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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 405-411, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237325

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of Laportea bulbifera extract in normal and rheumatoid arthritis model rats. The contents of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, galuteolin, quercetin and isoquercetin in intestinal absorption solution samples were detected by UPLC-MS/MS with 5.0 g·L~(-1) as the absorption concentration. The cumulative absorption(Q) and absorption rate constant(K_a) were calculated, and the absorption characteristics of different components of L. bulbifera in intestinal absorption solution of normal rats and rheumatoid arthritis rats were compared. The results showed that all the eight index components in the extract of L. bulbifera could be absorbed into the intestinal capsule, the cumulative absorption-time curve of each component showed an upward trend without saturation, and the correlation regression coefficient(R~2) was greater than 0.92, which is consistent with the zero-order absorption rate process. It was speculated that the possible absorption mode of each component was passive diffusion. In normal condition, the absorption of ileum was the best(except chlorogenic acid), and in pathological condition, duodenum was the best. The total absorption of 8 components in each intestinal segment of RA rats was better than that of normal rats, which speculated that rheumatoid arthritis may change the specific site of drug absorption. The experimental results showed that rheumatoid arthritis could change the intestinal absorption of the extract of L. bulbifera, and its mechanism needs further study.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232828

RESUMO

We read with great interest the article by Sauvegrain et al. entitled "Understanding high rates of stillbirth and neonatal death in a disadvantaged, high-migrant district in France: a perinatal audit".1 This well-designed study confirmed again that maternal overweight/obesity increases perinatal mortality. We would like to address some points that merit further attention. The intrauterine environment can affect the long-term health of the offspring has been widely accepted. Maternal high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) increases the risks of fetal exposure to higher maternal triglyceride levels during the first trimester.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(7): 3064-3082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194855

RESUMO

A successful matching of a PEG group size with the EPR effect for an off-to-on responsive NIR-fluorophore conjugate has been accomplished which allows two distinct in vivo tumor imaging periods, the first being the switch on during the initial tumor uptake via enhanced permeability into the ROI (as background is suppressed) and a second, later, due to enhanced retention within the tumor. Methods: Software simulation (https://mihaitodor.github.io/particle_simulation/index.html), synthetic chemistry, with in vitro and in vivo imaging have been synergistically employed to identify an optimal PEG conjugate of a bio-responsive NIR-AZA fluorophore for in vivo tumor imaging. Results: A bio-responsive NIR-AZA fluorophore conjugated to a 10 kDa PEG group has shown excellent in vivo imaging performance with sustained high tumor to background ratios and peak tumor emission within 24 h. Analysis of fluorescence profiles over 7 days has provided evidence for the EPR effect playing a positive role. Conclusion: Preclinical results show that exploiting the EPR effect by utilizing an optimized PEG substituent on a bio-responsive fluorophore may offer a means for intraoperative tumor margin delineation. The off-to-on responsive nature of the fluorophore makes tumor imaging achievable without waiting for clearance from normal tissue.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191924

RESUMO

Ammonia synthesis, one of the most challenging chemical synthesis processes, plays a vital role in the development of human industry and agriculture. Compared with industrial Harber-Bosch ammonia process with huge energy input and high CO2 emissions, the search for a resource-saving, environment-friendly ammonia synthesis alternative is extremely urgently, while electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction appears to be a good candidate. In this communication, we report the development of ruthenium nanoparticles as highly efficient and durable nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) electrocatalyst in acidic electrolyte under ambient conditions. Such electrochemical NRR catalyst exhibits a large NH3 formation rate (24.88 µg h-1 mg-1cat.) with Faradaic efficiency (0.35%) at -0.15 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, outperforming many reported NRR electrocatalysts. Note that it exhibits high durability and stability during the entire electrochemical NRR process.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 106: 107012, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spikes on cognition in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and to identify electroencephalography (EEG) markers enabling early detection of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Sixty-one children with BECTS diagnoses and 60 age- and education-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Four-hour EEG recordings were analyzed for each patient to check for interictal spikes, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), nondipole spikes, and other atypical EEG features and to examine the spike-wave index of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. All 121 children underwent a series of neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive function. RESULTS: Patients with a high NREM sleep discharge index (≥55%) in the first sleep cycle exhibited significantly lower scores for arithmetic calculation, executive function, and attention and memory tests than patients with a low discharge index (<55%). Eight patients with HFOs exhibited even poorer performance than HFO-negative patients for arithmetic calculation, executive function, vocabulary comprehension, visual perception, vocal perception, spatial memory ability, and response ability. Children with bilateral discharge exhibited poorer ability in three-dimensional spatial imaging test, poorer memory, and slower response than did those with unilateral discharge (P < .05). Nondipole spikes, multiple asynchronous discharges, and generalized spike-wave discharges respectively had an impact on calculation ability, memory, and reaction ability respectively (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Spike frequencies in stage 3 and 4 sleep varied from those observed in stage 1 and 2 sleep; the highest spike frequency was in stage 2 sleep. High NREM sleep discharge index (i.e., ≥55%) and HFOs were linked to the highest risk for cognitive deficit, while bilateral discharges, nondipole spikes, multiple asynchronous discharges, and generalized spike-wave discharges were less indicative of cognitive impairment.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162222

