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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635279

RESUMO

This Viewpoint calls for health care systems, oncologists, and staff to prioritize and adopt policies that are inclusive and respectful of transgender patients with cancer.

2.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 9(5): 101450, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550369

RESUMO

Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma with initial bulk is unclear. GITIL/FIL HD0607 and FIL HD0801, 2 randomized controlled trials with similar design and methodologies, did not identify a benefit to consolidative RT after a metabolic complete response to 6 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine. However, their limited sample sizes reduced statistical power to detect a small but clinically meaningful benefit to RT. Methods and Materials: In a secondary analysis of these 2 phase 3 trials, reconstructed patient data were used to compare outcomes for early and complete responders randomized to no RT or RT to the site(s) of initial bulk. Estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were generated using the combined data and compared between groups using the log-rank test. Results: A total of 412 patients were included in the ITT analysis, and 373 patients were included in the PP analysis. Median age was 30 to 32 years, 42% of patients were stage IIB, and 73% of bulky sites were located in the mediastinum. For the no RT versus RT groups, 5-year ITT PFS estimates were 90.1% versus 90.1%, respectively (P = .81). Five-year PP PFS rates were 90.9% versus 92.9%, respectively (P = .31). There was no observed difference between no RT and RT groups in subgroups according to size of bulky disease: 5 to 7 cm (P = .78), 7 to 10 cm (P = .25), and >10 cm (P = .69). Conclusions: In this combined analysis of 2 randomized phase 3 clinical trials, consolidative RT to initial sites of bulky nodal involvement was not associated with a PFS benefit in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in metabolic complete response after 2 and 6 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine.

3.
Ethn Health ; 29(3): 309-327, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To solicit information/suggestions from prostate cancer survivors to improve survivorship experiences specific to work/workability. DESIGN: The study employed a qualitative/phenomenological approach. Black/African-American and white prostate cancer survivors who: (1) had prostatectomy or radiation therapy 6-36 months prior, (2) were working for pay within 30 days before having treatment, and (3) expected to be working for pay 6 months later (n = 45) were eligible for this study. Survivors were engaged in 60-to-90-minute structured interviews. Content analysis was used to ascertain prominent themes. RESULTS: Participants had the following recommendations for survivors: ask about research on treatment options and side effects; speak with other survivors about cancer diagnosis; and inform family/friends and employers about needed accommodations. Considerations for family/friends emphasized the significance of instrumental (e.g. help finding information) and emotional support (e.g. encouragement). Employer/co-worker considerations most often related to work-related accommodations/support and avoiding stigmatization of the survivor. Considerations for healthcare providers commonly included the provision of unbiased, plain-language communication about treatment options and side effects. No major differences existed by race. CONCLUSIONS: Needs of employed PrCA survivors, regardless of their race or treatment type, are commonly related to their desire for informational, instrumental, and/or emotional support from family/friends, employers/co-workers, and healthcare providers. The requested supports are most often related to the side effects of prostate cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobrevivência , Brancos
4.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 23: 15330338231222137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186361

RESUMO

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer and often, despite advances in fractionated dosing schedules, produces undesirable skin toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a keratin-based topical cream, KeraStat® Cream (KC; KeraNetics, Inc., Winston Salem, NC, USA) to manage the symptoms of radiation dermatitis (RD) in breast cancer patients undergoing RT. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 subjects were enrolled on this single-center, randomized, open-label study. Participants were randomly assigned to KC or standard of care (SOC, patient's choice of a variety of readily available creams or moisturizers). Patients were asked to apply the assigned treatment to the irradiated area twice daily, beginning with day 1 of RT, through 30 days post-RT. The primary outcome was compliance of use. Secondary outcomes included safety and tolerability of KC, as well as RD severity assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale and the patient-reported Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Results: All subjects in the KC group were assessed as compliant with no adverse events. The rate of RTOG Grade 2 RD was lower in the KC group (30.8%) compared to the SOC group (54.5%, P = .408). At the final RT visit, the mean RTOG RD score was lower in the KC group (1.0) versus the SOC group (1.4). Similarly, patient-reported quality of life measured by the DLQI at the end of RT was improved in the KC group (mean 4.25, small effect) versus the SOC group (mean 6.18, moderate effect, P = .412). Conclusions: KC was safe and well tolerated with no adverse events. Though efficacy measures were not powered to draw definitive conclusions, trends and clinical assessments suggest that there is a benefit of using KC compared to SOC for breast cancer patients treated with RT, and a larger powered study for efficacy is warranted. Trial Registry: This clinical trial is registered as NCT03374995 titled KeraStat(R) Cream for Radiation Dermatitis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Radiodermite , Humanos , Feminino , Queratinas , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiodermite/etiologia
5.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 38(1): 1-12, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37673697

