data were collected via pre and post placement surveys (ISVS-21) and post placement semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Twelve students participated from July to December 2022. Survey findings demonstrated students improved inter-professional socialisation and readiness, supported by qualitative findings that uncovered unique mechanisms for how positive experiences were achieved. Unique pedagogical elements included 1) the nurse practitioner's professional attributes and 2) the mobile nature of the service leveraging learning opportunities within the shared commute. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides proof-of-concept of a placement model that facilitates interprofessional collaboration in nursing and allied health students. Further research should explore longer-term outcomes and scalability.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional , Aprendizagem , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Relações Interprofissionais
2.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 58(3): 260-276, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37353970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a tailored quitline tobacco treatment ('Quitlink') among people receiving support for mental health conditions. METHODS: We employed a prospective, cluster-randomised, open, blinded endpoint design to compare a control condition to our 'Quitlink' intervention. Both conditions received a brief intervention delivered by a peer researcher. Control participants received no further intervention. Quitlink participants were referred to a tailored 8-week quitline intervention delivered by dedicated Quitline counsellors plus combination nicotine replacement therapy. The primary outcome was self-reported 6 months continuous abstinence from end of treatment (8 months from baseline). Secondary outcomes included additional smoking outcomes, mental health symptoms, substance use and quality of life. A within-trial economic evaluation was conducted. RESULTS: In total, 110 participants were recruited over 26 months and 91 had confirmed outcomes at 8 months post baseline. There was a difference in self-reported prolonged abstinence at 8-month follow-up between Quitlink (16%, n = 6) and control (2%, n = 1) conditions, which was not statistically significant (OR = 8.33 [0.52, 132.09] p = 0.131 available case). There was a significant difference in favour of the Quitlink condition on 7-day point prevalence at 2 months (OR = 8.06 [1.27, 51.00] p = 0.027 available case). Quitlink costs AU$9231 per additional quit achieved. CONCLUSION: The Quitlink intervention did not result in significantly higher rates of prolonged abstinence at 8 months post baseline. However, engagement rates and satisfaction with the 'Quitlink' intervention were high. While underpowered, the Quitlink intervention shows promise. A powered trial to determine its effectiveness for improving long-term cessation is warranted.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Encaminhamento e Consulta
3.
Subst Abus ; 44(4): 313-322, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37842906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco-related disparities are a leading contributor to health inequities among marginalized communities. Lack of support from health professionals is one of the most cited barriers to tobacco cessation reported by these communities. Improving the proficiencies with which health professionals incorporate social and cultural influences into therapeutic interactions has the potential to address this critical barrier. In general, training to improve these proficiencies has shown promise, but the specific proficiencies required for treating tobacco use among marginalized communities are unknown. This project aimed to develop a competency-based curriculum to improve these proficiencies among health professionals with experience and training in the evidence-based treatment of tobacco use, and then pilot test the content delivered via an expert review of a virtual, self-paced workshop. METHODS: We used the Delphi Technique to systematically identify the specific competencies and corresponding knowledge and skill sets required to achieve these proficiencies. Educational content was developed to teach these competencies in a virtual workshop. The workshop was evaluated by 11 experts in the field by examining pre- and post-training changes in perceived knowledge, skill, and confidence levels and other quantitative and qualitative feedback. Repeated measures analysis of variance and paired sample t-tests were used to examine pre-post training differences. RESULTS: Six competencies and corresponding skill sets were identified. After exposure to the virtual workshop, the experts reported significant increases in the overall proficiency for each competency as well as increases in nearly all levels of knowledge, skill, and confidence within the competency skill sets. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicate that content was relevant to practice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary support for 6 competencies and skills sets needed to improve therapeutic interpersonal interactions that recognize the importance of social and cultural influences in the treatment of tobacco use.


