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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445768

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease mainly involving synovial inflammation and articular bone destruction. RA is a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical presentations, prognoses and therapeutic responses. Following the first discovery of rheumatoid factors (RFs) 80 years ago, the identification of both anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP Abs) has greatly facilitated approaches toward RA, especially in the fields of early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of the disease. Although these antibodies share many common features and can function synergistically to promote disease progression, they differ mechanistically and have unique clinical relevance. Specifically, these three RA associating auto-antibodies (autoAbs) all precede the development of RA by years. However, while the current evidence suggests a synergic effect of RF and ACPA in predicting the development of RA and an erosive phenotype, controversies exist regarding the additive value of anti-CarP Abs. In the present review, we critically summarize the characteristics of these autoantibodies and focus on their distinct clinical applications in the early identification, clinical manifestations and prognosis prediction of RA. With the advancement of treatment options in the era of biologics, we also discuss the relevance of these autoantibodies in association with RA patient response to therapy.

3.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 733464820984283, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406968

RESUMO

We examined features of everyday activities (capacity and frequency) between older adults with and without cognitive impairment over 12 months. Participants aged ≥60 years and at risk for depression were included (n = 260); 26% (n = 69) had an acquired cognitive impairment at baseline. Cognitive impairment was defined as one standard deviation below norms on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Features of everyday activities were measured by a computerized adaptive test version of Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) at six time points (baseline, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12 months). There were significant between-group differences in activity frequency (p = .04), but not activity capacity (p = .05). The group difference in activity frequency exceeded minimal detectable changes (MDC90 = 3.7) and reached moderate clinical meaningfulness (∆ at six time points = 3.7-4.7). Generalized linear mixed models revealed no Group × Time interactions on activity capacity and frequency (p = .65 and p = .98). Practitioners may assess changes in activity frequency to monitor cognitive status of clients even when there is no loss of activity capacity.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256165

RESUMO

For a long time, cisplatin-based chemotherapy had been viewed as first-line chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, many patients with UC had been classified as cisplatin-ineligible who can only receive alternative chemotherapy with poor treatment response, and the vast majority of the cisplatin-eligible patients eventually progressed, even those with objective response with cisplatin-based chemotherapy initially. By understanding tumor immunology in UC, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting on programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) pathways, had been proven as first-line treatment for cisplatin-ineligible metastatic UC and as second-line treatment for patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2020, JAVEIN bladder 100 further reported that PD-L1 inhibitors showed benefits on prolonged survival and progression-free survival as maintenance therapy. Besides targeting on immune checkpoint, manipulation of the tumor microenvironment by metabolic pathways intervention, including inhibition on tumor glycolysis, lactate accumulation and exogenous glutamine uptake, had been investigated in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we start by introducing traditional chemotherapy of UC, and then we summarize current evidences supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and highlight ongoing clinical trials. Lastly, we reviewed the tumor metabolic characteristic and the anti-tumor treatments targeting on metabolic pathways.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172034

RESUMO

While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), these benefits remained controversial in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). We compared major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-inhibitors) in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan's national health insurance research database (NHIRD), 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between 1 April 2006 and 31 December 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification until the study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or 31 December 2017, whichever came first. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs. 12.62% per person-years, hazard ratio (HR): 0.85, 95% (CI): 0.729-0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs. 13.22% per person-years, (HR): 0.88, 95% (CI): 0.771-0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs. 10.04% (HR): 0.59, 95% (CI): 0.42-0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs. 3.84% (HR): 0.61, 95% (CI): 0.40-0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were even more significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126729

RESUMO

The presence of fever has long been a warning sign of severe urinary tract infection (UTI). However, we previously identified that inpatients with afebrile UTI had an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). After expanding this cohort, 1132 inpatients with UTI diagnosed between January 2006 and April 2019 were analyzed. Overall, 159 (14%) of these patients developed AKI; bacteremia, urolithiasis, septic shock, hypertension, lower baseline renal function, marked leukocytosis, and the absence of fever were independently linked to AKI. When we further studied the cohort of inpatients with fever during hospitalization, we identified a group of "delayed fever" UTI inpatients who did not have fever as their initial presentation. Compared to patients presenting with fever at the emergency department, patients with delayed fever tended to be younger and have less frequent infection with Escherichia coli, more frequent AKI, upper tract infection, and a longer hospital stay. Despite the initial absence of fever, these patients demonstrated larger extents of elevations in both serum white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels. In short, besides UTI patients with lower baseline renal function that remain afebrile during their hospital stay, clinical awareness of the increased incidence of AKI in younger patients with "delayed fever" should also be noted.

