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1.
BJPsych Open ; 10(3): e78, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brief intervention services provide rapid, mobile and flexible short-term delivery of interventions to resolve mental health crises. These interventions may provide an alternative pathway to the emergency department or in-patient psychiatric services for children and young people (CYP), presenting with an acute mental health condition. AIMS: To synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of brief interventions in improving mental health outcomes for CYP (0-17 years) presenting with an acute mental health condition. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted, and the studies' methodological quality was assessed. Five databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. RESULTS: We synthesised 30 articles on the effectiveness of brief interventions in the form of (a) crisis intervention, (b) integrated services, (c) group therapies, (d) individualised therapy, (e) parent-child dyadic therapy, (f) general services, (g) pharmacotherapy, (h) assessment services, (i) safety and risk planning and (j) in-hospital treatment, to improve outcomes for CYP with an acute mental health condition. Among included studies, one study was rated as providing a high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence hierarchy scale, which was a crisis intervention showing a reduction in length of stay and return emergency department visits. Other studies, of moderate-quality evidence, described multimodal brief interventions that suggested beneficial effects. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence to substantiate the benefits of brief interventions, in different settings, to reduce the burden of in-patient hospital and readmission rates to the emergency department.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1324220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510802

RESUMO

Background: Long term intervention services have proven to be effective in improving mental health (MH) outcomes and the quality of life for children and young people (CYP). Aim: To synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of long-term interventions in improving MH outcomes for CYP, 0-17 years, presenting with MH conditions. Methods: A systematic search was carried out and the methodological quality of included long term MH intervention studies were assessed. Six databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. Results: We found 30 studies that reported on the effectiveness of a range of long-term MH interventions in the form of (i) group therapy, (ii) multisystemic behavior therapy, (iii) general services, (iv) integrated services, (v) psychotherapy, (vi) intensive intervention services, (vii) comprehensive collaborative care, (viii) parent training, and (ix) home outreach service. Among the included studies, seven were rated as high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) levels of evidence hierarchy scale and seven were of moderate quality evidence. Others were rated as lower-quality evidence. Among the studies providing high quality evidence, most were reported for group therapy, general services, and psychotherapy studies demonstrating beneficial effects. Conclusion: This systematic review provides evidence to demonstrate the benefits of a range of long-term interventions, in a range of settings, can be effective in improving MH outcomes for CYP and their families. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022323324.

3.
Int J Integr Care ; 23(3): 4, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37577140

RESUMO

Introduction: As the number of children and young people (CYP) presenting to Emergency Departments (ED) with acute mental health (MH) presentations has been steadily increasing over the years and further accelerated by the pandemic, there is an urgent need to develop and evaluate innovative solutions to respond to this growing challenge. Description: The evaluation of the Safeguards Teams Program (STP) aims to ascertain the impact, implementation and economic analysis of this acute rapid response recovery-focused, trauma-informed assessment and brief intervention for CYP (aged 0-17 years) presenting in acute MH crisis and their families/caregivers.The STP will support consumers (patients) and their families/caregivers to navigate the complex and often fragmented child and adolescent MH services (CAMHS) landscape, thereby avoiding unnecessary ED presentations or hospitalisations, and facilitating comprehensive assessment and appropriate care pathways for those who present in crisis. Discussion: The STP is expected to provide CYP in MH crisis and their support networks with early access to evidence-based specialist care at the right place and time. Conclusion: Implementation of the STP will assist with identifying and addressing gaps in acute care for CYP and provide the necessary evidence for service redesign in collaboration with consumers, service providers and other stakeholders.