Assuntos
Currículo , Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Escolaridade , Processos Mentais
4.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 149: 209028, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37003539

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging data indicate a disproportionate increase in overdose deaths since the onset of COVID-19. Speculation about causes for the increase center on rising drug use, illicit drug supply changes, and reduced treatment access. Possible overdose mitigation factors include reduced federal MOUD prescribing restrictions, naloxone distribution programs, and increased use of telehealth. Similarly, nonprescribed buprenorphine (NPB) use, increasingly described as a harm reduction strategy in the absence of treatment, may have moderated overdose risk. This study explored factors associated with pandemic-related overdose in people who use opioids (PWUO) in New Jersey. METHODS: We surveyed 342 PWUO from March to May 2021. Approximately 50 % of our sample was treated at some time since the COVID-19 emergency declaration in March 2020. The risk and protective factors associated with overdose were identified using Pearson's chi square test and ANOVA and tested in a series of multivariable logistic regression models for the full sample and the subsample of PWUO treated during the pandemic. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of respondents increased their drug use during the pandemic, including 32 % who relapsed after previous abstinence. Fifteen percent overdosed at least once since March 2020. In the full sample, overdose was associated with Hispanic ethnicity (AOR = 3.51; 95 % CI = 1.22-10.11), pre-pandemic overdose (AOR = 6.75; 95 % CI = 3.03-15.02), lack/loss of medical insurance (AOR = 3.02; 95 % CI = 1.01-9.02), relapse (AOR = 2.94; 95 % CI = 1.36-6.36), and nonprescribed use of buprenorphine/naloxone (AOR = 3.16; 95 % CI = 1.49-6.70). The study found similar trends in the treatment sample, with the exceptions that heroin/fentanyl use also predicted overdose (AOR = 3.43; 95 % CI = 1.20-9.78) and the association of overdose with nonprescribed buprenorphine/naloxone was stronger (AOR = 4.91; 95 % CI = 2.01-12.03). Potential mitigating factors, such as take-home methadone and telehealth, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse during the pandemic was widespread and a significant contributor to overdose. Lack/loss of medical insurance further exacerbated the risk. Despite the growing literature reporting "therapeutic" use of NPB, people using nonprescribed buprenorphine/naloxone in the current study experienced up to five times the risk of overdose as nonusers. This finding suggests that, despite therapeutic intent, PWUO may be using NPB in ways that are ineffectual for addiction management, especially in the context of changing buprenorphine induction protocols in the context of fentanyl.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Humanos , Pandemias , Overdose de Opiáceos/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Buprenorfina e Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Recidiva
5.
Community Ment Health J ; 59(1): 185-191, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768703

RESUMO

This study explores the extent to which psychiatrists are familiar with, and utilize, the USPHS guidelines for treating tobacco use and dependence (i.e., the 5A's), deliver cessation treatment, and the barriers they perceive to doing so. An original, national survey of 141 psychiatrists revealed that most Ask patients if they smoke (81.6%). Fewer Advise them to stop (78.7%) and Assess their willingness to quit (73.6%). A minority Assist with a quit plan (15.9%) and Arrange for follow-up (26.4%). Just 11.9% have used the USPHS guidelines in clinical practice; 37% have never heard of them. Even among those who say they have used the USPHS guidelines, implementation of the 5A's is quite low. Time-related factors were the most common barriers to cessation delivery (51.4%). Patient factors (30%) and financial/resource factors (25%) were less common. There is a strong need for increased implementation of clinical guidelines for evidence-based tobacco treatments among psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 319: 114989, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470161

RESUMO

Caffeine is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in the United States. High rates of caffeine use have been observed in adult smokers as well as those with serious mental illness. The current secondary analysis aimed to extend previous findings demonstrating high caffeine intake in schizophrenia by examining dietary intake of caffeine and serum caffeine levels in outpatient smokers with schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and control smokers with no psychiatric diagnoses (CON). Two hundred forty-eight adult smokers (SCZ=80; BP=80; CON=88) were included in the current study. Adult smokers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and no psychiatric diagnoses were 40.85 (SD = 11.90) years old on average and all participants were current smokers (∼20 cigarettes per day). Twenty-four hour self-reported caffeine intake (in mg) was highest among individuals with bipolar disorder (median=195.3), followed by adults with schizophrenia (median=155.0) and controls (median=131.7). Participants with bipolar disorder also had the highest serum caffeine levels (in ng/ml; median=1725), followed by those with schizophrenia (median=1194) and controls (median=613.2).  These results provide additional evidence of high caffeine intake among adults with schizophrenia and extend findings by identifying even higher rates of caffeine use in those with bipolar disorder. The current study suggests that caffeine intake is higher among subgroups of patients with serious mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Criança , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Cafeína , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Fumantes
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 868032, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276321