RESUMO

Inequity exists along the continuum of cancer and cancer care delivery in the United States. Marginalized populations have later stage cancer at diagnosis, decreased likelihood of receiving cancer-directed care, and worse outcomes from treatment. These inequities are driven by historical, structural, systemic, interpersonal, and internalized factors that influence cancer across the pathologic and clinical continuum. To ensure equity in cancer care, interventions are needed at the level of policy, care delivery, interpersonal communication, diversity within the clinical workforce, and clinical trial accessibility and design.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Neoplasias , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Assistência Perinatal , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 64(13): 2202-2207, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37671707

RESUMO

Low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT), defined in this study as 2 fractions of 4 Gy delivered on consecutive days, is an effective option for local palliation of mycosis fungoides (MF), but its efficacy for tumoral lesions (TL) needs investigation. We assessed response and local control (LC) rates for patients treated with LDRT for MF and compared these outcomes between TL and non-TL. A total of 73 lesions in 18 patients treated with LDRT between 2013-2020 were analyzed. Response was defined as complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or no response (NR). In the non-TL versus TL groups, CR was observed in 16.7% v. 4.0%, PR in 81.2% v. 80.0%, NR in 2.1% v. 16.0%, respectively. 2-year LC was 100% for non-TL and 61% for TLs (p < 0.01). LDRT yields excellent response and lesion control for non-TLs and is associated with lower response rates and LC for TLs.


Low-dose radiation therapy yields excellent response and lesion control for non-tumoral lesions.


Assuntos
Micose Fungoide , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Micose Fungoide/diagnóstico , Micose Fungoide/radioterapia , Micose Fungoide/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 9(5): 719-722, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995727

RESUMO

This case-control study assesses the prevalence of patient-reported delayed or forgone care due to patient-clinician identity discordance among cancer survivors and factors associated with this barrier to care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Humanos , Prevalência , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(3)2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36765713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common therapeutic complication affecting cancer patients' quality-of-life. We evaluated clinical characteristics, demographics, and lifestyle factors in association with CIPN following taxane treatment. METHODS: Data were extracted from the electronic health record of 3387 patients diagnosed with a primary cancer and receiving taxane (i.e., paclitaxel or docetaxel) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Neuropathy was assessed via a validated computer algorithm. Univariate and multivariate regression models were applied to evaluate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CIPN-associated factors. RESULTS: Female sex (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.62), high body-mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.61 for overweight, and OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.21-1.83 for obesity), diabetes (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.34-2.06), high mean taxane dose (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.08 per 10 mg/m2), and more treatment cycles (1.12, 95% CI = 1.10-1.14) were positively associated with CIPN. Concurrent chemotherapy (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94) and concurrent radiotherapy (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00) were inversely associated with CIPN. Obesity and diabetes both had a stronger association with docetaxel CIPN compared to paclitaxel, although interaction was only significant for diabetes and taxane (p = 0.019). Increased BMI was associated with CIPN only among non-diabetic patients (OR:1.34 for overweight and 1.68 for obesity), while diabetes increased CIPN risk across all BMI strata (ORs were 2.65, 2.41, and 2.15 for normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively) compared to normal-weight non-diabetic patients (p for interaction = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, obesity, and diabetes are significantly associated with taxine-induced CIPN. Further research is needed to identify clinical and pharmacologic strategies to prevent and mitigate CIPN in at-risk patient populations.

