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1.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845579

RESUMO

Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reactions of 2-(1H-indolyl)aniline derivatives and isatins by the condensation/cyclization process have been realized. A series of enantioenriched 5',11'-dihydrospiro[indoline-3,6'-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin]-2-ones bearing quaternary stereogenic centers were obtained with excellent yields and up to >99% ee. This protocol was suitable for the Pictet-Spengler reactions of 2-(1-benzyl-5-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)aniline, and a variety of 1',5'-dihydro-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinolin]-2-ones could also be obtained in good yields and up to 88% ee.

2.
Eur J Public Health ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited population-based studies explore the utilization and associated barriers or facilitators to cervical cancer screening in China. We attempted to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, HPV specific knowledge with HPV testing behaviour in Shenzhen, China. METHODS: A citywide cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to June 2015 in Shenzhen city by using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Socio-demographic information, awareness and specific knowledge of HPV, practice of HPV testing, and HPV vaccination-related attitude were collected. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse possible associations. RESULTS: Approximately one third of total 8639 women aged from 30 to 60 years old had ever received HPV testing. Overall, 67.6% of all participants demonstrated low knowledge level of HPV. High HPV knowledge level was significantly associated with HPV testing behaviour (odds ratio: 3.792, 95% confidence interval: 3.400-4.230). The impact of residence and education on testing behaviour only turned to be significant if women had low level of HPV knowledge (P for multiplicative interactions: 0.001 and <0.001, respectively), whereas monthly income exerted promotion effects apparently among those with high knowledge level (P for multiplicative interaction: 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed gaps in HPV knowledge and screening participation among Chinese women, and provided novel clues that women with high HPV knowledge level would be more appeal to involve in HPV testing behaviour. The influence of HPV-related knowledge on HPV testing also lies in the joint effects with socio-demographic factors, including residence, education and monthly income.

3.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809472

RESUMO

BK polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) and allograft rejection are two closely-associated diseases on opposite ends of the immune scale in kidney transplant recipients. The principle of balancing the immune system remains the mainstay of therapeutic strategy. While patient outcomes can be improved through screening, risk factors identification, and rapid reduction of immunosuppressants, a lack of standard curative therapy is the primary concern during clinical practice. Additionally, difficulty in pathological differential diagnosis and clinicopathology's dissociation pose problems for a definite diagnosis. This article discusses the delicate evaluation needed to optimize immunosuppression and reviews recent advances in molecular diagnosis and immunological therapy for BKVN patients. New biomarkers for BKVN diagnosis are under development. For example, measurement of virus-specific T cell level may play a role in steering immunosuppressants. The development of cellular therapy may provide prevention, even a cure, for BKVN, a complex post-transplant complication.

4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(2): 32-42, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), patients may experience different prodromal symptoms (PSs) that may delay their seeking medical treatment prior to hospitalization. PURPOSE: This study was designed to identify the relationship between PSs and demographics, including gender and age, acute symptoms, and pre-hospital delay time, in patients with AMI. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was applied, and a convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 121 patients in the emergency room of a medical center located in southern Taiwan. Instruments, including a demographic and disease variables datasheet, acute symptoms of AMI, McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey (MAPMISS), and pre-hospital delay time, were used. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and Spearman correlation coefficients tests were used to examine the respective relationships between the targeted variables and PSs. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the important determinants of PSs. RESULTS: Most (83.5%) of the participants had experienced PSs. The MAPMISS score was significantly associated with age (ρ= -.20, p < .05) and marital status (Z = 2.23, p < .05). Three prodromal symptoms, including pain or discomfort in left breast, pain or discomfort in the legs, and change in headache intensity, were significantly different between male and female participants. Only one symptom, pain or discomfort in the central high chest area, differed significantly among age groups. Binary logistic regression analysis found that participants in the 40-60 years old age group were 3.19 times more likely to develop PSs than their peers in the 65 years old and older group. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results of this study suggest that PSs should be incorporated into medical education to increase the cognition and awareness of healthcare professionals toward PSs and to improve patient education overall in order to strengthen public awareness regarding the relationship between PSs and AMI and subsequently increase the timeliness of their seeking appropriate medical help.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e24118, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832059