4.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 159, 2023 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37563549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant challenges remain in the early identification of child developmental disabilities in the community. Implementing supports and services early in the life course has been shown to promote positive developmental outcomes for children at high likelihood of developmental disabilities, including autism. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, this study seeks to examine and compare the perspectives and experiences of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to a digital developmental surveillance program for autism and usual care pathway, in general practice clinics. METHODS: A qualitative research methodology with semi-structured interviews and thematic inductive analysis underpinned by grounded theory was utilised. All GPs from South Western Sydney (NSW) and Melbourne (Victoria) who participated in the main program ("GP Surveillance for Autism") were invited to the interview. GPs who provided consent were interviewed either over online or in-person meeting. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo12 software. Inductive interpretive approach was adopted and data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twenty-three GPs across the two sites (NSW: n = 11; Victoria: n = 12) agreed to be interviewed; data saturation had reached following this number of participants. Inductive thematic coding and analysis yielded eight major themes and highlighted common enablers such as the role of GPs in early identification and subsequent supports, enhanced communication between clinicians/professionals, relationship-building with patients, and having standardised screening tools. Specific facilitators to the feasibility and acceptability of a digital screening program for the early identification of developmental disabilities, including the early signs of autism, and encouraging research and education for GPs. However, several practical and socioeconomic barriers were identified, in addition to limited knowledge and uptake of child developmental screening tools as well as COVID-19 lockdown impacts. Common and specific recommendations involve supporting GPs in developmental/paediatrics training, streamlined screening process, and funding and resources in the primary healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the need for practice and policy changes, including further training of GPs alongside sufficient time to complete developmental checks and appropriate financial remuneration through a Medicare billing item. Further research is needed on implementation and scale up of a national surveillance program for early identification of developmental disabilities, including autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , COVID-19 , Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Medicare , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atenção Primária à Saúde
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064375, 2022 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Implementing support and services early in the life course has been shown to promote positive developmental outcomes for children at high likelihood of developmental conditions including autism. This study examined parents'/caregivers' experiences and perceptions about a digital developmental surveillance pathway for autism, the autism surveillance pathway (ASP), and usual care, the surveillance as usual (SaU) pathway, in the primary healthcare general practice setting. DESIGN: This qualitative study involves using a convenience selection process of the full sample of parents/caregivers that participated in the main programme, 'General Practice Surveillance for Autism', a cluster-randomised controlled trial study. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and coded using NVivo V.12 software. An inductive thematic interpretive approach was adopted and data were analysed thematically. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve parents/caregivers of children with or without a developmental condition/autism (who participated in the main programme) in South Western Sydney and Melbourne were interviewed. SETTINGS: All interviews were completed over the phone. RESULTS: There were seven major themes and 20 subthemes that included positive experiences, such as pre-existing patient-doctor relationships and their perceptions on the importance of knowing and accessing early support/services. Barriers or challenges experienced while using the SaU pathway included long waiting periods, poor communication and lack of action plans, complexity associated with navigating the healthcare system and lack of understanding by general practitioners (GPs). Common suggestions for improvement included greater awareness/education for parents/carers and the availability of accessible resources on child development for parents/caregivers. CONCLUSION: The findings support the use of digital screening tools for developmental surveillance, including for autism, using opportunistic contacts in the general practice setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ANZCTR (ACTRN12619001200178).


