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1.
Front Neurol ; 15: 1406977, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836004

RESUMO

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a nervous system disease leading to motor and sensory dysfunction below the injury level, and can result in paralysis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in SCI treatment, and related research provides insights for SCI diagnosis and treatment. Bibliometrics is an important tool for literature statistics and evaluation, objectively summarizing multidimensional information. This study comprehensively overviews the field through bibliometric analysis of miRNA and SCI research, providing contemporary resources for future collaboration and clinical treatment. Materials and methods: In this study, we searched the Web of Science Core Collection (WOSCC) database. After careful screening and data import, we extracted annual publications, citation counts, countries, institutions, authors, journals, highly cited articles, co-cited articles, keywords, and H-index. Bibliometrics and visualization analyses employed VOSviewer, CiteSpace, the R package "bibliometrix," and online analytic platforms. Using Arrowsmith, we determined miRNA-SCI relationships and discussed potential miRNA mechanisms in SCI. Results: From 2008 to 2024, the number of related papers increased annually, reaching 754. The number of yearly publications remained high and entered a period of rapid development. Researchers from 50 countries/regions, 802 institutions, 278 journals, and 3,867 authors participated in the field. Currently, China has advantages in the number of national papers, citations, institutions, and authors. However, it is necessary to strengthen cooperation among different authors, institutions, and countries to promote the production of important academic achievements. The research in the field currently focuses on nerve injury, apoptosis, and gene expression. Future research directions mainly involve molecular mechanisms, clinical trials, exosomes, and inflammatory reactions. Conclusion: Overall, this study comprehensively analyzes the research status and frontier of miRNAs in SCI. A systematic summary provides a complete and intuitive understanding of the relationship between SCI and miRNAs. The presented findings establish a basis for future research and clinical application in this field.

2.
ACS Omega ; 9(21): 22851-22857, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826545

RESUMO

Utilizing molecular dynamics simulations, we examined how varying pore sizes affect the desalination capabilities of MoS2 membranes while keeping the total pore area constant. The total pore area within a MoS2 nanosheet was maintained at 200 Å2, and the single-pore areas were varied, approximately 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Å2. By comparing the water flux and ion rejection rates, we identified the optimal single-pore area for MoS2 membrane desalination. Our simulation results revealed that as the single-pore area expanded, the water flux increased, the velocity of water molecules passing the pores accelerated, the energy barrier decreased, and the number of water molecules within the pores rose, particularly between 30 and 40 Å2. Balancing water flux and rejection rates, we found that a MoS2 membrane with a single-pore area of 40 Å2 offered the most effective water treatment performance. Furthermore, the ion rejection rate of MoS2 membranes was lower for ions with lower valences. This was attributed to the fact that higher-valence ions possess greater masses and radii, leading to slower transmembrane rates and higher transmembrane energy barriers. These insights may serve as theoretical guidance for future applications of MoS2 membranes in water treatment.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400749, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856087

RESUMO

Polysaccharides, as common metabolic products in organisms, play a crucial role in the growth and development of living organisms. For humans, polysaccharides represent a class of compounds with diverse applications, particularly in the medical field. Therefore, the exploration of the monosaccharide composition and structural characteristics of polysaccharides holds significant importance in understanding their biological functions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of extraction methods and hydrolysis strategies for polysaccharides. It systematically analyzes strategies and technologies for determining polysaccharide composition and discusses common derivatization reagents employed in further polysaccharide studies. Derivatization is considered a fundamental strategy for determining monosaccharides, as it not only enhances the detectability of analytes but also increases detection sensitivity, especially in liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. The critical comparison of pre- and post-column derivatization is elaborated in this paper, aiming to serve as a reference for selecting appropriate modes based on the structural characteristics, biological activities of polysaccharides, and reaction systems.

4.
Appl Opt ; 63(11): 2981-2993, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856397

RESUMO

The imaging quality of a rotational reflection high-speed tracking system is greatly affected by the optical characteristics of the reflector and the depth of field limitations of the imaging system, especially for tracking systems working in small distances. In order to improve the imaging quality, this paper focused on two factors that affect the imaging quality: double vision caused by the optical characteristics of reflectors and blurring caused by the depth of field of imaging systems. This paper quantified the impact of these two factors on imaging through theoretical analysis, proposed a method of changing the hardware position, and conducted a simulation and experiments. The results show that the proposed solution in this paper can effectively improve the imaging quality of the system. The content studied in this paper has certain significance in the field of high-speed tracking of rotating reflectors and can provide reference for relevant researchers.