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Genetic alterations are vital to the progression of osteosarcoma carcinoma. The present study investigated a panel of gene signatures that could evaluate prognosis in osteosarcoma based on data from the Therapeutically Applicable Research To Generate Effective Treatments initiative. Osteosarcoma messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles and clinical data were downloaded from the therapeutically applicable research to generate effective treatments database. Patients with osteosarcoma were divided into two groups based on findings at diagnosis: with and without metastasis. Differentially expressed mRNAs were compared and analyzed between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses identified a set of eight mRNAs with the ability to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different overall survival times. Further analysis indicated that the eight-mRNA signature was an independent prognostic factor after adjusting for other clinical factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a good performance of the eight-mRNA signature. Further, the biological processes and signaling pathways of the eight-mRNA signature were reviewed using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes resources. Finally, the results of the TCGA analysis were verified by other cohorts from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The identification of an eight-mRNA signature not only provides a prognostic biomarker of osteosarcoma but also offers the potential of novel therapeutic targets for its treatment.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809195

RESUMO

Aberrant composition of glycans in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins are hallmarks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the mechanisms responsible for establishing the TME remain unclear. We demonstrate that the chondroitin polymerizing factor (CHPF), an enzyme that mediates the elongation of chondroitin sulfate (CS), is a critical elicitor of the malignant characteristics of HCC as it modifies the potent tumor suppressor, decorin (DCN). CHPF expression is frequently downregulated in HCC tumors, which is associated with the poor overall survival of HCC patients. We observed that restoring CHPF expression suppressed HCC cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that TGF-ß signaling is associated with CHPF-induced phenotype changes. We found that DCN, as a TGF-ß regulator, is modified by CHPF, and that it affects the distribution of DCN on the surface of HCC cells. Importantly, our results confirm that CHPF and DCN expression levels are positively correlated in primary HCC tissues. Taken together, our results suggest that CHPF dysregulation contributes to the malignancy of HCC cells, and our study provides novel insights into the significance of CS, which affects DCN expression in the TME.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25191, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761701

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Though the majority of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients have a good prognosis after careful and standardized therapy, approximately 13% to 15% of DTC cases show surprisingly aggressive behavior and invasion of the surrounding structures, and a few progress to unresectable diseases. In this study, we report a case of an inoperable locally advanced DTC patient who underwent a curative operation after treatment of preoperative monotherapy of apatinib in a short time. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old woman complained of dysphagia due to large cervical mass, which severely invaded the left esophagus at the junction of the neck and thorax. DIAGNOSES: The female patient was diagnosed with locally advanced papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) by cytopathology and it was difficult to perform a safe and complete removal. INTERVENTIONS: Apatinib (500 mg orally once a day) was initially used to treat this patient as a neoadjuvant therapy. OUTCOMES: Six weeks later, the tumor dramatically shrunk from 56 × 37 mm to 29 × 26 mm with well-controlled mild hypertension. After a 10-day interval of apatinib withdrawal, complete tumor excision was accomplished through cervical incision without esophageal fistula. Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone suppression and radioiodine 131I ablation therapy were performed. At the 1-year follow-up evaluation, no tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed. LESSONS: Preoperative short term targeted treatment with apatinib for locally advanced inoperable DTC may become a promising neoadjuvant therapy that, can reduce the tumor size and decrease stage, thus making the complete and safe removal of the lesion feasible.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/complicações , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Genes Dev ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766984