7.
Biomed J ; 43(5): 434-437, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012698

RESUMO

The importance of oxygen to life has been recognized for hundreds of years, but how cells and tissues sense reduced oxygen levels remained elusive until the late twentieth century. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza for their discovery of hypoxia-inducible factor, a key transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to decreases in cellular oxygenation. The three scientists provided the first information about the cellular oxygen-sensing mechanism and downstream signal transduction under hypoxic conditions. Their discoveries have also paved the way for promising novel treatments for cancer, renal anemia, and inflammatory disease.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013854

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by a mutation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and is the most common genetic mutation in patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, genetic defects, and/or BTK expression in patients suspected of having XLA who were referred from the Taiwan Foundation of Rare Disorders (TFRD). Methods: Patients with recurrent bacterial infections in the first 2 years of life, serum IgG/A/M below 2 standard deviations of the normal range, and ≦2% CD19+B cells were enrolled during the period of 2004-2019. The frequency of infections, pathogens, B-lymphocyte subsets, and family pedigree were recorded. Peripheral blood samples were sent to our institute for BTK expression and genetic analysis. Results: Nineteen (from 16 families) out of 29 patients had BTK mutations, including 7 missense mutations, 7 splicing mutations, 1 nonsense mutation, 2 huge deletions, and 2 nucleotide deletions. Six novel mutations were detected: c.504G>T [p.K168N], c.895-2A>G [p.Del K290 fs 23*], c.910T>G [p.F304V], c.1132T>C [p.T334H], c.1562A>T [p.D521V], and c.1957delG [Del p.D653 fs plus 45 a.a.]. All patients with BTK mutations had obviously decreased BTK expressions. Pseudomonas sepsis developed in 14 patients and led to both Shanghai fever and recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and bronchiectasis occurred in 11 patients. One patient died of pseudomonas sepsis and another died of hepatocellular carcinoma before receiving optimal treatment. Two patients with contiguous gene deletion syndrome (CGS) encompassing the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene presented with early-onset progressive post-lingual sensorineural Deafness, gradual Dystonia, and Optic Neuronopathy syndrome (DDON) or Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS). Conclusion: Pseudomonas sepsis was more common (74%) than recurrent sinopulmonary infections in Taiwanese XLA patients, and related to Shanghai fever and recurrent HLH, both of which were prevented by regular immunoglobulin infusions. Approximately 10% of patients belonged to CGS involving the TIMM8A/DDP1 gene and presented with the DDON/MTS phenotype in need of aggressive psychomotor therapy.

10.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(6): 100127, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612736

RESUMO

Background: Some studies have shown associations of maternal age at delivery with asthma and food allergy in offspring. However, the relationship between maternal age at delivery and allergic rhinitis is largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal age at delivery and allergic rhinitis in a population sample of Asian children, and to explore potential effect modifiers. Methods: A total of 1344 singleton-birth children (763 boys, 56.8%; mean age, 6.4 years) participating in the Longitudinal Investigation of Global Health in Taiwanese Schoolchildren (LIGHTS) cohort were evaluated by a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and interviewed by pediatricians. Allergic sensitization was determined by using Phadiatop Infant. Multiple logistic regression models with covariates adjustment were performed to investigate the association of maternal age at delivery with allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization in offspring. Results: Among 1344 study children, 793 (59%) had physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis. Advanced maternal age at delivery (≥40 years) was significantly associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-11.03) and allergic sensitization (AOR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.13-7.22) in offspring. A sex-stratified analysis revealed that the association of advanced maternal age with allergic rhinitis was statistically significant only in female offspring (AOR = 7.02, 95% CI: 1.89-26.14). Stratified analyses by birth order or environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy did not reveal any significant differences. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age at delivery was associated with increased risk of allergic rhinitis in Asian children, probably more pronounced among girls.