5.
Regen Biomater ; 11: rbae057, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854680

RESUMO

The joint prosthesis plays a vital role in the outcome of total hip arthroplasty. The key factors that determine the performance of joint prostheses are the materials used and the structural design of the prosthesis. This study aimed to fabricate a porous tantalum (Ta) hip prosthesis using selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The feasibility of SLM Ta use in hip prosthesis was verified by studying its chemical composition, metallographic structure and mechanical properties. In vitro experiments proved that SLM Ta exhibited better biological activities in promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting inflammation than SLM Ti6Al4V. Then, the topological optimization design of the femoral stem of the SLM Ta hip prosthesis was carried out by finite element simulation, and the fatigue performance of the optimized prosthesis was tested to verify the biomechanical safety of the prosthesis. A porous Ta acetabulum cup was also designed and fabricated using SLM. Its mechanical properties were then studied. Finally, clinical trials were conducted to verify the clinical efficacy of the SLM Ta hip prosthesis. The porous structure could reduce the weight of the prosthesis and stress shielding and avoid bone resorption around the prosthesis. In addition, anti-infection drugs can also be loaded into the pores for infection treatment. The acetabular cup can be custom-designed based on the severity of bone loss on the acetabular side, and the integrated acetabular cup can repair the acetabular bone defect while achieving the function of the acetabular cup.

6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(7): 375, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of mineralized dentin matrix (MDM) on the prognosis on bone regeneration and migration of retained roots after coronectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were divided into three groups based on the type of bone graft after coronectomy: Group C (n = 20, collagen), Group T (n = 20, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) + collagen), and Group D (n = 20, MDM + collagen). CBCT scans, conducted immediately and 6 months after surgery, were analyzed using digital software. Primary outcomes, including changes in bone defect depth and retained root migration distance, were evaluated 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: After 6 months, both Groups D and T exhibited greater reduction of the bone defect and lesser retained root migration than Group C (p < 0.001). Group D had greater regenerated bone volume in the distal 2 mm (73 mm3 vs. 57 mm3, p = 0.011) and lesser root migration (2.18 mm vs. 2.96 mm, p < 0.001) than Group T. The proportion of completely bone embedded retained roots was also greater in Group D than in Group C (70.0% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: MDM is an appropriate graft material for improving bone defect healing and reducing retained root migration after coronectomy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MDM is an autogenous material prepared chairside, which can significantly improve bone healing and reduce the risk of retained root re-eruption. MDM holds promise as a routine bone substitute material after M3M coronectomy.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Colágeno , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Dentina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fosfatos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/cirurgia , Adulto , Coroa do Dente/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871062

RESUMO

Persistent physical and psychological stress are key factors in the development of depression. Stress exposure leads to the activation of neutrophils in the bloodstream. However, the role of peripheral neutrophils in stress-related disorders remains unclear. Here, we found that psychological stress caused an increase in the frequency of brain-associated neutrophils and upregulated expression of neutrophil-specific surface molecule CD177 on peripheral neutrophils in male mice. Upregulated levels of blood CD177 are associated with depression in humans. Neutrophil depletion or Cd177 deficiency protected mice from stress-induced behavioral deficits. Importantly, adoptive transfer of stressed CD177+ neutrophils increased the frequency of brain-associated leukocytes, including neutrophils, and caused behavioral defects in naive mice. These effects may be related to the endothelial adhesion advantage of CD177+ neutrophils and the interference of serine protease on endothelial junction. Our findings suggest a critical link between circulating CD177+ neutrophils and psychological stress-driven behavioral disorder.