9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 116(2): 334-347, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669542

RESUMO

Disproportionate sex, racial, and ethnic diversity remains in the radiation oncology physician workforce despite widespread awareness and longitudinal efforts to improve representation. In this collaborative review, we define the rationale and components of holistic review and how it can be best used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of applicants to residency programs in radiation oncology. We initially discuss the current state of diversity in the field of radiation oncology and highlight the components of the residency selection process that may serve to perpetuate existing biases. Subsequently, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Association of American Medical Colleges holistic review framework is reviewed in detail to demonstrate the balanced assessment of potential applicants. The implementation of holistic review in medical school and residency selection to date is examined to underscore the potential value of holistic review in the radiation oncology residency selection process. Finally, recommendations for the practical implementation of holistic review in radiation oncology trainee selection are outlined.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Humanos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Acreditação , Diversidade Cultural
10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 19(2): e197-e212, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399692

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compared with conventional external-beam radiation therapy (cEBRT) for patients with breast cancer (BC) and prostate cancer (PC), shorter radiation regimens may be associated with lower treatment noncompletion rates. We assess disparities in receipt of shorter radiation regimens and treatment noncompletion for BC and PC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 2004-2017 National Cancer Database was queried for adjuvant cEBRT or hypofractionated EBRT (hEBRT) for nonmetastatic BC; and definitive cEBRT, moderate hypofractionation (mEBRT), or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized PC. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with treatment noncompletion and receipt of shorter regimens. FINDINGS: We identified 170,386 men with PC (median age [interquartile range], 70 [64-75] years; Black, 17.5%; White, 82.5%) and 306,846 women with BC (61 [52-69] years; Black, 12.3%; White, 87.7%). Among patients who received cEBRT for PC, Black men had higher treatment noncompletion rates compared with White (14.1% v 13.0%; odds ratio [95% CI] 1.07 [1.03 to 1.12]; P < .001). In contrast, treatment noncompletion was not disparate with SBRT (Black 1.6% v White 1.3%; 1.20 [0.72 to 2.00], P = .49) or mEBRT (Black 9.0% v White 7.1%; 1.05 [0.72 to 1.54], P = .79). From 2004 to 2017, SBRT (0.07% to 11.8%; 1.32 [1.31 to 1.33]) and mEBRT (0.35% to 9.1%; 1.27 [1.25 to 1.28]) increased (both P < .001); however, Black men were consistently less likely to receive SBRT (7.4% v White, 8.3%; 0.84 [0.79 to 0.89], P < .001). Among women with BC, there were no racial differences in treatment noncompletion; however, hEBRT was associated with lower treatment noncompletion rates (1.0% v cEBRT 2.3%; 0.39 [0.35 to 0.44], P < .001). Although hEBRT for BC increased (0.8% to 35.6%) between 2004 and 2017, Black women were less likely to receive hEBRT (10.4% v 15.3%; 0.78 [0.75 to 0.81], P < .001). INTERPRETATION: Black patients were consistently less likely to receive hypofractionated radiation for PC or BC, despite evidence suggesting that shorter regimens may lower rates of treatment noncompletion with similar oncologic outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Radiocirurgia , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação
12.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 10(2): 501-508, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reduced access and utilization of radiation therapy (RT) is a well-documented healthcare disparity observed among racial and ethnic minority groups in the USA and a contributor to the inferior health outcomes observed among Black, Hispanic, and Native American patient groups. What is less understood are the points during the process of care following RT consultation at which patients either fail to complete their prescribed treatment or encounter delays. Identification of those points where significant differences exist among different patient groups may help identify opportunities to close gaps in the access of clinically indicated RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This analysis examines 261,559 RT episodes abstracted from Medicare claims and beneficiary data between 2016 and 2018 to determine rates of treatment initiation following planning and timeliness of treatment completion for different racial groups. RESULTS: Failure to initiate treatment was observed to be 29.3% relatively greater for Black, Hispanic, and Native American patients than for White and Asian patients. Among episodes for which treatment was initiated, Black and Hispanic patients were observed to require a significantly greater number of calendar days (when adjusted for fraction number) for completion than for White, Asian, and Native American patients. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a patient cohort for which RT disparities may be more marginal in their effects-allowing for access to consultation and treatment prescription but not for treatment initiation or timely completion of treatment-and may therefore permit effective solutions to help address current differences in cancer outcomes.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Medicare , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Grupos Minoritários , Grupos Raciais
13.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 12(2): 159-167, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475705