11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670274

RESUMO

Deficiencies in T regulatory (Treg) and Th17 cells attenuate peripheral tolerance and the IL-17 family of cytokines, contributing to autoimmune disorders and opportunistic (fungal) infections, respectively. Because of limited blood samples from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), a positive correlation/linear relationship between Treg and Th17 cells and their respective expressions of transcription factors forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγt) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) amplification, was used to predict the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood. Compared to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression, the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells were calculated as the linear relationship to the 2-ΔCT value (cycle threshold). Among 91 PIDs patients, 68 and 78 had predicted Treg and Th17 percentages below 5% of the normal ranges (0.859 and 0.734%, respectively), which expanded different categories beyond obvious T cell deficiency. Notably, FOXP3 was undetectable in one patient (CVID), RORγt was undetectable in six patients (one CVID, one CID, two neutropenia, one WAS, and one CMC), and both were undetectable in four patients (two SCID, one STAT1, and one periodic fever). In contrast, two patients with auto-IFNγ antibodies had increased susceptibility to intracellular mycobacterial infections, interrupted Th1 development and subsequent elevation in the Th17 cells. Both predicted Treg and Th17 percentages in the PIDs patients were more independent of age (months) than in the controls. The predicted Th17/Treg ratio in the PIDs patients, overall, was lower than that in the healthy controls (0.79 ± 0.075 vs. 1.16 ± 0.208; p = 0.038). In conclusion, lower predicted Treg and Th17 cell populations calculated by RT-PCR-amplified FOXP3 and RORγt in PIDs patients at diagnosis can explain the higher potential phenotypes of autoimmune disorders and opportunistic infections, although effective interventions in the early stage might have prevented such phenotypic development and caused a statistical bias in the comparisons.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512739

RESUMO

Individuals with high anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers have an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although our knowledge of the generation and production of ACPAs has continuously advanced during the past decade, our understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms of how ACPAs interact with immune cells to trigger articular inflammation is relatively limited. Citrullination disorders drive the generation and maintenance of ACPAs, with profound clinical significance in patients with RA. The loss of tolerance to citrullinated proteins, however, is essential for ACPAs to exert their pathogenicity. N-linked glycosylation, cross-reactivity and the structural interactions of ACPAs with their citrullinated antigens further direct their biological functions. Although questions remain in the pathogenicity of ACPAs acting as agonists for a receptor-mediated response, immune complex (IC) formation, complement system activation, crystallizable fragment gamma receptor (FcγR) activation, cross-reactivity to joint cartilage and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-related mechanisms have all been suggested recently. This paper presents a critical review of the characteristics and possible biological effects and mechanisms of the immunopathogenesis of ACPAs in patients with RA.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512898

RESUMO

In the relatively short history of anti-tumor treatment, numerous medications have been developed against a variety of targets. Intriguingly, although many anti-tumor strategies have failed in their clinical trials, metformin, an anti-diabetic medication, demonstrated anti-tumor effects in observational studies and even showed its synergistic potential with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in subsequent clinical studies. Looking back from bedside-to-bench, it may not be surprising that the anti-tumor effect of metformin derives largely from its ability to rewire aberrant metabolic pathways within the tumor microenvironment. As one of the most promising breakthroughs in oncology, ICIs were also found to exert their immune-stimulatory effects at least partly via rewiring metabolic pathways. These findings underscore the importance of correcting metabolic pathways to achieve sufficient anti-tumor immunity. Herein, we start by introducing the tumor microenvironment, and then we review the implications of metabolic syndrome and treatments for targeting metabolic pathways in anti-tumor therapies. We further summarize the close associations of certain aberrant metabolic pathways with impaired anti-tumor immunity and introduce the therapeutic effects of targeting these routes. Lastly, we go through the metabolic effects of ICIs and conclude an overall direction to manipulate metabolic pathways in favor of anti-tumor responses.