10.
Metabol Open ; 22: 100289, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872905

RESUMO

Aim: Associations of the adipose tissue insulin resistance index (AT-IR, a product of fasting insulin and free fatty acid) with body fat distribution and the ratio of alanine to aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), a marker of hepatosteatosis, were examined in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Legs, the trunk and body fat by DXA, blood pressure (BP) and blood chemistry were measured in 284 young Japanese female university students and 148 middle-aged biological mothers whose BMI averaged <23 kg/m2. Results: Young women had higher leg fat/body fat and lower trunk fat/body fat ratio (both p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged women but AT-IR did not differ between the two groups. We had multivariable linear regression analysis for AT-IR as a dependent variable including leg fat/body fat ratio, trunk fat/body fat ratio, fasting glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and systolic BP as independent variables. Leg fat/body fat ratio, fasting glucose and triglyceride (p = 0.013, 0.009 and 0.016, respectively) emerged as determinants of AT-IR in young women. Trunk fat/body fat ratio and fasting glucose (p = 0.003 and 0.019, respectively) emerged in middle-aged women. In a model which included ALT/AST as an additional independent variable, ALT/AST (p = 0.016) was the fourth independent determinant in young women and the single determinant of AT-IR in middle-aged women (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In young Japanese women, adipose tissue insulin resistance was associated with reduced leg fat, a subtle partial lipodystrophy-like phenotype associated with reduced adipose tissue expandability. It was associated with elevated trunk (abdominal) fat in middle-aged women and with ALT/AST, a marker of hepatosteatosis, in two groups of Japanese women, suggesting ectopic fat deposition associated with reduced adipose tissue expandability.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1376139, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872961

RESUMO

Background: Previous observational epidemiological studies have suggested a potential association between thyroid function and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the findings remain inconclusive, and whether this association is causal remains uncertain. The objective of this study is to investigate the causal association between thyroid function and IBD. Methods: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving seven indicators of thyroid function, IBD, and 41 cytokines were analyzed. Bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and multivariable MR were conducted to examine the causal relationship between thyroid function and IBD and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the associations. Results: Genetically determined hypothyroidism significantly reduced the risk of CD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.761, 95% CI: 0.655-0.882, p < 0.001). Genetically determined reference-range TSH was found to have a suggestive causal effect on IBD (OR = 0.931, 95% CI: 0.888-0.976, p = 0.003), (Crohn disease) CD (OR = 0.915, 95% CI: 0.857-0.977, p = 0.008), and ulcerative colitis (UC) (OR =0.910, 95% CI: 0.830-0.997, p = 0.043). In reverse MR analysis, both IBD and CD appeared to have a suggestive causal effect on the fT3/fT4 ratio (OR = 1.002, p = 0.013 and OR = 1.001, p = 0.015, respectively). Among 41 cytokines, hypothyroidism had a significant impact on interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) (OR = 1.465, 95% CI: 1.094-1.962, p = 0.010). The results of multivariable MR showed that IP-10 may mediate the causal effects of hypothyroidism with CD. Conclusion: Our results suggest that an elevated TSH level reduces the risk of CD, with IP-10 potentially mediating this association. This highlights the pituitary-thyroid axis could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for CD.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipotireoidismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tireotropina/sangue , Masculino
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842674

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory and cognitive loss. Neuroinflammation is a central mechanism involved in the progression of AD. With the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), peripheral immune cells and inflammatory molecules enter into AD brain. However, the exact relationship between peripheral immune cells and AD remains unknown due to various challenges. This study aimed to investigate the potential causal association between peripheral immune cells and AD by using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) analysis. We conducted a TSMR to decipher the causal relationship between AD and 731 types of peripheral immune cell parameters from the TBNK, regulatory T cell (Treg), myeloid cell, monocyte, maturation stages of T cell, dendritic cell (DC), and B cell panels.  Various analytical methods were employed, including inverse variance weighting (IVW), MR Egger, and weighted median methods. The Cochran's Q statistic, MR-Egger intercept, and MR-PRESSO tests were used to verify the heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy of the results. To further verify our results, we also conducted a replication analysis. The analysis identified CD33 on CD14 + monocyte (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 1.14E-04; adjust-p = 0.042) had an increased risk association for AD, which was verified by the replication study. CD33 on CD33dim HLA DR + CD11b- cell (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 2.87E-04; adjust-p = 0.035) had an increased risk association for AD, while secreting CD4 regulatory T cell %CD4 regulatory T cell (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99; p = 1.90E-04; adjust-p = 0.046) and CD25 on switched memory B cell (OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98; p = 2.87E-04; adjust-p = 0.042) were discovered to be related to a lower risk of AD. However, the causal effect of these three immune cells on AD was insufficiently validated in the replication analysis. The MR analysis suggests a potential causal relationship between peripheral immune cells and the risk of AD. Further extensive research is needed on the specific role of peripheral immune cells in AD.