RESUMO

Purpose: Costs of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and mammograms are a primary barrier for women aged 18-39 seeking screening and diagnostic services. Race/ethnicity and rural/border resident status compound their risks for delayed diagnosis, possibly resulting in higher mortality. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from young adult (YA) women (aged 18-39) from a cancer education and patient navigation (PN) program in rural and border Texas from 2012 to 2016. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and logistic regressions summarized sociodemographic variables and receipt of PN, Pap tests, and mammograms. Results: The sample consisted of 1181 women aged 31.8 years (standard deviation 5.5) on average. A total of 795 (67.3%) received PN, 494 (41.8%) received a Pap test, and 121 (10.3%) received a mammogram. The YA women attending the program due to cost (odds ratio [OR]: 7.24; confidence interval [CI]: 4.74-11.05) and reporting 1 (OR: 3.84; CI: 2.40-6.14) or 2+ barriers (OR: 6.00; CI: 3.61-9.99) had higher odds of being navigated than those not concerned about cost and not identifying a barrier. The YA women attending due to cost (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.61-3.05) and receiving navigation (OR: 1.92; CI: 1.29-2.84) had higher odds of receiving a Pap test than their counterparts. The majority receiving a mammogram were worried about cost (85.1%); 40.5% had a family history of breast cancer, and a doctor or nurse recommended a mammogram for 15.7%. Conclusion: Detection of cervical and breast cancer in YA women residing in rural and border Texas may be improved with PN to assist with financial barriers to care and service coordination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Teste de Papanicolaou , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Texas , Esfregaço Vaginal , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178811

RESUMO

Background: Little research exists on delayed and forgone health and mental health care due to cost among rural cancer survivors. Methods: We surveyed survivors in 7 primarily rural, Appalachian counties February to May 2020. Univariable analyses examined the distribution and prevalence of delayed/forgone care due to cost in the past year by independent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's tests examined bivariable differences. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of delayed/forgone care due to cost. Results: Respondents (n=428), aged 68.6 years on average (SD: 12.0), were 96.3% non-Hispanic white and 49.8% female; 25.0% reported delayed/forgone care due to cost. The response rate was 18.5%. The proportion of delayed/forgone care for those aged 18-64 years was 46.7% and 15.0% for those aged 65+ years (P<0.0001). Females aged 65+ years (OR: 2.00; CI: 1.02-3.93) had double the odds of delayed/forgone care due to cost compared to males aged 65+ years. Conclusion: About one in four rural cancer survivors reported delayed/forgone care due to cost, with rates approaching 50% in survivors aged <65 years. Impact: Clinical implications indicate the need to: 1) ask about the impact of care costs, and 2) provide supportive services to mitigate effects of treatment costs, particularly for younger and female survivors.

16.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 22(8): 762-770, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking during breast radiotherapy (RT) may be associated with radiation-induced skin injury (RISI). We aimed to determine if a urinary biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased rates of RISI during and after breast RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with Stage 0-IIIA breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy followed by RT to the breast or chest wall with or without regional nodal irradiation were prospectively enrolled on a multicenter study assessing acute/late RISI. 980 patients with urinary cotinine (UCot) measurements (baseline and end-RT) were categorized into three groups. Acute and late RISI was assessed using the ONS Acute Skin Reaction scale and the LENT-SOMA Criteria. RESULTS: Late Grade 2+ and Grade 3+ RISI occurred in 18.2% and 1.9% of patients, respectively-primarily fibrosis, pain, edema, and hyperpigmentation. Grade 2+ late RISI was associated with UCot group (P= 006). Multivariable analysis identified UCot-based light smoker/secondhand smoke exposure (HR 1.79, P= .10) and smoking (HR 1.60, p = .06) as non-significantly associated with an increased risk of late RISI. Hypofractionated breast RT was associated with decreased risk of late RISI (HR 0.51, P=.03). UCot was not associated with acute RISI, multivariable analysis identified race, obesity, RT site/fractionation, and bra size to be associated with acute RISI. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco exposure during breast RT may be associated with an increased risk of late RISI without an effect on acute toxicity. Smoking cessation should be encouraged prior to radiotherapy to minimize these and other ill effects of smoking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Lesões por Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(11): 1381-1386, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986825