14.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(3): 7403205130p1-7403205130p10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365319

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Before introducing strategy training into a cross-cultural (Chinese) context, it is necessary to evaluate its feasibility. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of applying strategy training to improve participation outcomes of rehabilitation patients in Taiwan and evaluate the potential intervention effects. DESIGN: A single-group, repeated-measures study. SETTING: Rehabilitation outpatient settings. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of adults (N = 20) with a primary diagnosis of acquired brain injury (ABI) and with cognitive impairment received the intervention and were assessed before and after it. INTERVENTION: The participation-focused strategy training intervention, a modified version of the strategy training intervention, was provided to participants in 1-2 sessions weekly for a total of 10-20 intervention sessions. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Feasibility indicators, Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed 100% of the scheduled intervention sessions. Participants had very good engagement in the intervention sessions with sufficient comprehension. Participants reported moderate to high satisfaction. Positive score changes were observed for the PM-3D4D (d = 0.46-1.25) and COPM scales (d = 1.82 and 2.12). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated the feasibility of delivering participation-focused strategy training in Taiwan to people with cognitive impairment after ABI. The preliminary evidence also showed that participants who received the strategy training intervention had positive changes in participation outcomes and in performance of their self-identified goals. On the basis of this study's findings, a larger clinical trial is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of the strategy training intervention. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Participation-focused strategy training is feasible and acceptable for Taiwanese community-dwelling adults with cognitive impairment after ABI. However, because strategy training is quite different from traditional rehabilitation delivered in Taiwan, additional instructions and discussion among the therapist, client, and caregiver may be needed before the intervention is provided.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Taiwan
15.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 18, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070360

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the colour representation of the graph is not correct in Figure 6 legend.

16.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 9, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973755

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: In order to provide juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with better pre-conceptional and prenatal counselling, we investigated the obstetrical and neonatal outcomes among women with Asian descent. METHODS: Through the linkage of Taiwan National Health Insurance database and National Birth Registry, we established a population-based birth cohort in Taiwan between 2004 and 2014. In a case control study design, first children born to mothers with JIA are identified and matched with 5 non-JIA controls by maternal age and birth year. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for maternal and neonatal outcomes crude and with adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 2,100,143 newborn, 778 (0.037%) were born to JIA mothers. Among them, 549 first-born children were included in this research. Our result suggested that babies born to mothers with JIA were more likely to have low birth body weight, with an adjusted OR of 1.35(95% CI: 1.02 to 1.79) when compared to babies born to mothers without. No differences were observed in other perinatal complications between women with and without JIA including stillbirth, prematurity, or small for gestational age. The rate of adverse obstetrical outcomes such as caesarean delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, postpartum hemorrhage and mortality were also similar between the two. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were limited among Asian mothers with JIA. Intensive care may not be necessary for JIA mothers and their newborns.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(5): 797-802, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This clinical study investigates the role of 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with a particular interest in lupus nephritis (LN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred ten children with SLE were enrolled in the cohort study. Among the patients, seventy-seven (70%) had active LN and thirty-three (30%) were not present with LN during their first visit to the clinic. The diagnoses of LN were biopsy-proven. Serum samples were collected before and after administration of immunosuppressive medications to evaluate 5-MTP levels and regular laboratory data. Data were analyzed longitudinally. RESULTS: Before any treatment started, patients with active LN had significantly higher 5-MTP levels as compared to patients with no LN (1.021 ± 0.709 vs. 0.719 ± 0.606, P = 0.0456). Also, in patient with active LN, 5-MTP level was significant decreased after treatment, compared with the levels before treatment (1.021 ± 0.709 vs. 0.802 ± 0.597, P = 0.0484). Patients who reached complete remission also had significantly higher initial serum 5-MTP levels than that in patients with no remission (1.244 ± 0.784 vs. 0.846 ± 0.556, P = 0.0488). There was an overall reduction in 5-MTP levels after six months of immunosuppressive treatment, regardless of the disease outcome. Subgroup analysis further revealed a significantly higher 5-MTP level during the active stage of LN (1.127 ± 0.149 vs. 0.742 ± 0.092, P = 0.0384). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that serum 5-MTP level is positively correlated to the disease activity, prognosis, and remission status of pediatric LN in vivo.