RESUMO

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a poorly understood and devastating vascular cancer. Sequencing of EHE has revealed a unique gene fusion between the Hippo pathway nuclear effector TAZ (WWTR1) and the brain-enriched transcription factor CAMTA1 in ∼90% of cases. However, it remains unclear whether the TAZ-CAMTA1 gene fusion is a driver of EHE, and potential targeted therapies are unknown. Here, we show that TAZ-CAMTA1 expression in endothelial cells is sufficient to drive the formation of vascular tumors with the distinctive features of EHE, and inhibition of TAZ-CAMTA1 results in the regression of these vascular tumors. We further show that activated TAZ resembles TAZ-CAMTA1 in driving the formation of EHE-like vascular tumors, suggesting that constitutive activation of TAZ underlies the pathological features of EHE. We show that TAZ-CAMTA1 initiates an angiogenic and regenerative-like transcriptional program in endothelial cells, and disruption of the TAZ-CAMTA1-TEAD interaction or ectopic expression of a dominant negative TEAD in vivo inhibits TAZ-CAMTA1-mediated transformation. Our study provides the first genetic model of a TAZ fusion oncoprotein driving its associated human cancer, pinpointing TAZ-CAMTA1 as the key driver and a valid therapeutic target of EHE.

9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(2): 101-109, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685568

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association of socioeconomic status with the burden of cataract blindness in terms of year lived with disability (YLD) rates and to determine whether ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels modify the effect of socioeconomic status on this health burden. Methods: National and subnational age-standardized YLD rates associated with cataract-related blindness were derived from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2017. The human development index (HDI) from the Human Development Report was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. Estimated ground-level UVR exposure was obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) dataset of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results: Across 185 countries, socioeconomic status was inversely associated with the burden of cataract blindness. Countries with a very high HDI had an 84% lower age-standardized YLD rate [95% confidence interval ( CI): 60%-93%, P < 0.001] than countries with a low HDI; for high-HDI countries, the proportion was 76% (95% CI: 53%-88%, P < 0.001), and for medium-HDI countries, the proportion was 48% (95% CI: 15%-68%, P = 0.010; P for trend < 0.001). The interaction analysis showed that UVR exposure played an interactive role in the association between socioeconomic status and cataract blindness burden ( P value for interaction = 0.047). Conclusion: Long-term high-UVR exposure amplifies the association of poor socioeconomic status with the burden of cataract-related blindness. The findings emphasize the need for strengthening UVR exposure protection interventions in developing countries with high-UVR exposure.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Catarata/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Cegueira/etiologia , Catarata/etiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Org Lett ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734717

RESUMO

The direct regio- and enantioselective C6 functionalization of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with azadienes has been developed using chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst, providing a convenient approach to synthesize the optically active heterotriarylmethanes with excellent yields, broad substrate scope, and up to 98% ee. Mechanistic studies revealed that N-alkylation of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with azadienes would be reversible, and enantioselective C6 functionalization could be enabled.

11.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2100008, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646600

RESUMO

Resiquimod is an immunopotent toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist with antitumor activity. Despite being potent against skin cancers, it is poorly tolerated systemically due to toxicity. Integrating resiquimod into nanoparticles presents an avenue to circumvent the toxicity problem. Herein, the preparation of degradable nanoparticles with covalently bound resiquimod and their systemic application in cancer immunotherapy is reported. Dispersion in water of amphiphilic constructs integrating resiquimod covalently bound via degradable amide or ester linkages yields immune-activating nanoparticles. The degradable agonist-nanoparticle bonds allow the release of resiquimod from the carrier nanoparticles. In vitro assays with antigen presenting cells demonstrate that the nanoparticles retain the immunostimulatory activity of resiquimod. Systemic administration of the nanoparticles and checkpoint blockade (aPD-1) to a breast cancer mouse model with multiple established tumors triggers antitumor activity evidenced by suppressed tumor growth and enhanced CD8+ T-cell infiltration. Nanoparticles with ester links, which hydrolyze more readily, yield a stronger immune response with 75% of tumors eliminated when combined with aPD-1. The reduced tumor growth and the presence of activated CD8+ T-cells across multiple tumors suggest the potential for treating metastatic cancer.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661984