14.
Nature ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866053

RESUMO

Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins have a pivotal role in plant immunity by recognizing pathogen effectors1,2. Maintaining a balanced immune response is crucial, as excessive NLR expression can lead to unintended autoimmunity3,4. Unlike most NLRs, plant NLR required for cell death 2 (NRC2) belongs to a small NLR group characterized by constitutively high expression without self-activation5. The mechanisms underlying NRC2 autoinhibition and activation are not yet understood. Here we show that Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) NRC2 (SlNRC2) forms dimers and tetramers, and higher-order oligomers at elevated concentrations. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reveals an inactive conformation of SlNRC2 within these oligomers. Dimerization and oligomerization not only stabilize the inactive state but also sequester SlNRC2 from assembling into an active form. Mutations at the dimeric or inter-dimeric interfaces enhance pathogen-induced cell death and immunity in Nicotiana (N.) benthamiana. The cryo-EM structures unexpectedly reveal inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) or pentakisphosphate (IP5) bound to the inner surface of SlNRC2's C-terminal LRR domain as confirmed by mass spectrometry. Mutations at the IP-binding site impair inositol phosphate binding of SlNRC2 and pathogen-induced SlNRC2-mediated cell death in N. benthamiana. Together, our study unveils a novel negative regulatory mechanism of NLR activation and suggests inositol phosphates as cofactors of NRCs.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862424

RESUMO

The order Acipenseriformes, which includes sturgeons and paddlefishes, represents "living fossils" with complex genomes that are good models for understanding whole-genome duplication (WGD) and ploidy evolution in fishes. Here, we sequenced and assembled the first high-quality chromosome-level genome for the complex octoploid Acipenser sinensis (Chinese sturgeon), a critically endangered species that also represents a poorly understood ploidy group in Acipenseriformes. Our results show that A. sinensis is a complex autooctoploid species containing four kinds of octovalents (8n), a hexavalent (6n), two tetravalents (4n), and a divalent (2n). An analysis taking into account delayed rediploidization reveals that the octoploid genome composition of Chinese sturgeon results from two rounds of homologous WGDs, and further provides insights into the timing of its ploidy evolution. This study provides the first octoploid genome resource of Acipenseriformes for understanding ploidy compositions and evolutionary trajectories of polyploid fishes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Peixes , Genoma , Poliploidia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Peixes/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Genoma/genética , Filogenia
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 323, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect the data of pregnant women who received hospital delivery in Hangzhou Women's Hospital from January 2018 to December 2020, and who participated in the second trimester (15-20+6 weeks) of free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (free ß-hCG). And the study was conducted to explore the relationship between maternal serum free ß-hCG and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 1,978 women in the elevated maternal serum free ß-hCG group (free ß-hCG ≥ 2.50 multiples of the median, MoM) and 20,767 women in the normal group (0.25 MoM ≤ free ß-hCG < 2.50 MoM) from a total of 22,745 singleton pregnancies, and modified Poisson regression analysis was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the two groups. RESULTS: The gravidity and parity in the elevated free ß-hCG group were lower, and the differences between the groups were statistically significant (all, P < 0.05). The risks of polyhydramnios, preeclampsia, and hyperlipidemia, were increased in women with elevated free ß-hCG levels (RRs: 1.996, 95% CI: 1.322-3.014; 1.469, 95% CI: 1.130-1.911 and 1.257, 95% CI: 1.029-1.535, respectively, all P < 0.05), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and female infants were also likely to happen (RRs = 1.641, 95% CI: 1.103-2.443 and 1.101, 95% CI: 1.011-1.198, both P < 0.05). Additionally, there was an association between elevated AFP and free ß-hCG levels in second-trimester (RR = 1.211, 95% CI: 1.121-1.307, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: APOs, such as polyhydramnios, preeclampsia, and hyperlipidemia, were increased risks of elevated free ß-hCG levels, IUGR and female infants were also likely to happen. Furthermore, there was an association between elevated AFP levels and elevated free ß-hCG levels in second-trimester. We recommend prenatal monitoring according to the elevated maternal serum free ß-hCG level and the occurrence of APO.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta , Resultado da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Poli-Hidrâmnios/sangue , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia
17.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(215): 20230594, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835245