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Medicina Geral , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pais
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e065823, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of developmental disorders in early childhood poses a significant global health burden. Early detection of developmental problems is vital to ensure timely access to early intervention, and universal developmental surveillance is recommended best practice for identifying issues. Despite this, there is currently considerable variation in developmental surveillance and screening between Australian states and territories and low rates of developmental screening uptake by parents. This study aims to evaluate an innovative web-based developmental surveillance programme and a sustainable approach to referral and care pathways, linking primary care general practice (GP) services that fall under federal policy responsibility and state government-funded child health services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The proposed study describes a longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) comparing a 'Watch Me Grow Integrated' (WMG-I) approach for developmental screening, to Surveillance as Usual (SaU) in GPs. Forty practices will be recruited across New South Wales and Queensland, and randomly allocated into either the (1) WMG-I or (2) SaU group. A cohort of 2000 children will be recruited during their 18-month vaccination visit or opportunistic visit to GP. At the end of the c-RCT, a qualitative study using focus groups/interviews will evaluate parent and practitioner views of the WMG-I programme and inform national and state policy recommendations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The South Western Sydney Local Health District (2020/ETH01625), UNSW Sydney (2020/ETH01625) and University of Queensland (2021/HE000667) Human Research Ethics Committees independently reviewed and approved this study. Findings will be reported to the funding bodies, study institutes and partners; families and peer-reviewed conferences/publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ANZCTR12621000680864.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Programas de Rastreamento , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Internet , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 190, 2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is understood about real-world provision of oncology care in ambulatory outpatient clinics (OPCs). This study aimed to: 1) develop an understanding of behaviours and practices inherent in the delivery of cancer services in OPC common areas by characterising the organisation and implementation of this care; and 2) identify barriers to, and facilitators of, the delivery of this care in OPC common areas. METHODS: A purpose-designed ethnographic study was employed in four public hospital OPCs. Informal field scoping activities were followed by in-situ observations, key informant interviews and document review. A view of OPCs as complex adaptive systems was used as a scaffold for the data collection and interpretation, with the intent of understanding 'work as done'. Data were analysed using an adapted "Qualitative Rapid Appraisal, Rigorous Analysis" approach. RESULTS: Field observations were conducted over 135 h, interviews over 6.5 h and documents were reviewed. Analysis found six themes. Staff working in OPCs see themselves as part of small local teams and as part of a broader multidisciplinary care team. Professional role boundaries could be unclear in practice, as duties expanded to meet demand or to stop patients "falling through the cracks." Formal care processes in OPCs were supported by relationships, social capital and informal, but invaluable, institutional expertise. Features of the clinic layout, such as the proximity of departments, affected professional interactions. Staff were aware of inter- and intra-service communication difficulties and employed strategies to minimise negative impacts on patients. We found that complexity, coordination, culture and capacity underpin the themes that characterise this care provision. CONCLUSIONS: The study advances understanding of how multidisciplinary care is delivered in ambulatory settings and the factors which promote or inhibit effective care practice. Time pressures, communication challenges and competing priorities can pose barriers to care delivery. OPC care is facilitated by: self-organisation of participants; professional acumen; institutional knowledge; social ties and relationships between and within professional groups; and commitment to patient-centred care. An understanding of the realities of 'work-as-done' may help OPCs to sustain high-quality care in the face of escalating service demand.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Comunicação , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 304, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There have been few descriptions of how outpatient cancer care is provided to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. As populations who experience disparities in cancer care access and outcomes, deeper understanding is needed to help identify those factors which can shape the receipt of multidisciplinary care in ambulatory settings. This paper reports on data collected and analysed as part of a multicentre characterisation of care in Australian public hospital cancer outpatient clinics (OPCs). RESULTS: Analysis of data from our ethnographic study of four OPCs identified three themes: "Identifying CALD patient language-related needs"; "Capacity and resources to meet CALD patient needs", and "Making it work for CALD communities." The care team comprises not only clinicians but also families and non-clinical staff; OPCs serve as "touchpoints" facilitating access to a range of therapeutic services. The findings highlight the potential challenges oncology professionals negotiate in providing care to CALD communities and the ways in which clinicians adapt their practices, formulate strategies and use available resources to support care delivery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Austrália , Diversidade Cultural , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Idioma , Neoplasias/terapia
10.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 22-34, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and refine indices to measure organization and care pathway-level quality management systems in Australian hospitals. DESIGN: A questionnaire survey and audit tools were derived from instruments validated as part of the Deepening Our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) study, adapted for Australian hospitals through expert opinion. Statistical processes were used to explore the factor structure, reliability and non-redundancy and descriptive statistics of the scales. SETTING: Thirty-two large Australian public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Audit of quality management processes at organization-level and care pathway processes at department level for three patient conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture and stroke) and senior quality manager, at each of the 32 participating hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The degree of quality management evident at organization and care pathway levels. RESULTS: Analysis yielded seven quality systems and strategies scales. The three hospital-level measures were: the Quality Management Systems Index (QMSI), the Quality Management Compliance Index (QMCI) and the Clinical Quality Implementation Index (CQII). The four department-level measures were: Specialised Expertise and Responsibility (SER), Evidence-Based Organisation of Pathways (EBOP), Patient Safety Strategies (PSS) and Clinical Review (CR). For QMCI, and for seven out of eight subscales in QMSI, adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's $\alpha$ >0.8) was achieved. For CQII, lack of variation and ceiling effects in the data resulted in very low internal consistency scores, but items were retained for theoretical reasons. Internal consistency was high for CR (Cronbach's $\alpha$ 0.74-0.88 across the three conditions), and this was supported by all item-total correlations exceeding the desired threshold. For EBOP, Cronbach's $\alpha$ was acceptable for hip fracture (0.80) and stroke (0.76), but only moderate for AMI (0.52). PSS and SER scales were retained for theoretical reasons, although internal consistencies were only moderate (SER) to poor (PSS). CONCLUSIONS: The Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) organization and department scales can be used by Australian hospital managers to assess and measure improvement in quality management at organization and department levels within their hospitals and are readily modifiable for other health systems depending on their needs.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Austrália , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Fraturas do Quadril , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Segurança do Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 43-51, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether Emergency Department (ED) quality strategies, safety culture and leadership were associated with patient-level outcomes, after controlling for other organization-level factors, in 32 large Australian hospitals. DESIGN: Quantitative observational study, using linear and multi-level modelling to identify relationships between quality management systems at organization level; quality strategies at ED level for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture and stroke; clinician safety culture and leadership and patient-level outcomes of waiting time and length of stay. SETTING: Thirty-two large Australian public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Audit of quality management processes at organization and ED levels, senior quality manager at each of the 32 participating hospitals, 394 ED clinicians (doctors, nurses and allied health professionals). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Within the multi-level model, associations were assessed between organization-level quality measures and ED quality strategies; organization-level quality measures and ED quality strategies and ward-level clinician measures of teamwork climate (TC), safety climate (SC) and leadership for AMI, hip fracture and stroke treatment conditions; and organization-level quality measures and ED quality strategies and ward-level clinician measures of TC, SC and leadership, and ED waiting time and length of stay (performance). RESULTS: We found seven statistically significant associations between organization-level quality systems and ED-level quality strategies; four statistically significant associations between quality systems and strategies and ED safety culture and leadership; and nine statistically significant associations between quality systems and strategies and ED safety culture and leadership, and ED waiting time and length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Organization-level quality structures influence ED-level quality strategies, clinician safety culture and leadership and, ultimately, waiting time and length of stay for patients. By focusing only on time-based measures of ED performance we risk punishing EDs that perform well on patient safety measures. We need to better understand the trade-offs between implementing safety culture and quality strategies and improving patient flow in the ED, and to place more emphasis on other ED performance measures in addition to time.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Liderança , Gestão da Segurança , Austrália , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
12.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 35-42, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the influence that hospital quality systems have on quality at department level, in Australia and elsewhere. This study assessed the relationships between organizational-level quality management systems, and the extent to which hospital-level quality management systems and department-level quality management strategies are related. DESIGN: A multi-level, cross-sectional, mixed-method study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: As part of the Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) project, we invited all large hospitals in Australia (~200 or more beds) which provided acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture and stroke care. The quality managers of these hospitals were the respondents for one of seven measures of hospital quality management systems and strategies. Data across the six remaining measures were collected through site visits by external surveyors assessing the participating hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationships were assessed between three organization-level quality management system measures: a self-report measure assessing organization-level quality activities (quality management systems index, QMSI); externally assessed organization-level compliance to procedures used to plan, monitor and improve quality of care (quality management compliance index, QMCI); and externally assessed implementation of quality systems (clinical quality implementation index, CQII). Associations were also assessed between organization-level quality management systems and department-level quality management strategies: how clinical responsibilities are assigned for a particular condition; whether department organization processes are organized to facilitate evidence-based care recommendations; compliance with selected recommendations of international agencies; and whether clinical reviews are performed systematically. RESULTS: Of 78 invited hospitals, 32 participated in the study. QMSI was positively associated with QMCI and CQII, but after controlling for QMSI, no relationship was found between QMCI and CQII. There appears to be a cluster of relationships between QMSI and department-level measures, but this was not consistent across all departments. CONCLUSION: This is the first national study undertaken in Australia to assess relationships within and between organization-level and department-level quality management systems. These quality management system tools align with many components of accreditation standards and may be useful for hospitals in continuously monitoring and driving improvement.