RESUMO

The impacts of wavelengths in 500-600 nm on plant response and their underlying mechanisms remain elusive and required further investigation. Here, we investigated the effect of light quality on leaf area growth, biomass, pigments content, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) across three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, along with changes in transcription, photosynthates content, and antioxidative enzyme activity. Eleven-leaves plants were treated with BL; 450 nm, AL; 595 nm, RL; 650 nm, and FL; 400-700 nm as control. RL significantly increased leaf area growth, biomass, and promoted Pn. BL increased leaf area growth, carotenoid and anthocyanin content. AL significantly reduced leaf area growth and biomass, while Pn remained unaffected. Petiole elongation was further observed across accessions under AL. To explore the underlying mechanisms under AL, expression of key marker genes involved in light-responsive photosynthetic reaction, enzymatic activity of antioxidants, and content of photosynthates were monitored in Col-0 under AL, RL (as contrast), and FL (as control). AL induced transcription of GSH2 and PSBA, while downregulated NPQ1 and FNR2. Photosynthates, including proteins and starches, showed lower content under AL. SOD and APX showed enhanced enzymatic activity under AL. These results provide insight into physiological and photosynthetic responses to light quality, in addition to identifying putative protective-mechanisms that may be induced to cope with lighting-stress in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667241

RESUMO

Ever since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, various public health control strategies have been proposed and tested against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We study three specific COVID-19 epidemic control models: the susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered (SEIR) model with vaccination control; the SEIR model with shield immunity control; and the susceptible, un-quarantined infected, quarantined infected, confirmed infected (SUQC) model with quarantine control. We express the control requirement in metric temporal logic (MTL) formulas (a type of formal specification languages) which can specify the expected control outcomes such as "the deaths from the infection should never exceed one thousand per day within the next three months" or "the population immune from the disease should eventually exceed 200 thousand within the next 100 to 120 days". We then develop methods for synthesizing control strategies with MTL specifications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to systematically synthesize control strategies based on the COVID-19 epidemic models with formal specifications. We provide simulation results in three different case studies: vaccination control for the COVID-19 epidemic with model parameters estimated from data in Lombardy, Italy; shield immunity control for the COVID-19 epidemic with model parameters estimated from data in Lombardy, Italy; and quarantine control for the COVID-19 epidemic with model parameters estimated from data in Wuhan, China. The results show that the proposed synthesis approach can generate control inputs such that the time-varying numbers of individuals in each category (e.g., infectious, immune) satisfy the MTL specifications. The results also show that early intervention is essential in mitigating the spread of COVID-19, and more control effort is needed for more stringent MTL specifications. For example, based on the model in Lombardy, Italy, achieving less than 100 deaths per day and 10000 total deaths within 100 days requires 441.7% more vaccination control effort than achieving less than 1000 deaths per day and 50000 total deaths within 100 days.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Vacinação , Algoritmos , /imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Imunidade , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , /isolamento & purificação
14.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(3): 542-551, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689308

RESUMO

OptoPB is an optogenetic tool engineered by fusion of the phosphoinositide (PI)-binding polybasic domain of Rit1 (Rit-PB) to a photoreactive light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain. OptoPB selectively and reversibly binds the plasma membrane (PM) under blue light excitation, and in the dark, it releases back to the cytoplasm. However, the molecular mechanism of optical regulation and lipid recognition is still unclear. Here using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, liposome pulldown assay, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we find that OptoPB binds to membrane mimetics containing di- or triphosphorylated phosphatidylinositols, particularly phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), an acidic phospholipid predominantly located in the eukaryotic PM. In the dark, steric hindrance prevented this protein-membrane interaction, while 470 nm blue light illumination activated it. NMR titration and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that both cationic and hydrophobic Rit-PB residues are essential to the membrane interaction, indicating that OptoPB binds the membrane via a specific PI(4,5)P2-dependent mechanism.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 643-652, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742858