RESUMO

Introduction: People experiencing severe mental illness (SMI) smoke at much higher rates than the general population and require additional support. Engagement with existing evidence-based interventions such as quitlines and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) may be improved by mental health peer worker involvement and tailored support. This paper reports on a qualitative study nested within a peer researcher-facilitated tobacco treatment trial that included brief advice plus, for those in the intervention group, tailored quitline callback counseling and combination NRT. It contextualizes participant life experience and reflection on trial participation and offers insights for future interventions. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 participants in a randomized controlled trial (intervention group n = 15, control group n = 14) following their 2-month (post-recruitment) follow-up assessments, which marked the end of the "Quitlink" intervention for those in the intervention group. Interviews explored the experience of getting help to address smoking (before and during the trial), perceptions of main trial components including assistance from peer researchers and tailored quitline counseling, the role of NRT, and other support received. A general inductive approach to analysis was applied. Results: We identified four main themes: (1) the long and complex journey of quitting smoking in the context of disrupted lives; (2) factors affecting quitting (desire to quit, psychological and social barriers, and facilitators and reasons for quitting); (3) the perceived benefits of a tailored approach for people with mental ill-health including the invitation to quit and practical resources; and (4) the importance of compassionate delivery of support, beginning with the peer researchers and extended by quitline counselors for intervention participants. Subthemes were identified within each of these overarching main themes. Discussion: The findings underscore the enormity of the challenges that our targeted population face and the considerations needed for providing tobacco treatment to people who experience SMI. The data suggest that a tailored tobacco treatment intervention has the potential to assist people on a journey to quitting, and that compassionate support encapsulating a recovery-oriented approach is highly valued. Clinical trial registration: The Quitlink trial was registered with ANZCTR (www.anzctr.org.au): ACTRN12619000244101 prior to the accrual of the first participant and updated regularly as per registry guidelines.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 869169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722563

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the most challenging aspects of conducting intervention trials among people who experience severe mental illness (SMI) and who smoke tobacco, is recruitment. In our parent "QuitLink" randomized controlled trial (RCT), slower than expected peer researcher facilitated recruitment, along with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, necessitated an adaptive recruitment response. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) describe adaptive peer researcher facilitated recruitment strategies; (ii) explore the effectiveness of these strategies; (iii) investigate whether recruitment strategies reached different subgroups of participants; and (iv) examine the costs and resources required for implementing these strategies. Finally, we offer experience-based lessons in a Peer Researcher Commentary. Methods: People were included in the RCT if they smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day and were accessing mental health support from the project's two partnering mental health organizations in Victoria, Australia. The majority of people accessing these services will have been diagnosed with SMI. Recruitment occurred over 2 years. We began with peer facilitated recruitment strategies delivered face-to-face, then replaced this with direct mail postcards followed by telephone contact. In the final 4 months of the study, we began online recruitment, broadening it to people who smoked and were accessing support or treatment (including from general practitioners) for mental health and/or alcohol or other drug problems, anywhere in the state of Victoria. Differences between recruitment strategies on key participant variables were assessed. We calculated the average cost per enrolee of the different recruitment approaches. Results: Only 109 people were recruited from a target of 382: 29 via face-to-face (March 2019 to April 2020), 66 from postcards (May 2020 to November 2020), and 14 from online (November to December 2020 and January to March 2021) strategies. Reflecting our initial focus on recruiting from supported independent living accommodation facilities, participants recruited face-to-face were significantly more likely to be living in partially or fully supported independent living (n = 29, <0.001), but the samples were otherwise similar. After the initial investment in training and equipping peer researchers, the average cost of recruitment was AU$1,182 per participant-~US$850. Face-to-face recruitment was the most expensive approach and postcard recruitment the least (AU$1,648 and AU$928 per participant). Discussion: Peer researcher facilitated recruitment into a tobacco treatment trial was difficult and expensive. Widely dispersed services and COVID-19 restrictions necessitated non-face-to-face recruitment strategies, such as direct mail postcards, which improved recruitment and may be worthy of further research. Clinical Trial Registration: The trial is registered with ANZCTR (www.anzctr.org.au): ACTRN12619000244101 prior to the accrual of the first participant and updated regularly as per registry guidelines. The trial sponsor was the University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

