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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 62(4): e0001924, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483169

RESUMO

Tongue dorsum swabbing is a potential alternative to sputum collection for tuberculosis (TB) testing. Previous studies showed that Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA on tongue swabs stored in buffer, with 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity relative to a sputum microbiological reference standard (sputum MRS). The present study evaluated a more convenient sample collection protocol (dry swab storage), combined with streamlined sample processing protocols, for evaluating two commercial TB diagnostic tests: Xpert Ultra and Molbio Truenat MTB Ultima (MTB Ultima). Copan FLOQSwabs were self-collected or collected by study workers from 321 participants in Western Cape, South Africa. All participants had symptoms suggestive of TB, and 245 of them had sputum MRS-confirmed TB (by sputum MGIT culture and/or Xpert Ultra). One tongue swab per participant was tested on Xpert Ultra, and another tongue swab was tested with MTB Ultima. Xpert Ultra was 75.5% sensitive and 100% specific relative to sputum MRS, similar to previous methods that used swabs stored in buffer. MTB Ultima was 71.6% sensitive and 96.9% specific relative to sputum MRS. When sample lysates that were false-negative or invalid by MTB Ultima were frozen, thawed, and re-tested, MTB Ultima sensitivity rose to 79.1%. Both tests were more sensitive with swabs from participants with higher sputum Xpert Ultra semi-quantitative results. Although additional development could improve diagnostic accuracy, these results further support tongue swabs as easy-to-collect samples for TB testing. IMPORTANCE: Tongue dorsum swabbing is a promising alternative to sputum collection for tuberculosis (TB) testing. Our results lend further support for tongue swabs as exceptionally easy-to-collect samples for high-throughput TB testing.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , África do Sul , Escarro/microbiologia
2.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
3.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(3): 552-563, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38238436

RESUMO

The geographic expansion of Homo sapiens populations into southeastern Europe occurred by ∼47,000 years ago (∼47 ka), marked by Initial Upper Palaeolithic (IUP) technology. H. sapiens was present in western Siberia by ∼45 ka, and IUP industries indicate early entries by ∼50 ka in the Russian Altai and 46-45 ka in northern Mongolia. H. sapiens was in northeastern Asia by ∼40 ka, with a single IUP site in China dating to 43-41 ka. Here we describe an IUP assemblage from Shiyu in northern China, dating to ∼45 ka. Shiyu contains a stone tool assemblage produced by Levallois and Volumetric Blade Reduction methods, the long-distance transfer of obsidian from sources in China and the Russian Far East (800-1,000 km away), increased hunting skills denoted by the selective culling of adult equids and the recovery of tanged and hafted projectile points with evidence of impact fractures, and the presence of a worked bone tool and a shaped graphite disc. Shiyu exhibits a set of advanced cultural behaviours, and together with the recovery of a now-lost human cranial bone, the record supports an expansion of H. sapiens into eastern Asia by about 45 ka.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Crânio , Humanos , China , Europa (Continente) , Antropologia Cultural
4.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 69(1): 9-16, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, studies of innovative telehealth perinatal care models showed similar clinical outcomes and perceived quality of care between groups receiving a combination of virtual video and in-person visits. However, these studies included primarily White, English-speaking participants, excluding those who were economically disenfranchised or did not speak English. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe perinatal patients' and providers' experiences with telehealth during and after the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform future utilization of telehealth to drive the delivery of high-quality, accessible, and equitable perinatal care to diverse communities. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study included a purposive sample of 14 patients and 17 providers who received or provided perinatal care via telehealth in either a certified nurse-midwifery practice or the nurse-family partnership care model between March 2020 and April 2022. Maximum variation sampling offered a diverse population based on race, ethnicity, and rurality. Researchers conducted 2 rounds of semistructured interviews with a focus on understanding social and geographic context. RESULTS: Six themes were identified through inductive analysis: (1) unexpected advantages of telehealth, (2) patient empowerment, (3) providers' fear of adverse outcomes, (4) concern for equitable care, (5) strategies to enhance the telehealth experience, and (6) strategies to address access to perinatal telehealth. Patients appreciated the increased ease and reduced cost of accessing visits, which led to fewer missed appointments. Health care providers saw great opportunity in telehealth but expressed concerns about accessibility for patients with language barriers or limited resources. DISCUSSION: This study provides insight into priorities for continued telehealth utilization focused on providing equitable access to perinatal care. Rather than returning to practices from before the COVID-19 pandemic formed from longstanding routines and perceived limitations, providers are encouraged to capitalize on the rapid innovations in telehealth to build a more effective, equitable, and patient-centered approach to perinatal care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tocologia , Telemedicina , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Certificação
5.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 25(1): 47-57, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750219