RESUMO

The speed of evolution on structured populations is crucial for biological and social systems. The likelihood of invasion is key for evolutionary stability. But it makes little sense if it takes long. It is far from known what population structure slows down evolution. We investigate the absorption time of a single neutral mutant for all the 112 non-isomorphic undirected graphs of size 6. We find that about three-quarters of the graphs have an absorption time close to that of the complete graph, less than one-third are accelerators, and more than two-thirds are decelerators. Surprisingly, determining whether a graph has a long absorption time is too complicated to be captured by the joint degree distribution. Via the largest sojourn time, we find that echo-chamber-like graphs, which consist of two homogeneous graphs connected by few sparse links, are likely to slow down absorption. These results are robust for large graphs, mutation patterns as well as evolutionary processes. This work serves as a benchmark for timing evolution with complex interactions, and fosters the understanding of polarization in opinion formation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mutação , Modelos Genéticos
18.
Ann Hepatol ; 29(5): 101516, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing fibrosis risk noninvasively is essential. The steatosis-associated fibrosis estimator (SAFE) score shows promise but needs validation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a three-part study. In part 1, we compared the SAFE score with the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort (2017-2020), using transient elastography (TE) as screening reference. In part 2, we examined patients who underwent liver biopsies at an Asian center between 2018 and 2020 to assess these models in various liver diseases. In part 3, the SAFE score was applied to adults in the NHANES cohort (1999-2016) to assess the correlation with mortality. RESULTS: In part 1, we studied 6,677 patients, comprising 595 screening positive (TE ≥8 kPa). SAFE (cutoff 100) displayed a lower proportion of false positives (10.4 %) than FIB-4 (cutoff 1.3) and NFS (cutoff -1.455) (22.1 % and 43.6 %) while retaining a low proportion of false negatives (5.5 %). In part 2, SAFE outperformed FIB-4 (P = 0.04) and NFS (P = 0.04) in staging significant fibrosis (≥S2) in NAFLD and had similar accuracies in other etiologies. In part 3, the FIB-4, NFS, and SAFE score were associated with all-cause mortality in the general population, with c-statistics of 0.738, 0.736, and 0.759, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SAFE score reduced futile referrals more effectively than FIB-4 without raising the missed TE ≥ 8 kPa rate. It correlated with all-cause mortality in the general population and excelled in staging significant fibrosis in NAFLD.

20.
Cytokine ; 179: 156628, 2024 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The expression level of apolipoprotein E (APOE) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its effect on the prognosis of PDAC patients are not clear. The effect of APOE on the immune status of patients with PDAC has not been elucidated. METHODS: We obtained pancreatic cancer data from the TCGA and GETx databases. Patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatic surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University between 2012 and 2021 were included. Clinical pathological data were recorded, plasma APOE levels were measured, and tissue samples were collected. A tissue microarray was generated using the collected tissue samples. APOE and CD4 staining was performed to determine immunoreactive scores (IRSs). The expression of APOE in the plasma and tumour tissues of pancreatic cancer patients was analysed and compared. The correlations between plasma APOE levels, tissue APOE levels and clinicopathological characteristics were analysed. Survival prognosis was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis. The correlations between APOE expression levels and immune biomarkers and immune cells were further analysed. Single-cell analysis of APOE distribution in various cells was performed on the TISCH website. RESULTS: APOE was highly expressed in the tumour tissue of pancreatic cancer patients, and high plasma APOE levels were associated with poor prognosis. Females, patients with high-grade disease and patients with pancreatic head carcinoma had high plasma APOE levels. High APOE expression in tumour tissues was associated with good prognosis. Mononuclear macrophages in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment primarily expressed APOE. APOE levels positively correlated with immune biomarkers, such as CD8A, PDCD1, GZMA, CXCL10, and CXCL9, in the tumour microenvironment. APOE promoted CD4 + T cell or dendritic cell infiltration in the tumour microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: APOE may affect the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer by regulating the infiltration of immune cells in the tumour microenvironment.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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