9.
Am J Addict ; 31(5): 433-440, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite overwhelming evidence of benefit, medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remain stigmatizing and more efforts are needed to educate health care professionals and the general public. METHODS: We developed and evaluated an educational program for graduate students studying health sciences, teaching them to deliver 1 h presentations to the community on the opioid crisis and the usefulness of MOUD. RESULTS: To date, 120 graduate students have participated in this training experience on substance use disorders and delivered 59 presentations to more than 1065 community members. We found a significant increase in knowledge among students following the training. In addition, although attitudes and beliefs were generally positive at baseline, we also found significant increases in positives attitudes about the treatment of addiction and working with patients with addictions. Almost all students believed the course enhanced their professional expertise and would recommend it to others. We compared our students' baseline knowledge and attitudes to a large sample of other graduate students and did not find significant differences indicating good external validity of our results. Finally, we evaluated change in community members' knowledge and attitudes (N = 315) following student presentations and found significant increases in knowledge and positive attitude change toward MOUD. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall our program was feasible, enjoyable, and effective in meeting its goals of increasing knowledge acquisition and improving attitudes among students and the greater community. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Graduate students in health sciences can be trained to successfully teach the public about the opioid crisis and the usefulness of MOUD.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Epidemia de Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudantes
10.
Community Ment Health J ; 58(4): 812-820, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518927

RESUMO

Tobacco use in people with behavioral health conditions remain two to three times higher than the general population causing premature death and impacting recovery negatively across several domains. Intermediary organizations can provide practical tools, training, and technical assistance to help programs improve capacity to treat tobacco use. This report describes the construction and application of the Tobacco Integration Self-Evaluation Tool (TiSET) for behavioral health programs, a 20-item scale inspired by the DDCMHT and additional content from the Facility Tobacco Policy and Treatment Practices Self-Evaluation tool that one of the study authors (JW) used previously with addiction treatment programs. Completing the TiSET is an important step for behavioral health programs to evaluate their ability to effectively treat people that use tobacco. An important next step is to use those results to facilitate a quality improvement process. We include large agency example illustrating how the TiSET can be applied in real-world practice.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Humanos , Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/terapia
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(2): 285-288, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555170

RESUMO

Despite remarkable progress, tobacco control efforts are not equitably distributed, and tobacco-related disparities continue to contribute to significant health disparities. Our premise in this commentary is that Intersectionality can serve as a productive analytical framework for examining tobacco-related disparities across and within multiple marginalized populations. Intersectionality is a theoretical framework for understanding the multiple interlocking societal systems that bestow privilege and oppression and is increasingly being to the study of health inequities. We present a model and describe how tobacco-related disparities can be understood via critical elements of Intersectionality. We conclude that the application of Intersectionality to understanding tobacco-related disparities has potential to stimulate meaningful discussion and lead to new and innovative multilevel and cross-cutting interventions to eliminate tobacco-related disparities and foster culturally safe environment in which all people can thrive. IMPLICATIONS: This commentary describes how Intersectionality can serve as a productive analytic framework for examining the development and maintenance of tobacco-related disparities across and within many marginalized groups.


Assuntos
Enquadramento Interseccional , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Uso de Tabaco
12.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(4): 474-478, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269351

RESUMO

The processes for review and confirmation of a theoretical model, its translation into current clinical practice, and the evaluation of outcomes will be presented. The authors' experience at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance in Washington illustrates the value and relevance of theoretical models in oncology care.