RESUMO

Plants can improve indoor air quality, and affect the work efficiency and subjective perceptions. However, the conclusions of existing experiments regarding how plants affect work efficiency are not uniform. To further explore this subject, this study designed five different working conditions, and selected a variety of "general tasks" and "tasks requiring concentration" as operational tasks. The effects of the plant arrangement and quantity on work efficiency were studied by analyzing the performance of subjects in different working conditions. The effects of the plants on the subjective perceptions were investigated using questionnaires. The experimental results show that the effects of plants on work efficiency were related to the nature of the work, the placement of the plants, and the number of plants. Plants had no effect on the efficiency of general tasks such as "symmetry breadth," but had a positive impact on the efficiency of general tasks such as "operational breadth." Moreover, by changing the arrangement and quantity of plants, the efficiency of general tasks could be increased by up to 19.1%. In contrast, plants placed within a coincident view had a negative impact on the efficiency of "tasks requiring concentration," and the work efficiency could be reduced by up to 12.4%. In addition, plants could increase enthusiasm and willingness to work by 12.5% and 11.8%, respectively.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152950

RESUMO

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is commonly used to map large axonal pathways in the white matter. Recent technical advances have also enabled dMRI to resolve the small and complex axonal and dendritic projections in the gray matter. This study investigated whether high-resolution dMRI can resolve the hippocampal neuronal projections and detect abnormal connections due to neurological injury. We performed 3D high spatial and angular resolution dMRI of the mouse brains of the offspring survivors from a model of intrauterine (UI) inflammation, who had known functional deficiency in the hippocampus. We used a novel hippocampal connection mapping method to quantify the intra- and inter-hippocampal projections among 34 automatically segmented hippocampal sub-regions. The results demonstrated wide-spread intra-hippocampal projections, but rather specific intra-hippocampal projections that primarily connected through the CA3 region. Compared with the control group (n = 9), UI-injured mice (n = 11) exhibited significantly reduced inter-hippocampal projection strength (p < 0.01), which correlated well with the neurobehavioral assessments (R2 = 0.47). Furthermore, using a whole-brain fixel-based analysis, we identified reduced fiber-density in the CA3 and the ventral hippocampal commissure of the UI-injured mice, which may explain the reduced inter-hippocampal projections. Histological findings also indicated reduced commissural fibers due to the UI-injury. Our study suggested that the dMRI-based connectivity mapping technique can potentially characterize abnormal hippocampal projections in neurological disorders.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Personalization of hemodynamic modeling plays a crucial role in functional prediction of the cardiovascular system (CVS). While reduced-order models of one-dimensional (1D) blood vessel models with zero-dimensional (0D) blood vessel and heart models have been widely recognized to be an effective tool for reasonably estimating the hemodynamic functions of the whole CVS, practical personalized models are still lacking. In this paper, we present a novel 0-1D coupled, personalized hemodynamic model of the CVS that can predict both pressure waveforms and flow velocities in arteries. METHODS: We proposed a methodology by combining the multiscale CVS model with the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm for effectively solving an inverse problem based on measured blood pressure waveforms. Hemodynamic characteristics including brachial arterial pressure waveforms, artery diameters, stroke volumes, and flow velocities were measured noninvasively for 62 volunteers aged from 20 to 70 years for developing and validating the model. RESULTS: The estimated arterial stiffness shows a physiologically realistic distribution. The model-fitted individual pressure waves have an averaged mean square error (MSE) of 7.1 mmHg 2; simulated blood flow velocity waveforms in carotid artery match ultrasound measurements well, achieving an average correlation coefficient of 0.911. CONCLUSION: The model is efficient, versatile, and capable of obtaining well-fitting individualized pressure waveforms while reasonably predicting flow waveforms. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed methodology of personalized hemodynamic modeling may therefore facilitate individualized patient-specific assessment of both physiological and pathological functions of the CVS.