18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(5): 1159-1169, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628864

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The antihyperuricemic febuxostat's potential renoprotective effect has been demonstrated in stage 1-3 CKD. Large-scale studies comparing the renoprotective potential of febuxostat and allopurinol in advanced CKD are lacking. We exclusively selected 6,057 eligible patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD prescribed either febuxostat or allopurinol using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2012-2015. There were 69.57% of allopurinol users and 42.01% febuxostat users who required long-term dialysis (P < 0.0001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.70) indicated near 35% lower hazards of long-term dialysis with febuxostat use. The renal benefit of febuxostat was consistent across most patient subgroups and/or using the propensity score-matched cohort. The adjusted HR was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.70) for long-term dialysis or death. In conclusion, lower risk of progression to dialysis was observed in predialysis stage 5 CKD febuxostat users without compromising survival.

19.
Gerontologist ; 60(1): e52-e65, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Minimizing disability is critical to reduce the costly health care associated with disability and maintain quality of life into old age. We examined the effect sizes of nonpharmacological intervention studies in reducing disability and explored the active ingredients of interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A scoping review was conducted via PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Thirty-one randomized controlled trials were included. Eight active ingredients were identified by three experts (exercise, problem-solving, cognitive behavioral therapy, environmental modification, education, goal setting, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and cognitive training). RESULTS: The range of Cohen's d was -0.85 to 1.76 across 31 studies (included 33 interventions); 67% studies (n = 22) obtained small-to-negative effect sizes (d = -0.85 to 0.18), accounting for 83% participants across studies. Interventions that incorporated exercise, problem-solving, cognitive behavior therapy, and environmental modification were associated with stronger effect sizes. Interventions that incorporated comprehensive geriatric assessment obtained small effect sizes. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Majority of intervention studies found little or no effect in reducing disability for older adults. To optimize the effects of nonpharmacological interventions, we recommend researchers to (i) develop a screening tool for "risk of disability" to inform those who are early on the disability progression, yet not experience any difficulties in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living; (ii) specify the active ingredients embedded in complex interventions to facilitate change in disability; and (iii) select sensitive tools to capture the progression of disability in late life.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Planejamento Ambiental , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(1): 33-41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raising evidence suggested a prognostic utility of tubulointerstitial lesions in lupus nephritis (LN). The exact prevalence of tubulointerstitial abnormalities and its predictive value among pediatric onset systemic lupus erythematous (pSLE) cases, however, remained unknown. METHODS: Sixty-seven pSLE subjects diagnosed with LN with initial renal samples available were enrolled and followed for an average of 6.49 ± 3.06 years. Renal histology was evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, National Institute of Health classification and tubulointerstitial activity index (TIAI). RESULTS: Tubulointerstitial injuries were observed in 38.81% of all LN cases, including 13.33% with non-proliferative lupus nephritis (nPLN) and 46.15% of with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Tubulointerstitial injuries occurred solitarily in cases with nPLN(13.33%), but always associated glomerular changes and significantly impacted renal survival (p = 0.032) among those with PLN. TIAI associated glomerular abnormalities (p = 0.031) but did not correlate renal performance or subsequent outcome (p = 0.445). Among the chronicity index, it was the chronic tubulointerstitial lesions that provided prognostic information (p = 0.012). None of the individual tubulointerstitial factors, however, reached statistical significance in end-stage renal disease prediction. Finally, considering tubulointerstitial injuries in PLN further discriminated subsequent renal outcome (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Tubulointerstitial abnormalities were found in nearly one-third of all pediatric LN cases. With its importance in early identifying those at risk of renal failure, histologic classification considering tubulointerstitial lesions may potentially assist outcome prediction.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
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