RESUMO

Vehicle pollution in Sichuan Province is becoming increasingly serious. Here, based on specific inventory calculation methods and multi-caliber activity level data, this study calculated vehicle exhaust emissions from 2010 to 2017 in Sichuan Province. The results show that the average growth rate of vehicle ownership in Sichuan is higher than the national trend. In 2017, vehicle emissions of CO, NOx, SO2, NH3, HC, PM2.5, PM10, BC, and OC were 706.9, 275.3, 0.3, 5.7, 164.8, 8.1, 8.9, 4.1, and 1.4 kt, respectively. Except for NH3, showed a downward trend, peaking in 2014-2016. Diesel vehicle ownership showed a strong correlation with the emission of NOx. Based on these observations, stricter vehicle emission standards offer the greatest potential for emissions reductions, with early implementation offering the greatest reduction potential. The improvement of fuel quality will also have more than a 6% emission reduction effect on pollutant emission each year. HC and NOx emissions reductions will be an important control on vehicle pollution in Sichuan Province in the future.

16.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(13): 2895-2900, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725062

RESUMO

The first nickel-catalyzed oxidative domino Csp3-H/N-H double isocyanide insertion reaction of acetamides with isocyanides has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolin-2-one derivatives. A wide range of acetamides bearing various functional groups are compatible with this reaction system by utilizing Ni(acac)2 as a catalyst. In this transformation, isocyanide could serve as a C1 connector and insert into the inactive Csp3-H bond, representing an effective way to construct heterocycles.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1558-1563, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787154

RESUMO

To explore prescription medication regularity in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). With Alzheimer's disease or senile dementia as the subject, collecting and sorting out the journal papers in CNKI were collected as the data source to establish the literature research database of Alzheimer's disease prescriptions, and then the association rule analysis, factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis on the included TCM were conducted. Among the 113 prescriptions included in the standard, the single herb Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma was the most common. The herbs were mainly warm and flat among four pro-perties, mainly sweet, bitter and spicy among five flavors. The drugs were mainly distributed in five internal organs, and the most commonly used drugs were deficiency tonifying drugs as well as blood activating and stasis removing drugs. In the association rule analysis, it was found that there were 6 drug pairs with the highest association strength. Eight common factors were extracted from the factor analysis, and they were classified into 6 categories in the systematic cluster analysis. The results have shown that the overall principles in treating Alzheimer's disease with modern Chinese medicine are tonifying deficiency, invigorating circulation, activating blood and dispelling phlegm.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Mineração de Dados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Prescrições
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5515, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750883

RESUMO

Benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in the atmosphere possess great carcinogenic potential to human health, and the understanding of its scavenging mechanisms has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a new quantitative method is proposed to make a comparative analysis of the long-term contributions of wet deposition and photodegradation to BaP removal based on multi-fractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA). According to the precipitation and global solar radiation (GSR) observations from 1998 to 2016 for two urban sites (Central/Western District and TsuenWan) in Hong Kong, the wet deposition and photodegradation of BaP are analyzed. Using MFDCCA method, long-term cross-correlation between precipitation/GSR and BaP are investigated. Moreover, the differences of multifractal features in cross-correlations of precipitation-BaP and GSR-BaP system are analyzed. Strong long-term persistence is observed in the cross-correlations for precipitation-BaP system in a one-year cycle; while cross-correlations between GSR and BaP show weak persistence over the whole timescale. Based on the meteorology in Hong Kong, this difference has been discussed. Then, contributions of wet deposition and photodegradation to atmospheric BaP removal are quantified based on MFDCCA method, which are further compared between summer and winter. The comparative analysis suggests that wet deposition plays a more significant role in the removal of atmospheric BaP. Specifically, in summer, the contributions of wet deposition are twice as much as that of photodegradation for both two sites; while in winter, the contribution of photodegradation is a little higher than that of wet deposition to BaP removal. Meanwhile, for wet deposition, the contributions in summer are about ten times greater than that in winter; while for photodegradation, the difference in contributions between summer and winter are relatively smaller. Furthermore, based on sliding window technique, the temporal evolutions in the contributions of wet deposition/photodegradation to BaP removal have been presented for both two sites. On this basis, it is discovered that the comprehensive contributions of wet deposition and photodegradation peak in June, and reach their lowest levels in December for both two sites. Quantifying the contribution of meteorological factors to the removal of atmospheric BaP is help for understanding its geochemical cycle.