Assuntos
Modelos de Enfermagem , Humanos , Washington
13.
Community Ment Health J ; 57(6): 1023-1031, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083939

RESUMO

The prevalence of smoking is higher among individuals with serious mental illnesses than the general population. Evidence-based practices exist for tobacco cessation, but little is known about mental health clinics' tobacco cessation treatment practices/protocols. Mental health clinics in New York State were surveyed about their tobacco use treatment protocols and outdoor-smoking policies. One-third of clinics were not providing individual counseling for tobacco use disorder, 39% were not prescribing nicotine replacement therapy, and nearly half reported not prescribing bupropion or varenicline. Even smaller proportions reported implementing other clinical practice guidelines, with only 25.2% providing staff training and 20.3% having a dedicated staff member for coordinating tobacco use disorder treatment. Regarding outdoor smoke-free policies, 38% of clinics reported not allowing any tobacco use anywhere on grounds. Despite some successes, many clinics do not provide evidence-based tobacco use treatments, meaning important opportunities exist for mental health clinics and oversight agencies to standardize practices.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Humanos , Saúde Mental , New York/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
14.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106680, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid/heroin use is an epidemic in the United States (US). Polysubstance use dramatically increases risk of adverse overdose outcomes, versus use of a single substance. Co-use of heroin and cocaine, known as "speedballing," is associated with higher risk of overdose than use of either alone. It is not known whether co-use relative to use of either alone has increased in the US in recent years at a national level. If so, this may be one contributing factor to the increasing fatality rate associated with the US opioid epidemic. This study investigated the prevalence of use of each and co-use of heroin and cocaine from 2002 to 2017 in the US. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2002 to 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to estimate prevalence of past-month heroin use, cocaine use, and co-use of heroin and cocaine among Americans ages 12 and older. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2017, cocaine use (without heroin) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.971, 95% confidence interval (0.963, 0.979)) declined overall, though a subsequent quadratic analysis suggested that it began increasing in 2011. In contrast, heroin and cocaine co-use (AOR = 1.062 (1.027, 1.099)) and heroin use (without cocaine) (AOR = 1.101 (1.070, 1.133)) linearly increased from 2002 to 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Screening, outreach, clinical treatment, and first responders should be aware of increasing patterns of polysubstance use and the potential implications of co-use of heroin and cocaine on first responders' intervention and the potential role of increasing exposure to multiple substances on overdose outcomes in the US.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Overdose de Drogas , Epidemias , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Heroína , Humanos , Epidemia de Opioides , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 90: 103051, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although fentanyl is the drug most frequently implicated in overdose deaths, the association between overdose risk and attitudes and behaviors surrounding fentanyl in opioid-using communities has remained understudied. Possible subpopulation differences in fentanyl-related overdose risk remain equally unexamined. This paper addresses these gaps by exploring the association between overdose and fentanyl-related attitudes/behaviors in three subpopulations of overdose survivors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we sampled 432 individuals who currently or recently used opioids from New Jersey methadone and acute residential detoxification programs. Using multinomial regression analysis, we compared overdose risk factors, including fentanyl-related attitudes/behaviors, of those who never overdosed with three subgroups of overdose survivors who experienced: 1. recent overdoses occurring after, but not before, fentanyl expansion; 2. past overdoses occurring before, but not after, fentanyl expansion; 3. persistent overdoses occurring before and after fentanyl expansion. RESULTS: Forty percent of respondents had knowingly used fentanyl and 38% deliberately sought overdose-implicated drugs. Respondents with persistent overdoses represented under 10% of the sample but accounted for 44% of all lifetime overdoses (x̅ =8.03 vs. 1.71 for the full