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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485690

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The acquisition of somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor stem cells (HSPCs) with resultant clonal expansion, termed clonal hematopoiesis (CH), is associated with increased risk of hematologic malignancies and other adverse outcomes. CH is generally present at low allelic fractions, but clonal expansion and acquisition of additional mutations leads to hematologic cancers in a small proportion of individuals. With high depth and high sensitivity sequencing, CH can be detected in most adults and its clonal trajectory mapped over time. However, accurate CH variant calling is challenging due to the difficulty in distinguishing low frequency CH mutations from sequencing artifacts. The lack of well-validated bioinformatic pipelines for CH calling may contribute to lack of reproducibility in studies of CH. RESULTS: ArCH, an Artifact filtering Clonal Hematopoiesis variant calling pipeline for detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and short insertions/deletions (INDELs) by combining the output of four variant calling tools and filtering based on variant characteristics and sequencing error rate estimation. ArCH is an end-to-end cloud-based pipeline optimized to accept a variety of inputs with customizable parameters adaptable to multiple sequencing technologies, research questions, and datasets. Using deep targeted sequencing data generated from six AML patient tumor: normal dilutions, 31 blood samples with orthogonal validation, and 21 blood samples with technical replicates, we show that ArCH improves the sensitivity and positive predictive value of CH variant detection at low allele frequencies compared to standard application of commonly used variant calling approaches. AVAILABILITY: The code for this workflow is available at: https://github.com/kbolton-lab/ArCH. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 192(6): 995-1005, 2023 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36804665

RESUMO

Data sharing is essential for reproducibility of epidemiologic research, replication of findings, pooled analyses in consortia efforts, and maximizing study value to address multiple research questions. However, barriers related to confidentiality, costs, and incentives often limit the extent and speed of data sharing. Epidemiological practices that follow Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) principles can address these barriers by making data resources findable with the necessary metadata, accessible to authorized users, and interoperable with other data, to optimize the reuse of resources with appropriate credit to its creators. We provide an overview of these principles and describe approaches for implementation in epidemiology. Increasing degrees of FAIRness can be achieved by moving data and code from on-site locations to remote, accessible ("Cloud") data servers, using machine-readable and nonproprietary files, and developing open-source code. Adoption of these practices will improve daily work and collaborative analyses and facilitate compliance with data sharing policies from funders and scientific journals. Achieving a high degree of FAIRness will require funding, training, organizational support, recognition, and incentives for sharing research resources, both data and code. However, these costs are outweighed by the benefits of making research more reproducible, impactful, and equitable by facilitating the reuse of precious research resources by the scientific community.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade , Disseminação de Informação , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Estudos Epidemiológicos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 438, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013336

RESUMO

The likely genetic architecture of complex diseases is that subgroups of patients share variants in genes in specific networks sufficient to express a shared phenotype. We combined high throughput sequencing with advanced bioinformatic approaches to identify such subgroups of patients with variants in shared networks. We performed targeted sequencing of patients with 2 or 3 generations of preterm birth on genes, gene sets and haplotype blocks that were highly associated with preterm birth. We analyzed the data using a multi-sample, protein-protein interaction (PPI) tool to identify significant clusters of patients associated with preterm birth. We identified shared protein interaction networks among preterm cases in two statistically significant clusters, p < 0.001. We also found two small control-dominated clusters. We replicated these data on an independent, large birth cohort. Separation testing showed significant similarity scores between the clusters from the two independent cohorts of patients. Canonical pathway analysis of the unique genes defining these clusters demonstrated enrichment in inflammatory signaling pathways, the glucocorticoid receptor, the insulin receptor, EGF and B-cell signaling, These results support a genetic architecture defined by subgroups of patients that share variants in genes in specific networks and pathways which are sufficient to give rise to the disease phenotype.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Science ; 373(6558): 1030-1035, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385354

RESUMO

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Dano ao DNA , Desmetilação do DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Mutagênese , Oócitos/fisiologia , Transcrição Gênica
5.
Genome Res ; 31(9): 1513-1518, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301630

RESUMO

The number of de novo mutations (DNMs) in the human germline is correlated with parental age at conception, but this explains only part of the observed variation. We investigated whether there is a family-specific contribution to the number of DNMs in offspring. The analysis of DNMs in 111 dizygotic twin pairs did not identify a substantial family-specific contribution. This result was corroborated by comparing DNMs of 1669 siblings to those of age-matched unrelated offspring following correction for parental age. In addition, by modeling DNM data from 1714 multi-offspring families, we estimated that the family-specific contribution explains ∼5.2% of the variation in DNM number. Furthermore, we found no substantial difference between the observed number of DNMs and those predicted by a stochastic Poisson process. We conclude that there is a small family-specific contribution to DNM number and that stochasticity explains a large proportion of variation in DNM counts.