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic in the US prompted a sudden shift to telehealth in nurse-led care sites which provide services to diverse geolocations. Using a lens of intersectionality, this study characterizes provider and patient-perceived best and promising practices emerging from geographical variation. The aim of this study was to identify best practices of implementing telehealth in nurse-led care models in Colorado through patient and provider experiences of the sudden implementation of telehealth that can enhance health equity. In this exploratory/descriptive qualitative study, a purposive sample of 18 providers and 30 patients were interviewed using a guide informed by the RE-AIM implementation and evaluation framework to capture the contextual experiences related to the sudden shift to telehealth. Textual theme analysis and reflexive team strategies guided the interpretation. Four primary themes of perceived best practices were identified: using multiple modalities, tailoring triage and scheduling, cultivating safety through boundaries and expectations, and differentiating established versus new patient relationships. The findings suggest that telehealth is a flexible and powerful tool to enhance the delivery of equitable care through nurse-led care models within diverse communities such as the one represented in this study. Nurse leaders are positioned to participate in innovative research and create policies and protocols to ensure telehealth is a viable resource to deliver equitable, safe, and accessible high-quality healthcare.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pandemias , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
J Nurs Educ ; 62(12): 669-678, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurses with a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree are essential to developing nursing knowledge, promoting health outcomes, and educating the next generation of nurses. Declining enrollment in nursing PhD programs calls for purposeful action. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Framework, this article outlines barriers and facilitators, and offers strategies to increase PhD enrollment. METHOD: Extant literature and the authors' cumulative experiences in PhD education and research were reviewed to identify strategies to increase PhD enrollment. RESULTS: Multilevel influences impede or facilitate enrollment in PhD programs. Strategies addressing individual and interpersonal influences included intentional personalized recruiting and early outreach to students at various levels of education. Institutional and organizational strategies included research partnerships and programs, and financial and infrastructure support. Sociocultural strategies included image branding and a positive social media presence supporting nurse scientists. CONCLUSION: Strategies to enhance PhD enrollment across all levels can spark interest in nursing science and PhD enrollment. [J Nurs Educ. 2023;62(12):669-678.].


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Currículo , Relações Interpessoais , Escolaridade
7.
JPGN Rep ; 4(4): e368, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38034429

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of pediatric patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Methods: For a service review, a population-based cohort of 37 pediatric intestinal failure patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition that underwent serial biochemical monitoring during a study period of approximately 4 years were examined. Following the production of an algorithm, a follow-up audit was carried out (n = 33) after approximately 6 months. Results: Of the 37 patients examined in the initial service review, 22 (59%) were found to have an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) during the period of monitoring and 5 (14%) had a persistently elevated PTH. In the follow-up audit following the implementation of an algorithm, the number with elevated PTH reduced to 6 (18%) and no patients had persistently high levels. Conclusion: Elevated PTH is a common biochemical finding in pediatric intestinal failure patients receiving home parenteral nutrition and its presence should alert clinicians to the need to optimize nutritional parameters such as calcium to phosphate molar ratio and vitamin D status; failure to do so may increase the future burden of metabolic bone disease in such patients. We propose that an algorithm may help in this endeavor.