Assuntos
Administração Hospitalar , Departamentos Hospitalares/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
13.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 89-98, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare accreditation surveyors are well positioned to gain access to hospitals and apply their existing data collection skills to research. Consequently, we contracted and trained a surveyor cohort to collect research data for the Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) project. The aim of this study is to explore and compare surveyors' perceptions and experiences in collecting quality and safety data for accreditation and for health services research. DESIGN: A qualitative, comparative study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten surveyors participated in semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and coded using Nvivo11. Interview transcripts of participants were analysed thematically and separately, providing an opportunity for comparison and for identifying common themes and subthemes. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Topics addressed data collection for healthcare accreditation and research, including preparation and training, structure, organization, attitudes and behaviours of staff and perceptions of their role. RESULTS: Five themes and ten subthemes emerged from the interviews: (1) overlapping facilitators for accreditation and research data collection, (2) accreditation-specific facilitators, (3) overlapping barriers for accreditation and research data collection, (4) research data collection-specific barriers and (5) needs and recommendations. Subthemes were (1.1) preparation and training availability, (1.2) prior knowledge and experiences; (2.1) ease of access, (2.2) high staff engagement, (3.1) time, (4.1) poor access and structure, (4.2) lack of staff engagement, (4.3) organizational changes; (5.1) short-notice accreditation and (5.2) preparation for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Although hospital accreditation and research activities require different approaches to data collection, we found that suitably trained accreditation surveyors were able to perform both activities effectively. The barriers surveyors encountered when collecting data for research provide insight into the challenges that may be faced when visiting hospitals for short-notice accreditation.