Assuntos
Células Germinativas , Humanos , Mutação
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17797, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082495

RESUMO

Cesarean section (CS) is recognized as being a shared environmental risk factor associated with chronic immune disease. A study of maternal gene expression changes between different delivery modes can add to our understanding of how CS contributes to disease patterns later in life. We evaluated the association of delivery mode with postpartum gene expression using a cross-sectional study of 324 mothers who delivered full-term (≥ 37 weeks) singletons. Of these, 181 mothers had a vaginal delivery and 143 had a CS delivery (60 with and 83 without labor). Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) were upregulated in vaginal delivery compared to CS with or without labor. Peptidase inhibitor 3 (PI3), a gene in the antimicrobial peptide pathway and known to be involved in antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, showed a twofold increase in vaginal delivery compared to CS with or without labor (adjusted p-value 1.57 × 10-11 and 3.70 × 10-13, respectively). This study evaluates differences in gene expression by delivery mode and provides evidence of antimicrobial peptide upregulation in vaginal delivery compared to CS with or without labor. Further exploration is needed to determine if AMP upregulation provides protection against CS-associated diseases later in life.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Elafina , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
8.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 37(6): 475-488, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427521

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer with high cure rates leading to rising numbers of long-term survivors. Adult survivors of childhood ALL are at increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic illnesses. We hypothesize that ALL therapy is associated with long-term gut microbiome alterations that contribute to predisposition to chronic medical conditions. We conducted a pilot study to test whether differences can be detected between stool microbiota of pediatric ALL survivors and their siblings. Stool samples were collected from 38 individuals under age 19 who were at least 1 year after completion of therapy for ALL. Stool samples collected from 16 healthy siblings served as controls. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the stool samples. Comparing microbiota of survivors to sibling controls, no statistically significant differences were found in alpha or beta diversity. However, among the top 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from component 1 in sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) with different relative abundance in survivors versus siblings, OTUs mapping to the genus Faecalibacterium were depleted in survivors. Differences in gut microbial composition were found between pediatric survivors of childhood ALL and their siblings. Specifically, the protective Faecalibacterium is depleted in survivors, which is reminiscent of gut microbiota alteration found in adult survivors of childhood ALL and reported in obesity, suggesting that microbiota alterations in pediatric ALL survivors start in childhood and may play a role in predisposition to chronic illness in later years of survivorship.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Faecalibacterium , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/microbiologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Faecalibacterium/classificação , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): 565-570, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urinary tract was once thought to be sterile, and little is known about the urinary microbiome in children. This study aimed to examine the urinary microbiome of young children across demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: Children <48 months, undergoing a urinary catheterization for clinical purposes in the Pediatric Emergency Department were recruited and urine samples collected. Detailed demographic and clinical information were recorded. Urine samples underwent DNA extraction and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, urinalysis and urine culture. RESULTS: Eighty-five children were included; a urinary microbiome was identified in every child. Nine children had Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs) identified. Those with UTIs had a significantly decreased alpha diversity (t test, P < 0.001) and the composition of the microbiome clustered separately (P = 0.001) compared with those without UTIs. CONCLUSIONS: A urinary microbiome was identified in every child, even neonates. Differences in microbiome diversity and composition were observed in patients with a standard culture positive UTI. The urinary microbiome has just begun to be explored, and the implications on long-term disease processes deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Escherichia coli/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cateterismo Urinário , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
10.
Microorganisms ; 8(2)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012716

RESUMO

The meconium microbiome may provide insight into intrauterine and peripartum exposures and the very earliest intestinal pioneering microbes. Prenatal antibiotics have been associated with later obesity in children, which is thought to be driven by microbiome dependent mechanisms. However, there is little data regarding associations of prenatal or peripartum antibiotic exposure, with or without cesarean section (CS), with the features of the meconium microbiome. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on bacterial DNA of meconium samples from 105 infants in a birth cohort study. After multivariable adjustment, delivery mode (p = 0.044), prenatal antibiotic use (p = 0.005) and peripartum antibiotic use (p < 0.001) were associated with beta diversity of the infant meconium microbiome. CS (vs. vaginal delivery) and peripartum antibiotics were also associated with greater alpha diversity of the meconium microbiome (Shannon and Simpson, p < 0.05). Meconium from infants born by CS (vs. vaginal delivery) had lower relative abundance of the genus Escherichia (p < 0.001). Prenatal antibiotic use and peripartum antibiotic use (both in the overall analytic sample and when restricting to vaginally delivered infants) were associated with differential abundance of several bacterial taxa in the meconium. Bacterial taxa in the meconium microbiome were also differentially associated with infant excess weight at 12 months of age, however, sample size was limited for this comparison. In conclusion, prenatal and peripartum antibiotic use along with CS delivery were associated with differences in the diversity and composition of the meconium microbiome. Whether or not these differences in the meconium microbiome portend risk for long-term health outcomes warrants further exploration.