8.
medRxiv ; 2023 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873199

RESUMO

Tongue dorsum swabbing is a potential alternative to sputum collection for tuberculosis (TB) testing. Previous studies showed that Cepheid Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA in tongue swabs stored in buffer, with 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity relative to a sputum microbiological reference standard (sputum MRS). The present study evaluated a more convenient sample collection protocol (dry swab storage), combined with streamlined sample processing protocols, for side-by-side analysis using two commercial TB diagnostic tests: Xpert Ultra and Molbio Truenat® MTB Ultima (MTB Ultima). Copan FLOQSwabs were self-collected, or collected by study workers, from 321 participants in Western Cape, South Africa. All participants had symptoms suggestive of TB, and 245 of them had sputum MRS-confirmed TB (by sputum culture and/or Xpert Ultra). One tongue swab per participant was tested on Xpert Ultra and another tongue swab was tested with MTB Ultima. Xpert Ultra was 75.4% sensitive and 100% specific, and MTB Ultima was 71.6% sensitive and 96.9% specific, relative to sputum MRS. When sample lysates that were false-negative by MTB Ultima were frozen, thawed, and re-tested, MTB Ultima sensitivity rose to 79.1%. Both tests were more sensitive with swabs from participants with higher sputum Xpert semi-quantitative results. The protocol for Xpert Ultra enabled fast and easy testing of dry-stored swabs with no loss of accuracy relative to previous methods. MTB Ultima testing of dry-stored swabs exhibited comparable performance to Xpert Ultra. These results further support tongue swabs as easy-to-collect samples for high-throughput TB testing.

9.
Gerontologist ; 2023 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37880825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social well-being of older adults living in low-income housing was disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored low-income residents' experiences of social isolation and loneliness and strategies to remain socially connected during the pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of a larger, 3-phase user-centered design study, we conducted a qualitative study using focus groups to gain insights into social isolation experiences and the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs), including smart speakers, in social connectedness (N=25, 76% African American). We also collected survey data to describe social isolation, loneliness, and current ICT use in the sample. Participants included both smart speaker users and non-users. RESULTS: Experiences of social isolation and loneliness varied by participants' sociodemographic characteristics and previous experiences with smart speakers. Qualitative analysis showed participants demonstrated coping strategies developed during the pandemic to adapt to new norms of connecting with others, including technology-enabled social interactions. Participants expressed a strong desire to build community together in their facilities and highlighted the potential role of smart speakers in making meaningful social connections, encompassing safety checks to have a means for emergencies, and providing a virtual companion. Access, digital literacy, training, security, and privacy issues were discussed as factors affecting their adoption of new ICT for enhanced social connectedness. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study highlights the importance of understanding the unique social isolation experience, demographics, and social determinants of health of low-income residents to develop ICT-based interventions for social connectedness.