RESUMO

Unconditional (upfront) incentives are proposed to improve acceptance of cancer research among underrepresented, racial/ethnic minority populations, but few studies have tested incentive strategies among rural cancer survivors. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic characteristics of survey respondents, and response rates by arm were compared using Chi-square tests. We compared upfront ($2) and response-based ($10 conditional) incentives in a mailed survey of adult post-treatment rural survivors. Individuals meeting eligibility criteria from the electronic medical record (n = 2,830) were randomized into two incentive arms (n = 1,414 for the upfront arm and n = 1,416 for the contingent arm). Of the total delivered, presumed eligible participants (n = 1,304 upfront arm; n = 1,317 contingent arm), 67.8% were aged 65y+, 49.8% were female, and 95.1% were non-Hispanic white. The response rate for all participants was 18.5%. We received eligible surveys from 281 rural survivors in the first arm (response rate: 21.5%); and 205 surveys in the second arm (response rate: 15.6%). Participants who received the upfront incentive had a higher response rate than those receiving a response-based incentive, X2 (1, 2,621) = 15.53, p < 0.0001. Incentivizing survey completion with an upfront $2 bill encouraged a higher survey response rate; other supplemental strategies are needed to achieve a higher response rate for this population.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Motivação , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Cancer ; 128(18): 3278-3283, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818772

RESUMO

Although Medicaid Expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been associated with many improvements for patients with cancer, Snyder et al. provide evidence demonstrating the persistence of racial disparities in cancer. This Editorial describes why insurance coverage alone does not ensure access to health care, highlights various manifestations of structural racism that constitute barriers to access beyond the direct costs of care, and calls for not just equality, but equity, in cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Medicaid , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(19): 2163-2171, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588469

RESUMO

A concerted commitment across research stakeholders is necessary to increase equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) and address barriers to cancer clinical trial recruitment and participation. Racial and ethnic diversity among trial participants is key to understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may affect patient response to cancer treatments. This ASCO and Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC) Research Statement presents specific recommendations and strategies for the research community to improve EDI in cancer clinical trials. There are six overarching recommendations: (1) clinical trials are an integral component of high-quality cancer care, and every person with cancer should have the opportunity to participate; (2) trial sponsors and investigators should design and implement trials with a focus on reducing barriers and enhancing EDI, and work with sites to conduct trials in ways that increase participation of under-represented populations; (3) trial sponsors, researchers, and sites should form long-standing partnerships with patients, patient advocacy groups, and community leaders and groups; (4) anyone designing or conducting trials should complete recurring education, training, and evaluation to demonstrate and maintain cross-cultural competencies, mitigation of bias, effective communication, and a commitment to achieving EDI; (5) research stakeholders should invest in programs and policies that increase EDI in trials and in the research workforce; and (6) research stakeholders should collect and publish aggregate data on racial and ethnic diversity of trial participants when reporting results of trials, programs, and interventions to increase EDI. The recommendations are intended to serve as a guide for the research community to improve participation rates among people from racial and ethnic minority populations historically under-represented in cancer clinical trials. ASCO and ACCC will work at all levels to advance the recommendations in this publication.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Etnicidade , Neoplasias , Seleção de Pacientes , Humanos , Oncologia , Grupos Minoritários , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1363-1371, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388674

RESUMO

The 2020 U.S. Census data show a rapidly diversifying U.S. population. We sought to evaluate whether clinical faculty and leadership representation at academic medical schools reflects the diversifying population over time. Using data from the Association of American Medical Colleges for the period of 1977 through 2019, we found notable progress in female representation among clinical faculty, with smaller gains among department chairs and medical school deans. Racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine are designated as such because their presence within the medical profession is disproportionate to the U.S. Census data. Even with accounting for this underrepresentation, clinical faculty and leadership positions show even starker disparities. Thoughtful policy implementation could help address this persistent underrepresentation among medical school faculty and leadership positions.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Diversidade Cultural , Etnicidade , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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