11.
Child Obes ; 16(1): 59-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596604

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Understanding the influence of genetically determined ancestry may give insight into the disparities of obesity seen in different ethnic groups beginning at a very early age. Aim: To investigate the relationship between children's ancestral genetic proportions and excess weight at 12 months of age. Methods: Eight hundred twenty-one 12-month-old children were included in this cross-sectional study. Their genetic admixture was estimated using the ancestry and kinship tool kit by projecting the samples into the 1000 Genomes principal component database. Weight-for-length percentile (WFLP) at 12 months of age was categorized as <95th percentile or ≥95th percentile. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of admixture proportions, including European (EUR), admixed American (AMR), African (AFR), South Asian (SAS), and East Asian (EAS) populations, with WFLP categories, adjusting for maternal education, birth weight, frequency of breastfeeding, and juice consumption. Results: Eight hundred twenty-one children were included; WFLP <95th percentile = 671 (81.7%) and WFLP ≥95th percentile = 150 (18.3%). Crude ORs showed that the EUR admixture was protective [OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.27-0.74)], whereas AMR [OR 3.85 (95% CI 1.92-7.70)] and AFR [OR 5.70 (95% CI 2.19-14.85)] admixtures were positively associated with excess weight. After adjusting for confounding variables, only the AFR admixture was associated with WFLP ≥95th percentile [OR 7.38 (95% CI 2.31-23.59)]. Conclusions: AFRs remain associated with early excess weight after accounting for confounding variables, suggesting that this ancestral genetic background may contribute to the differences seen in early childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Grupos Raciais/genética , Estatura/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fenômenos Genéticos/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Genes Immun ; 21(1): 27-36, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635658

RESUMO

The study objective was to test the hypothesis that having histocompatible children increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), possibly by contributing to the persistence of fetal cells acquired during pregnancy. We conducted a case control study using data from the UC San Francisco Mother Child Immunogenetic Study and studies at the Inova Translational Medicine Institute. We imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags). We created a variable of exposure to histocompatible children. We estimated an average sequence similarity matching (SSM) score for each mother based on discordant mother-child alleles as a measure of histocompatibility. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 138 RA, 117 SLE, and 913 control mothers were analyzed. Increased risk of RA was associated with having any child compatible at HLA-B (OR 1.9; 1.2-3.1), DPB1 (OR 1.8; 1.2-2.6) or DQB1 (OR 1.8; 1.2-2.7). Compatibility at mHag ZAPHIR was associated with reduced risk of SLE among mothers carrying the HLA-restriction allele B*07:02 (n = 262; OR 0.4; 0.2-0.8). Our findings support the hypothesis that mother-child histocompatibility is associated with risk of RA and SLE.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Adulto , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/metabolismo , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/metabolismo , Histocompatibilidade/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
13.
J Comput Biol ; 26(5): 405-419, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942611

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing enables advances in the clinical application of genomics by providing high-throughput detection of genomic variation. However, next-generation sequencing technologies, especially whole-genome sequencing (WGS), are often associated with a high false-positive rate. Trio-based WGS can contribute significantly towards improved quality control methods. Mendelian-inconsistent calls (MIC) in parent-child trios are commonly attributed to erroneous sequencing calls, as the true de novo mutation rate is extremely low compared with MIC incidence. Here, we analyzed WGS data from 1314 mother, father, and child trios across ethnically diverse populations with the goal of characterizing MIC. Genotype calls in a trio can be used to assign different signatures to MIC. MIC occur more frequently within repeats but show varying distribution and error mechanisms across repeat types. MIC are enriched within poly-A/T runs in short interspersed nuclear elements. Alignability scores, allele balance, and relative parental read depth vary among MIC signatures and these differences should be considered when designing filters for MIC reduction. MIC cluster in germline deletions and these MIC also segregate with population. Our results provide a basis for making decisions on how each MIC type should be evaluated before discarding them as errors or including them in alternative applications. With the reduction of sequencing cost, family trio whole genome and exome analysis are being performed more routinely in clinical practice. We provide a reference that can be used for annotating MIC with their frequencies in a larger population to aid in the filtering of candidate de novo mutations.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Alelos , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5819-5827, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833390