10.
Appl Nurs Res ; 73: 151716, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37722784

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigated the phenomenon of nurse loneliness as a potential contributor to burnout. BACKGROUND: Nurse wellbeing is critical for safe and efficient healthcare delivery. However, evidence indicates nurses' wellbeing is at risk. The levels of burnout, the most commonly measured symptom of suboptimal wellbeing, are rising and may relate to a largely unexplored phenomenon: loneliness. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used to investigate burnout and loneliness in direct-care nurses in four diverse hospitals in the midwestern and southeastern United States. Burnout and loneliness were measured, prevalence was estimated, and correlation was examined. Interpretive descriptive inquiry and analysis was used to develop a richer understanding of nurse loneliness in the context of burnout. While this study did not explicitly explore the impact of the global pandemic, data was collected in late 2021 and early 2022, during the Delta variant wave. RESULTS: In the study population (n = 117), rates of burnout are high and positively correlate with loneliness. Qualitative interviews (n = 11) revealed that nurses feel unseen, emotionally detached from their work, and dehumanized. However, social connection with peers is protective and nurses still report a strong sense of devotion to the profession and solidarity with peers. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers insight into nurse loneliness, highlighting the importance of social connectedness to improve nurse wellbeing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Esgotamento Psicológico
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 462, 2023 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37715115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most common form of acquired heart disease worldwide. In RHD, volume loading from mitral regurgitation leads to left ventricular (LV) dilatation, increased wall stress, and ultimately LV dysfunction. Improved understanding of LV dynamics may contribute to refined timing of intervention. We aimed to characterize and compare left ventricular remodelling between rheumatic heart disease (RHD) severity groups by way of serial echocardiographic assessment of volumes and function in children. METHODS: Children with RHD referred to Perth Children's Hospital (formally Princess Margaret Hospital) (1987-2020) were reviewed. Patients with longitudinal pre-operative echocardiograms at diagnosis, approximately 12 months and at most recent follow-up, were included and stratified into RHD severity groups. Left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic parameters were assessed. Adjusted linear mixed effect models were used to compare interval changes. RESULTS: 146 patients (median age 10 years, IQR 6-14 years) with available longitudinal echocardiograms were analysed. Eighty-five (58.2%) patients had mild, 33 (22.6%) moderate and 28 (19.2%) severe RHD at diagnosis. Mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 years from the initial diagnosis. Severe RHD patients had significantly increased end-systolic volumes (ESV) and end-diastolic volumes (EDV) compared to mild/moderate groups at diagnosis (severe versus mild EDV mean difference 27.05 ml/m2, p < 0.001, severe versus moderate EDV mean difference 14.95 ml/m2, p = 0.006). Mild and moderate groups experienced no significant progression of changes in volume measures. In severe RHD, LV dilatation worsened over time. All groups had preserved cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS: In mild and moderate RHD, the lack of progression of valvular regurgitation and ventricular dimensions suggest a stable longer-term course. Significant LV remodelling occurred at baseline in severe RHD with progression of LV dilatation over time. LV function was preserved across all groups. Our findings may guide clinicians in deciding the frequency and timing of follow-up and may be of clinical utility during further reiterations of the Australia and New Zealand RHD Guidelines.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Cardiopatia Reumática , Criança , Humanos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Seguimentos , Remodelação Ventricular , Coração , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia
12.
J Environ Qual ; 52(6): 1127-1138, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573494

RESUMO

The effectiveness of wetlands in sequestering nutrients and improving water quality relies on a suite of abiotic and biotic conditions. To more fully understand the restraints on nutrient removal, especially salinity and plant cover, we created field-scale mesocosms and monitored nutrient sequestration with nutrient additions and isotopic pool dilutions over 2 years in two wetlands near the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Surprisingly, we found no differences in nutrient removal with plant removal, increased salinity, and altered ambient nutrient concentrations, suggesting functional redundancy in associated primary producers. When submerged aquatic vegetation was removed, chlorophyll α concentration (0.1-9.0 µg/L) increased while nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) assimilation remained the same as phytoplankton occupied the open niche space. We did find ammonium concentrations to be inversely related to nitrate assimilation-as the ammonium concentration increased, nitrate assimilation decreased, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonium. Last, in our high N and P treatment mesocosms, the nitrate dramatically declined from 43.9 mg/L to background levels (<0.1 mg/L) within 1 week, showing a high potential for N remediation in these wetlands.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Nitratos , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Nutrientes
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(8): e2328274, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561464

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study analyzes the rates of induction and cesarean delivery before and after the publication of A Randomized Trial of Induction vs Expectant Management (ARRIVE).


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Estudos Transversais
14.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 50(3): 203-235, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37437169

RESUMO

Nurses are crucial to the health care workforce, yet their well-being is often overlooked, adversely affecting patient care. This article examines the intersection of loneliness and burnout among nephrology nurses, and its impact on their well-being and job performance. Loneliness, defined as inadequate social connections, is identified as a significant contributor to burnout and suboptimal well-being among nurses. Findings emphasize the importance of addressing loneliness and promoting social connectedness within the nursing profession. Strategies, such as fostering supportive relationships, creating support groups, and implementing policies to reduce emotional burdens and workload pressures, are recommended. We emphasize the need to prioritize nurse well-being for a resilient health care workforce and improved patient outcomes, and discuss its implications for nursing practice, education, and policy.