Assuntos
Acreditação/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
14.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 60-66, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the associations between the organization-level quality arrangements, improvement and implementation and department-level safety culture and leadership measures across 32 large Australian hospitals. DESIGN: Quantitative observational study, using linear and multi-level modelling to identify relationships between quality management systems and clinician safety culture and leadership. SETTING: Thirty-two large Australian public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Quality audit at organization level, senior quality manager at each participating hospital, 1382 clinicians (doctors, nurses and allied health professionals). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between organization-level quality measures and department-level clinician measures of teamwork climate, safety climate and leadership for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture and stroke treatment conditions. RESULTS: We received 1332 valid responses from participants. The quality management systems index (QMSI, a questionnaire-based measure of the hospitals' quality management structures) was 'positively' associated with all three department-level scales in the stroke department, with safety culture and leadership in the emergency department, but with none of the three scales in the AMI and hip fracture departments. The quality management compliance index (QMCI, an external audit-based measure of the quality improvement activities) was 'negatively' associated with teamwork climate and safety climate in AMI departments, after controlling for QMSI, but not in other departments. There was no association between QMCI and leadership in any department, after controlling for QMSI, and there was no association between the clinical quality implementation index (CQII, an external audit-based measure of the level of implementation of quality activities) and any of the three department-level scales in any of the four departments, after controlling for both QMSI and QMCI. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of organization-level quality management systems on clinician safety culture and leadership varied depending on the hospital department, suggesting that whilst there was some consistency on patient safety attitudes and behaviours throughout the organizations, there were also other factors at play.


Assuntos
Liderança , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Fraturas do Quadril , Administração Hospitalar , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Cultura Organizacional , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 84-88, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026936

RESUMO

This paper examines the principles of benchmarking in healthcare and how benchmarking can contribute to practice improvement and improved health outcomes for patients. It uses the Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) study published in this Supplement and DUQuA's predecessor in Europe, the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) study, as models. Benchmarking is where the performances of institutions or individuals are compared using agreed indicators or standards. The rationale for benchmarking is that institutions will respond positively to being identified as a low outlier or desire to be or stay as a high performer, or both, and patients will be empowered to make choices to seek care at institutions that are high performers. Benchmarking often begins with a conceptual framework that is based on a logic model. Such a framework can drive the selection of indicators to measure performance, rather than their selection being based on what is easy to measure. A Donabedian range of indicators can be chosen, including structure, process and outcomes, created around multiple domains or specialties. Indicators based on continuous variables allow organizations to understand where their performance is within a population, and their interdependencies and associations can be understood. Benchmarking should optimally target providers, in order to drive them towards improvement. The DUQuA and DUQuE studies both incorporated some of these principles into their design, thereby creating a model of how to incorporate robust benchmarking into large-scale health services research.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Austrália , Benchmarking/normas , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
16.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 75-83, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026937