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) complications are the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in children. By using whole blood samples, we integrated whole-genome sequencing (WGS), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and DNA methylation data for 270 PTB and 521 control families. We analyzed this combined dataset to identify genomic variants associated with PTB and secondary analyses to identify variants associated with very early PTB (VEPTB) as well as other subcategories of disease that may contribute to PTB. We identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and methylated genomic loci and performed expression and methylation quantitative trait loci analyses to link genomic variants to these expression and methylation changes. We performed enrichment tests to identify overlaps between new and known PTB candidate gene systems. We identified 160 significant genomic variants associated with PTB-related phenotypes. The most significant variants, DEGs, and differentially methylated loci were associated with VEPTB. Integration of all data types identified a set of 72 candidate biomarker genes for VEPTB, encompassing genes and those previously associated with PTB. Notably, PTB-associated genes RAB31 and RBPJ were identified by all three data types (WGS, RNA-seq, and methylation). Pathways associated with VEPTB include EGFR and prolactin signaling pathways, inflammation- and immunity-related pathways, chemokine signaling, IFN-γ signaling, and Notch1 signaling. Progress in identifying molecular components of a complex disease is aided by integrated analyses of multiple molecular data types and clinical data. With these data, and by stratifying PTB by subphenotype, we have identified associations between VEPTB and the underlying biology.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
15.
Pediatr Res ; 85(3): 256-261, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanic children are disproportionately affected by obesity, with this disparity starting at a young age, and there is a paucity of data comparing factors associated with excess weight in the first year of life in Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic populations. METHODS: Excess weight was defined as weight-for-length ≥95th percentile. The associations of potential risk factors were compared by ethnicity stratification. RESULTS: Of the 1009 children, 302 (30.0%) were Hispanic and 707 (70.0%) were non-Hispanic White. The rate of excess weight was 30.1% and 13.6% among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White children, respectively. Factors associated with excess weight for non-Hispanic White children were higher than recommended weight gain during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (1.2-3.1)), higher paternal body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.1 (1.02-1.15)), higher birth weight (OR 1.001 (1.001-1.002)), and lower breast milk feedings at 6 months (OR 0.98 (0.96-0.98)). Factors associated with excess weight for Hispanic children were lower maternal education (OR 2.37 (1.1-4.5)) and lower breast milk feedings at 6 months (OR 0.98 (0.96-0.99)). CONCLUSION: There are differential risk factors associated with excess weight at 12 months between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White children. Identification of differential factors in different ethnicities may allow for more targeted anticipatory guidance reduce obesity in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Aumento de Peso , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Pai , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Branca/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1615, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291356

RESUMO

In the version of this article published, the P values for the enrichment of single mutation categories were inadvertently not corrected for multiple testing. After multiple-testing correction, only two of the six mutation categories mentioned are still statistically significant. To reflect this, the text "More specifically, paternally derived DNMs are enriched in transitions in A[.]G contexts, especially ACG>ATG and ATG>ACG (Bonferroni-corrected P = 1.3 × 10-2 and P = 1 × 10-3, respectively). Additionally, we observed overrepresentation of ATA>ACA mutations (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4.28 × 10-2) for DNMs of paternal origin. Among maternally derived DNMs, CCA>CTA, GCA>GTA and TCT>TGT mutations were significantly overrepresented (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4 × 10-4, P = 5 × 10-4, P = 1 × 10-3, respectively)" should read "More specifically, CCA>CTA and GCA>GTA mutations were significantly overenriched on the maternal allele (Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.0192 and P = 0.048, respectively)." Additionally, the last sentence to the legend for Fig. 3b should read "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ significantly" instead of "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ more than 1% of mutation load with a bootstrapping P value <0.05." Corrected versions of Fig. 3b and Supplementary Table 25 appear with the Author Correction.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1416-1427, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992659

RESUMO

Here, we applied targeted capture to examine 153 genes representative of all the major vertebrate developmental pathways among 333 probands to rank their relative significance as causes for holoprosencephaly (HPE). We now show that comparisons of variant transmission versus nontransmission among 136 HPE Trios indicates some reported genes now lack confirmation, while novel genes are implicated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that variation of modest intrinsic effect can synergize with these driver mutations as gene modifiers.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Holoprosencefalia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Holoprosencefalia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 487-492, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507425