Assuntos
Solidão , Nefrologia , Humanos , Esgotamento Psicológico , Emoções , Pessoal de Saúde
15.
Sci Adv ; 9(24): eadh2558, 2023 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37327332

RESUMO

The evolutionary processes of speciation during the Cambrian radiation and their potential extrinsic drivers, such as episodic oceanic oxygenation events, remain unconfirmed. High-resolution temporal and spatial distribution of reef-associated archaeocyath sponge species on the Siberian Craton during the early Cambrian [ca. 528 to 510 million years ago] shows that speciation was driven by increased endemism particularly ca. 521 million years (59.7% endemic species) and 514.5 million years (65.25% endemic species) ago. These mark rapid speciation events after dispersal of ancestors from the Aldan-Lena center of origin to other regions. These speciation events coincided with major sea-level lowstands, which we hypothesize were intervals when relative deepening of the shallow redoxcline permitted extensive oxygenation of shallow waters over the entire craton. This provided oxic corridors for dispersal and allowed the formation of new founder communities. Thus, shallow marine oxygen expansion driven by sea-level oscillations provides an evolutionary driver for sucessive speciation events during the Cambrian radiation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
16.
Univers Access Inf Soc ; : 1-27, 2023 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37361673

RESUMO

Purpose: Customizing the accessibility and ease-of-use settings of a computer can improve the overall user experience for people with and without disabilities. However, the adoption of such settings remains poor. This study investigates why various factors may influence people as they personalize and when they choose to integrate those changes into everyday use. Methods: To better understand how these factors may impact people's personalization process, we conducted a series of interviews involving 15 people with and without disabilities across several months in 2020 when computer usage became required due to the COVID-19 lockdown. We used grounded theory to analyze 49 semi-structured interviews with participants. During these interviews, people reflected upon: past attempts at personalization using built-in accessibility or ease-of-use features of their Operating System (OS) or other assistive technologies (AT), current customization activities using the personalization software, Morphic, and future opportunities for personalization systems and features. Results: We identified several barriers, facilitators, and perpetuating factors that can influence why and when people choose to adopt and integrate their personalization changes. We also outline the overall personalization lifecycle, which illustrates when various factors may impact computer personalization. Conclusion: Personalization activities are complex and easily affected by an ecosystem of influential factors that surround them. When paired with the three design considerations and ten lessons learned from this qualitative study, the overall personalization lifecycle may be useful during the design and development of future personalization systems or features for people with and without disabilities.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 880: 163178, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37023812

RESUMO

Excess nutrients from agricultural and urban development have created a cascade of ecological crises around the globe. Nutrient pollution has triggered eutrophication in most freshwater and coastal ecosystems, contributing to a loss in biodiversity, harm to human health, and trillions in economic damage every year. Much of the research conducted on nutrient transport and retention has focused on surface environments, which are both easy to access and biologically active. However, surface characteristics of watersheds, such as land use and network configuration, often do not explain the variation in nutrient retention observed in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Recent research suggests subsurface processes and characteristics may be more important than previously thought in determining watershed-level nutrient fluxes and removal. In a small watershed in western France, we used a multi-tracer approach to compare surface and subsurface nitrate dynamics at commensurate spatiotemporal scales. We combined 3-D hydrological modeling with a rich biogeochemical dataset from 20 wells and 15 stream locations. Water chemistry in the surface and subsurface showed high temporal variability, but groundwater was substantially more spatially variable, attributable to long transport times (10-60 years) and patchy distribution of the iron and sulfur electron donors fueling autotrophic denitrification. Isotopes of nitrate and sulfate revealed fundamentally different processes dominating the surface (heterotrophic denitrification and sulfate reduction) and subsurface (autotrophic denitrification and sulfate production). Agricultural land use was associated with elevated nitrate in surface water, but subsurface nitrate concentration was decoupled from land use. Dissolved silica and sulfate are affordable tracers of residence time and nitrogen removal that are relatively stable in surface and subsurface environments. Together, these findings reveal distinct but adjacent and connected biogeochemical worlds in the surface and subsurface. Characterizing how these worlds are linked and decoupled is critical to meeting water quality targets and addressing water issues in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Rios , Humanos , Rios/química , Ecossistema , Desnitrificação , Nitratos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/química
18.
iScience ; 25(12): 105676, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561886