sample). This was also the only subgroup for whom PTSD (AOR=3.84; 95%CI=1.45-10.16; p=.01) and fentanyl-seeking (AOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.16-1.94; p=.01) were significant overdose risk factors. Those with recent overdoses engaged in frequent drug combining (AOR=2.28; 95% CI=1.19-6.98; p=.05), which could have led to inadvertent fentanyl use. Those with past overdoses were not at overdose risk from fentanyl-seeking or drug combining and had rates of methadone treatment comparable to rates of those with no overdoses. CONCLUSION: Harm reduction strategies will need to address consumers' evolving drug preferences as fentanyl continues to saturate local drug markets. Targeting comprehensive interventions, including mental health treatment, to the small group of opioid users with longstanding overdose histories may reduce the burden of overdose in opioid-using communities.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Analgésicos Opioides , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Fentanila , Humanos , New Jersey , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes
16.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(9): 1157-1172, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify interventions using wearable accelerometers to measure physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour in adults during hospitalization for an acute medical/surgical condition. DATA SOURCES: Four databases were searched in August 2019 (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, EMBASE). REVIEW METHODS: Studies were selected if they described an intervention in adults with a medical/surgical condition, and concurrently reported an accelerometer-derived measure of physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour while participants were admitted. Items were screened for eligibility in duplicate. Included studies were synthesized to describe intervention types, feasibility and potential effectiveness. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included, reporting on 3357 participants (2040 with accelerometer data). Identified types of interventions were: pre-habilitation (n = 2) exercise (n = 3), patient behaviour change with self-monitoring (n = 6), models of care (n = 5), implementing system change (n = 2), surgical technique (n = 2) patients wearing day clothes (n = 1) and education about activity in hospital (n = 1). Of 16 studies that reported intervention effects on physical activity, 11 reported a favourable impact including studies of: pre-habilitation, self-monitoring (accelerometry or an activity whiteboard), physiotherapy, an early mobility bundle, minimally invasive surgery, an education booklet and by implementing system change. Of the six studies that reported intervention effects on sedentary behaviour, there was a favourable impact with an activity whiteboard, models of care and an education booklet. CONCLUSION: Accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour have been used to describe sample characteristics and intervention effects in studies of hospitalized adults. Interventions may involve a range of health professionals, but less is known about sedentary behaviour in this setting.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Hospitalização , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos
17.
Semin Oncol Nurs ; 36(3): 151027, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize an innovative initiative in oncology nurse workforce development that addresses critical current and future gaps and encompasses use of dedicated education units for student nurse rotation and a transition-to-practice residency program. DATA SOURCES: Review of institutional data including original pilot analysis and ongoing programmatic metrics (N=8 years), consensus, professional guidelines, and published literature. CONCLUSION: The dedicated education unit serves as a conduit for recruitment into institutional oncology nurse residency positions, and retention rates in the residency program continue to exceed national averages. Subsequent mentoring of these nurses in transition to practice has manifested high rates of promotion into nurse leadership roles year over year. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Oncology nurse practice incorporates state-of-the-science approved therapies, early phase clinical trial implementation, and evidence-based complex oncology patient care management. A new model of student clinical nurse rotations in ambulatory settings, nurse resident transition to practice, and ongoing leadership mentoring is essential in creating a sustainable, highly skilled, and robust oncology nurse work force.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermagem Oncológica/educação , Preceptoria/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(8): 1280-1287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182153