19.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) is the most important treatment for end-stage lung diseases. However, the treatment of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung diseases (CTD-ILD) using LTx is still controversial especially for polymyositis/dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung disease (PM/DM-ILD). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=180) and CTD-ILD (n= 36) from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019 were recruited into the study. We set polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) as a single subgroup, and all the patients underwent LTx at the Wuxi People's Hospital. RESULTS: We found that patients with non-myositis connective tissue-related ILD (NM-CTLD) were younger (p=0.007) and had a higher percentage of females (p=0.000) than patients with IPF. PM/DM-ILD was associated with a higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) (p=0.006) and a longer time in the intensive care unit (ICU) (p=0.000). The cumulative survival rates of patients with PM/DM-ILD were significantly lower than those with IPF (log rank, p=0.003). However, there were no significant differences when compared with the cumulative survival rates of patients with NM-CTLD and IPF (log rank, p=0.528). Age- and gender-adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses indicated that post-LTx PGD (HR 1.498, 95% CI 1.227-1.828, p=0.000) and duration of ICU (HR 1.027, 95% CI 1.007-1.047, p=0.000) were the independent contributors of disease status to survival. Lung infection was the leading cause of post-LTx death in the groups, where the incidence was 65.3% (47/72) in IPF, 66.7% (8/12) in NM-CTLD, and 66.7% (4/6) in PM/DM-ILD. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with NM-CTLD had a similar survival outcome with IPF. However, patients with PM/DM-ILD-performed LTx had a lower survival rate than those with IPF. Key Points • Previous studies have shown that the myopathies associated ILD patients had similar post-LTx outcomes with IPF patients. However, our retrospective analysis indicated that patients with PM/DM-ILD-performed LTx had a lower survival rate than those with IPF. • Patients with NM-CTLD had a similar survival outcome with IPF. • We also found that PM/DM-ILD was associated with a higher incidence of PGD and a longer time in the ICU.

20.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 193, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life-long peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a renal replacement therapy is limited by peritoneal fibrosis. Previous studies showed immunomodulatory and antifibrotic effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on peritoneal fibrosis. However, the role of the peritoneal macrophage in this process remains uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the therapeutic effects of ADSC and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) in the rat model of dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis using methylglyoxal. In addition, treatment of macrophages with the conditioned medium of ADSC and BM-MSC was performed individually to identify the beneficial component of the stem cell secretome. RESULTS: In the in vivo experiments, we found dialysis-induced rat peritoneal fibrosis was attenuated by both ADSC and BM-MSC. Interestingly, ADSC possessed a more prominent therapeutic effect than BM-MSC in ameliorating peritoneal membrane thickening while also upregulating epithelial cell markers in rat peritoneal tissues. The therapeutic effects of ADSC were positively associated with M2 macrophage polarization. In the in vitro experiments, we confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by MSCs upon transforming growth factor-ß1 stimulation promotes M2 macrophage polarization. CONCLUSIONS: In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, MSCs are situated in an inflammatory environment of TGF-ß1 and secrete IL-6 to polarize macrophages into the M2 phenotype. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified role of tissue macrophage in this antifibrotic process. ADSC has the advantage of abundance and accessibility, making the application values extremely promising. In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, peritoneal mesothelial cells secrete transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) when exposed to methylglyoxal (MGO)-containing peritoneal dialysate. When situated in TGF-ß1, the inflammatory environment induces mesenchymal stem cells to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 polarizes macrophages into the M2 phenotype. The dominant peritoneal tissue M2 macrophages, marked by upregulated Arg-1 expression, account for the attenuation of MGO-induced dedifferentiation of peritoneal mesothelial cells to maintain epithelial integrity.

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