RESUMO

Healthcare organisations vary in the degree to which they implement quality and safety systems and strategies. Large-scale cross-sectional studies have been implemented to explore whether this variation is associated with outcomes relevant at the patient level. The Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) study draws from earlier research of this type, to examine these issues in 32 Australian hospitals. This paper outlines the key implementation and analysis challenges faced by DUQuA. Many of the logistical difficulties of implementing DUQuA derived from compliance with the administratively complex and time-consuming Australian ethics and governance system designed principally to protect patients involved in clinical trials, rather than for low-risk health services research. The complexity of these processes is compounded by a lack of organizational capacity for multi-site health services research; research is expected to be undertaken in addition to usual work, not as part of it. These issues likely contributed to a relatively low recruitment rate for hospitals (41% of eligible hospitals). Both sets of issues need to be addressed by health services researchers, policymakers and healthcare administrators, if health services research is to flourish. Large-scale research also inevitably involves multiple measurements. The timing for applying these measures needs to be coherent, to maximise the likelihood of finding real relationships between quality and safety systems and strategies, and patient outcomes; this timing was less than ideal in DUQuA, in part due to administrative delays. Other issues that affected our study include low response rates for measures requiring recruitment of clinicians and patients, missing data and a design that necessarily included multiple statistical comparisons. We discuss how these were addressed. Successful completion of these projects relies on mutual and ongoing commitment, and two-way communication between the research team and hospital staff at all levels. This will help to ensure that enthusiasm and engagement are established and maintained.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Austrália , Coleta de Dados/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 67-74, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients can provide a unique perspective on the safety of care in hospitals. Understanding that the extent to which the way hospitals are organized for quality and safety is associated with patient perceptions of care is becoming increasingly valued and necessary for the direction of targeted interventions across healthcare systems. The UK-developed patient measure of safety (PMOS) assesses eight domains of ward safety from the patient point of view and has recently been adapted and piloted in Australia. The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of PMOS-Australia (PMOS-A) amongst a large cohort of hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire validation assessment. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: As part of the DUQuA project, the PMOS-A survey was distributed within acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture and stroke departments across 32 large public hospitals in Australia. Patients could complete the PMOS-A independently, or request the assistance of a family member/guardian, or staff on the wards-space was included to record mode of completion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken on a calibration sample to generate the model, and a validation sample was used to cross-validate the model. A subset of only those participants who received assistance for PMOS-A completion was also tested using CFA on a calibration and validation sample. Model fit indices (chi-square to degrees of freedom ratio [Chi-square:DF], root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA], comparative fit indices [CFI], standardized root mean squared residual [SRMR]), Cronbach's α, average inter-item correlations, construct reliability and cross-loadings were examined with reference to recommended thresholds to establish the extent of convergent validity and discriminant validity. A marker of criterion validity was assessed through testing associations between the PMOS-A and adherence to clinical guidelines. RESULTS: Across the calibration and validation samples of the full (N = 911) and assisted completers only subset (N = 490), three (Chi-square:DF, SRMR, RMSEA) of the four indices consistently or almost always met thresholds for acceptable model fit. CFI indices did not meet the recommended limits (0.72-0.78, against a target > 0.9). Positive relationships were found for all tests between PMOS-A and adherence to clinical guidelines, and these were significant when assessed in the calibration datasets for the full and assisted completion samples. CONCLUSION: A sufficiently reliable and valid measure of patient perceptions of safety has been developed. These findings should provide adequate support to justify the use of this measure to assess patient perceptions of safety in Australian hospitals and can be modified for use elsewhere.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pacientes , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
18.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 52-59, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to refine and validate a tool to measure safety culture and leadership in Australian hospitals. DESIGN: The clinician safety culture and leadership questionnaire was constructed by combining and refining the following two previously validated scales: Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and the Leadership Effectiveness Survey. Statistical processes were used to explore the factor structure, reliability, validity and descriptive statistics of the new instrument. SETTING: Thirty-two large Australian public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 1382 clinicians (doctors, nurses and allied health professionals). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Descriptive statistics, structure and validity of clinician safety culture and leadership scale. RESULTS: We received 1334 valid responses from participants. The distribution of ratings was left-skewed, with a small ceiling effect, meaning that scores were clustered toward the high end of the scale. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the structure of the three scales as a combined measure of safety culture and leadership. The data were divided into equal calibration and validation datasets. For the calibration dataset, the Chi-square: df ratio was 4.4, the root mean square error of approximation RMSEA (a measure of spread of the data) was 0.071, the standardized root mean square residual SRMR (an absolute measure of the fit of the data) was 0.058 and the Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) (another test confirming the fit of the data) was 0.82; while none of the indices suggested good fit, all but CFI fell within acceptable thresholds. All factors demonstrated adequate internal consistency and construct reliability, as desired. All three domains achieved discriminant validity through cross-loadings, meaning that the three domains were determined to be independent constructs. Results for the validation dataset were effectively identical to those found in the calibration dataset. CONCLUSIONS: While the model may benefit from additional refinement, we have validated the tool for measuring clinician safety culture and leadership in our Australian sample. The DUQuA safety culture and leadership scale can be used by Australian hospitals to assess clinician safety culture and leadership, and is readily modifiable for other health systems depending on their needs.