RESUMO

Corumbella is a terminal Ediacaran tubular, benthic fossil of debated morphology, composition, and biological affinity. Here, we show that Corumbella had a biomineralized skeleton, with a bilayered construction of imbricated calcareous plates and rings (sclerites) yielding a cataphract organization, that enhanced flexibility. Each sclerite likely possessed a laminar microfabric with consistent crystallographic orientation, within an organic matrix. Original aragonitic mineralogy is supported by relict aragonite and elevated Sr (mean = ca. 11,800 ppm in central parts of sclerites). In sum, the presence of a polarisation axis, sclerites with a laminar microfabric, and a cataphract skeletal organization reminiscent of early Cambrian taxa, are all consistent with, but not necessarily indicative of, a bilaterian affinity. A cataphract skeleton with an inferred complex microstructure confirms the presence of controlled biomineralization in metazoans by the terminal Ediacaran, and offers insights into the evolution of development and ecology at the root of the 'Cambrian radiation'.

19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7523, 2022 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36473861

RESUMO

Oxygenation during the Cambrian Radiation progressed via a series of short-lived pulses. However, the metazoan biotic response to this episodic oxygenation has not been quantified, nor have the causal evolutionary processes been constrained. Here we present ecological analyses of Cambrian archaeocyath sponge reef communities on the Siberian Platform (525-514 Ma). During the oxic pulse at ~521-519 Ma, we quantify reef habitat expansion coupled to an increase in reef size and metacommunity complexity, from individual within-community reactions to their local environment, to ecologically complex synchronous community-wide response, accompanied by an increase in rates of origination. Subsequently, reef and archaeocyath body size are reduced in association with increased rates of extinction due to inferred expanded marine anoxia (~519-516.5 Ma). A later oxic pulse at ~515 Ma shows further reef habitat expansion, increased archaeocyath body size and diversity, but weaker community-wide environmental responses. These metrics confirm that oxygenation events created temporary pulses of evolutionary diversification and enhanced ecosystem complexity, potentially via the expansion of habitable space, and increased archaeocyath individual and reef longevity in turn leading to niche differentiation. Most notably, we show that progression towards increasing biodiversity and ecosystem complexity was episodic and discontinuous, rather than linear, during the Cambrian Radiation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais
20.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 140, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The measures implemented to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus disrupted the provision of substance misuse treatment and support. However, little is known about the impact of this disruption on individuals seeking treatment for drug- and/or alcohol-related problems (henceforth service users). This study aimed to help substance misuse services learn lessons and identify ways of optimising delivery and minimising harm in the event of any future lockdowns or global crises. METHODS: The study was co-produced by a team of peer researchers, practitioners, policymakers and academics. Telephone interviews were conducted with 202 substance misuse service users over a 6-month period commencing June 2020. The interviews were conducted by a small group of seven peer researchers each with lived experience of substance use problems. The interview data were recorded by the peers in an anonymous online questionnaire survey and analysed using standard quantitative and qualitative methods. RESULTS: Service users responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in a variety of ways. Diverse responses were noted in relation to their substance use patterns, their personal lives and their substance misuse treatment experiences. For some, the pandemic acted as a new risk environment factor that increased their vulnerability to substance-related harm. For others, it facilitated aspects of the enabling environment, thereby reducing the risk of harm. CONCLUSIONS: Service users are not a homogenous group, and an individualised approach to treatment that recognises the potential for varied responses to the same stimuli is needed. The findings suggest that service users would benefit from having a choice in how they access treatment and from greater access to outreach programmes that take treatments and harm reduction tools such as naloxone into the community. The research also supports the involvement of people with lived experience in substance use research, policy and practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Usuários de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
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