RESUMO

Background: To address the alarming rise in opioid overdose deaths, states have increased public access to the overdose reversal medication, naloxone. While some studies suggest that increased naloxone accessibility reduces opioid overdose deaths, others raise concerns about unintended consequences, such as increases in risky drug use and opioid re-use post-overdose to counter naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms. Few studies have examined the impact of expanded naloxone access on the attitudes and behaviors of opioid users. Methods: In this qualitative study, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 36 English-speaking opioid users 18+ years of age. Informants were recruited from an urban methadone clinic, a needle exchange program and a residential treatment program. The approximately hour-long interviews focused on users' attitudes and behaviors surrounding naloxone, opioid use and overdose. Transcribed audio-recordings of interviews were analyzed using NVivo. Results: Informants were ambivalent about naloxone, widely acknowledging its life-saving benefits while reporting such negative effects as severe withdrawal symptoms and the promotion of riskier drug use. Naloxone-induced withdrawal, coupled with misperceptions about naloxone's pharmacological effects, prompted overdose survivors to rapidly re-use opioids and refuse hospitalization following an overdose reversal. About half the sample believed naloxone led to greater risk-taking by others, such as fentanyl use or use in higher quantities, but did not endorse riskier drug use themselves. Conclusions: The results suggest the need for targeted education about the pharmacological effects of naloxone and better strategies for managing naloxone-induced withdrawal. Future research should focus on the extent to which naloxone is associated with greater opioid risk-taking.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Epidemias , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
19.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(2): e16524, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-person motivational interventions increase engagement with evidence-based cessation treatments among smokers with schizophrenia, but access to such interventions can be limited because of workforce shortages and competing demands in mental health clinics. The use of digital technology to deliver interventions can increase access, but cognitive impairments in schizophrenia may impede the use of standard digital interventions. We developed an interactive, multimedia, digital motivational decision support system for smokers with schizophrenia (Let's Talk About Smoking). We also digitalized a standard educational pamphlet from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Education). Both were tailored to reduce cognitive load during use. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized trial of Let's Talk About Smoking versus NCI Education to test whether the interactive motivational intervention was more effective and more appealing than the static educational intervention for increasing use of smoking cessation treatment, quit attempts, and abstinence among smokers with schizophrenia, accounting for the level of cognitive functioning. METHODS: Adult smokers with schizophrenia (n=162) were enrolled in the study from 2014 to 2015, randomly assigned to intervention condition, and assessed in person at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Interventions were delivered on a laptop computer in a single session. All participants had access to standard, community-delivered cessation treatments during follow-up. Multivariate models were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: Treatment initiation outcomes were not different between intervention conditions (27/84 [32%] for Let's Talk About Smoking vs 36/78 [46%] for NCI Education; odds ratio [OR] 0.71 [95% CI 0.37-1.33]); 38.9% (63/162) of participants initiated treatment. Older age (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.07]; P=.05), higher education (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.04-1.41]; P=.03), and fewer positive symptoms (OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.80-0.96]; P=.01) predicted cessation treatment initiation, whereas level of cognition did not. The mean satisfaction and usability index score was higher for Let's Talk About Smoking versus NCI Education (8.9 [SD 1.3] vs 8.3 [SD 2.1]; t120.7=2.0; P=.045). Quit attempts (25/84, 30% vs 36/78, 46%; estimate [Est]=-0.093, SE 0.48; P=.85) and abstinence (1/84, 1% vs 6/78, 7%; χ21=3.4; P=.07) were not significantly different between intervention conditions. Cognitive functioning at baseline (Est=1.47, SE 0.47; P=.002) and use of any behavioral or medication cessation treatment (Est=1.43, SE 0.47; P=.003) predicted quit attempts with self-reported abstinence over the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The interactive, multimedia intervention was not more effective than the static, text-based intervention among smokers with schizophrenia. Both tailored digital interventions resulted in levels of treatment engagement and quit attempts that were similar to findings from previous studies of in-person interventions, confirming the potential role of digital interventions to educate and motivate smokers with schizophrenia to use cessation treatment and to quit smoking. These findings indicate that additional cessation treatment is needed after brief education or motivational interventions, and that cessation treatment should be adjusted for people with cognitive impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02086162; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02086162.

20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(4): 1243-1264, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965232

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Diagnostic markers for Rrs1Rh4 have been identified by testing for associations between SNPs within the Rrs1 interval in 150 barley genotypes and their resistance to Rhynchosporium commune isolates recognised by lines containing Rrs1. Rhynchosporium or barley scald, caused by the destructive fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, is one of the most economically important diseases of barley in the world. Barley landraces from Syria and Jordan demonstrated high resistance to rhynchosporium in the field. Genotyping of a wide range of barley cultivars and landraces, including known sources of different Rrs1 genes/alleles, across the Rrs1 interval, followed by association analysis of this genotypic data with resistance phenotypes to R. commune isolates recognised by Rrs1, allowed the identification of diagnostic markers for Rrs1Rh4. These markers are specific to Rrs1Rh4 and do not detect other Rrs1 genes/alleles. The Rrs1Rh4 diagnostic markers represent a resource that can be exploited by breeders for the sustainable deployment of varietal resistance in new cultivars. Thirteen out of the 55 most resistant Syrian and Jordanian landraces were shown to contain markers specific to Rrs1Rh4. One of these lines came from Jordan, with the remaining 12 lines from different locations in Syria. One of the Syrian landraces containing Rrs1Rh4 was also shown to have Rrs2. The remaining landraces that performed well against rhynchosporium in the field are likely to contain other resistance genes and represent an important novel resource yet to be exploited by European breeders.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Loci Gênicos , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alelos , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Ecótipo , Exoma/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Geografia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Jordânia , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síria
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