Assuntos
Liderança , Gestão da Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos
19.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 8-21, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) project is a multisite, multi-level, cross-sectional study of 32 of the largest hospitals in Australia. This overview examines relationships between (i) organization-level quality management systems and department-level quality management strategies and (ii) patient-level measures (clinical treatment processes, patient-reported perceptions of care and clinical outcomes) within Australian hospitals. DESIGN: We examined hospital quality improvement structures, processes and outcomes, collecting data at organization, department and patient levels for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture and stroke. Data sources included surveys of quality managers, clinicians and patients, hospital visits, medical record reviews and national databases. Outcomes data and patient admissions data were analysed. Relationships between measures were evaluated using multi-level models. We based the methods on the Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE) framework, extending that work in parts and customizing the design to Australian circumstances. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The 32 hospitals, containing 119 participating departments, provided wide representation across metropolitan, inner and outer regional Australia. We obtained 31 quality management, 1334 clinician and 857 patient questionnaires, and conducted 2401 medical record reviews and 151 external assessments. External data via a secondary source comprised 14 460 index patient admissions across 14 031 individual patients. Associations between hospital, Emergency Department (ED) and department-level systems and strategies and five patient-level outcomes were assessed: 19 of 165 associations (11.5%) were statistically significant, 12 of 79 positive associations (15.2%) and 7 of 85 negative associations (8.2%). RESULTS: We did not find clear relationships between hospital-level quality management systems, ED or department quality strategies and patient-level outcomes. ED-level clinical reviews were related to adherence to clinical practice guidelines for AMI, hip fracture and stroke, but in different directions. The results, when considered alongside the DUQuE results, are suggestive that front line interventions may be more influential than department-level interventions when shaping quality of care and that multi-pronged strategies are needed. Benchmark reports were sent to each participating hospital, stimulating targeted quality improvement activities. CONCLUSIONS: We found no compelling relationships between the way care is organized and the quality of care across three targeted patient-level outcome conditions. The study was cross-sectional, and thus we recommend that the relationships studied should be assessed for changes across time. Tracking care longitudinally so that quality improvement activities are monitored and fed back to participants is an important initiative that should be given priority as health systems strive to develop their capacity for quality improvement over time.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 1-7, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821447

RESUMO

With this paper, we initiate the Supplement on Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA). DUQuA is an at-scale, cross-sectional research programme examining the quality activities in 32 large hospitals across Australia. It is based on, with suitable modifications and extensions, the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) research programme, also published as a Supplement in this Journal, in 2014. First, we briefly discuss key data about Australia, the health of its population and its health system. Then, to provide context for the work, we discuss previous activities on the quality of care and improvement leading up to the DUQuA studies. Next, we present a selection of key interventional studies and policy and institutional initiatives to date. Finally, we conclude by outlining, in brief, the aims and scope of the articles that follow in the Supplement. This first article acts as a framing vehicle for the DUQuA studies as a whole. Aggregated, the series of papers collectively attempts an answer to the questions: what is the relationship between quality strategies, both hospital-wide and at department level? and what are the relationships between the way care is organised, and the actual quality of care as delivered? Papers in the Supplement deal with a multiplicity of issues including: how the DUQuA investigators made progress over time, what the results mean in context, the scales designed or modified along the way for measuring the quality of care, methodological considerations and provision of lessons learnt for the benefit of future researchers.


Assuntos
Hospitais/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Austrália , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos
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