RESUMO

Clustering of mutations has been observed in cancer genomes as well as for germline de novo mutations (DNMs). We identified 1,796 clustered DNMs (cDNMs) within whole-genome-sequencing data from 1,291 parent-offspring trios to investigate their patterns and infer a mutational mechanism. We found that the number of clusters on the maternal allele was positively correlated with maternal age and that these clusters consisted of more individual mutations with larger intermutational distances than those of paternal clusters. More than 50% of maternal clusters were located on chromosomes 8, 9 and 16, in previously identified regions with accelerated maternal mutation rates. Maternal clusters in these regions showed a distinct mutation signature characterized by C>G transversions. Finally, we found that maternal clusters were associated with processes involving double-strand-breaks (DSBs), such as meiotic gene conversions and de novo deletion events. This result suggested accumulation of DSB-induced mutations throughout oocyte aging as the mechanism underlying the formation of maternal mutation clusters.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Idade Paterna , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Pediatr ; 196: 175-181.e7, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine genomic, social, and clinical risk factors of ≥85 weight for length percentile (WFLP) at 12 months. STUDY DESIGN: Children in this study had whole-genome sequencing, and clinical and social data were collected. WFLPs at 12 months of age were grouped as follows: (1) <85th, (2) ≥85th to <95th, (3) ≥95th to <99th, and (4) ≥99th. Whole-genome sequencing data were used to analyze rare and common variants, and association of clinical and social factors was examined. RESULTS: A total of 690 children were included; WFLPs were 422 (61.2%) <85th, 112 (16.2%) ≥85th-<95th, 89 (12.9%) ≥95th-<99th, and 67 (9.7%) ≥99th. Family-related risk factors associated with greater WFLP were greater paternal body mass index, WFLP ≥99th OR 1.10 (1.03-1.16), and greater than recommended weight gain in pregnancy, WFLP ≥85th-<95th OR 1.90 (1.09-3.26). More breast milk at 6 months was protective factor: WFLP ≥85th-<95th, OR 0.98 (0.97-0.99), WFLP ≥95th-<99th OR 0.98 (0.97-0.99), and WFLP ≥99th OR 0.98 (0.96-0.99). Although none of the variants reached genome-wide significance, there was a trend toward increased prevalence of genetic variants within or near genes previously associated with obesity in children with WFLP ≥99th. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study identified several modifiable factors, including increased weight gain in pregnancy and decreased breast milk at 6 months, associated with greater WFLP at 12 months. Strong genetic factors were not identified.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Alelos , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leite Humano , Gravidez , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Aumento de Peso
20.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 114, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective methods are needed to collect fecal samples from children for large-scale microbiota studies. Stool collected on fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards that can be mailed provides an effective solution; however, the quality of sequencing resulting from this method is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare microbiota metrics of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing from stool and meconium collected on FOBT cards with stool collected in an Eppendorf tube (ET) under different conditions. METHODS: Eight stool samples from children in diapers aged 0 month-2 years and three meconium samples were collected and stored as follows: (1) ≤ 2 days at room temperature (RT) in an ET, (2) 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET, (3) 3-5 days at RT on a FOBT card, (4) 7 days at RT on a FOBT card, and (5) 7 days at - 80 °C on a FOBT card. Samples stored at - 80 °C were frozen immediately. Each specimen/condition underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing with replicates on the Illumina MiSeq. Alpha and beta diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla were compared between storage conditions and container (ET vs. FOBT card), with pairwise comparison between different storage conditions and the "standard" of 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET and fresh stool in an ET. RESULTS: Stool samples clustered mainly by individual diaper (P < 10-5, Adonis), rather than by storage condition (P = 0.42) or container (P = 0.16). However, meconium samples clustered more by container (P = 0.002) than by individual diaper (P = 0.009) and storage condition (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were no differences in alpha diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla after Bonferroni correction between stool stored on a FOBT card at RT for 7 days with stool stored in an ET tube at - 80 °C; differences in alpha diversity were seen however when compared to fresh stool in an ET. Overall, based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the different storage containers/conditions are reliable in preserving the microbial memberships and slightly less reliable in preserving the alpha diversity and relative microbial composition of infant stool. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging certain limitations, FOBT cards may be a useful tool in large-scale stool microbiota studies in children requiring outpatient follow-up where only small amounts of stool can be obtained, but should not be used when studying meconium.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Congelamento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mecônio/microbiologia , Sangue Oculto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura
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