9.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea and chlamydia are common among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM), but testing rates are low. We developed a pay-it-forward program where men receive a free gonorrhea/chlamydia test and can then donate toward future participants' tests. This study aims to investigate drivers of testing uptake and donation using a mixed methods approach. METHODS: We used a sequential explanatory design to explore drivers of testing uptake and donation unique to pay-it-forward through a quantitative cross-sectional survey and a qualitative thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews.We collected data on socio-demographics and perceived benefits of pay-it-forward among men offered the pay-it-forward interventionand analyzed testing uptake and donations using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. We then conducted thirty semi-structured interviews with men and codedinterview data to identify themes. RESULTS: 301 MSM were offered pay-it-forward and 55% (165/301) received gonorrhea/chlamydia testing. 91% (150/165) donated any amount with a mean of 58.31±53.39 RMB ($8.61±7.88 USD), or 39% of the standard price of gonorrhea/chlamydia testing. Getting tested was not associated with income, but donations were higher in the highest income bracket (aOR = 7.12, 95% CI = 1.61-31.52). 58% (94/162) selected "more MSM can get tested" and 54% (88/162) selected "I can help someone else" as benefits of pay-it-forward. Qualitative themes for drivers of testing and donation included flexible pricing, generosity and reciprocity, and MSM community identity. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative and qualitative results suggest that this pay-it-forward program may increase gonorrhea/chlamydia testing by reducing cost barriers, leveraging generosity and reciprocity, and mobilizing community altruism.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150333

RESUMO

Recently, growing evidence has shown that aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in conjunction with an impaired trophoblastic phenotype could implicate the pathological process of pre-eclampsia (PE). However, only a small portion of lncRNAs has been characterized with regard to the function and molecular mechanisms involved in PE. There are still gaps in the available knowledge; as a result, there are currently only a few applicable treatments for PE in the context of lncRNA. Here, we found that lncRNA AGAP2-AS1 is abnormally down-regulated in severe PE placenta tissues. Using human trophoblasts, we established that AGAP2-AS1 knockdown could inhibit trophoblasts proliferation and invasion and promote cell apoptosis. Further, we showed that overexpression of AGAP2-AS1 substantially stimulated the development of the trophoblastic phenotype. Through high-throughput sequencing analysis, we demonstrated that silencing of AGAP2-AS1 favourably regulated various genes which are relevant to trophoblastic growth and invasion. Mechanistically, AGAP2-AS1 promoted the suppressor protein, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), by sponging miR-574-5p. Resultantly, further impairment of the trophoblastic phenotype was achieved by way of inhibiting cell growth, apoptosis and invasion. We also determined that the expression of AGAP2-AS1 could be mediated by FOXP1. Our results showed that the down-regulated expression of lncRNA AGAP2-AS1 might serve as a key suppressor in PE via inhibition of JDP2 at the post-transcriptional level by competing for miR-574; thus, this presents a novel therapeutic strategy for PE.

11.
Food Chem ; 319: 126232, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197213

RESUMO

Yeast ß-glucan (YG) adsorbs off-odor in silver carp mince due to its more porous structure. To explore adsorption behavior and mechanism, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of YG for 3 off-odor compounds (hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal) were investigated by pseudo-first/second-order models and isothermal equations (Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson). Kinetic experiments indicated adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. Adsorption isotherms indicated 3 off-odors could easily be adsorbed by YG and adsorption capacity was in the order of 1-octene-3-ol > hexanal > nonanal. Thermodynamic result suggested adsorption of 3 off-odors by YG was endothermic and spontaneous, and was driven predominantly by physisorption and hydrophobic interaction. Consequently, the contents of 3 off-odors that released from mince/YG complex decreased by 22.8%, 29.9%, and 24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with those from mince without YG. Therefore, the addition of YG enhanced the binding capability to off-odors, thus reducing the release of off-odor from silver carp mince.

12.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820905825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216582

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are known to be important in a variety of cancer types. The specific expression and roles of miR-338-3p in the context of gastric cancer, however, remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-338-3p was expressed significantly lower in established/primary human gastric cancer cells than that in human gastric epithelial cells; miR-338-3p is also decreased in human gastric cancer tissues and was positively associated with the worse prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Enforced expression of miR-338-3p could inhibit cell growth, survival, and proliferation, while inducing cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-338-3p negatively regulated SOX5 expression through directly binding to the 3'-untranslated region of SOX5, and an inverse correlation was found between miR-338-3p and SOX5 messenger RNA expression in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-338-3p-induced inactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling was greatly abrogated by SOX5 upregulation. Finally, we found that hypoxic conditions were linked with reduced miR-338-3p expression in the context of gastric cancer. In conclusion, miR-338-3p acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer, possibly by directly targeting SOX5 and blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. These findings might provide novel therapeutic targets for gastric cancer.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6349-6355, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156732

RESUMO

A combined analytical, theoretical, and experimental study has shown that the vaping of vitamin E acetate has the potential to produce exceptionally toxic ketene gas, which may be a contributing factor to the upsurge in pulmonary injuries associated with using e-cigarette/vaping products. Additionally, the pyrolysis of vitamin E acetate also produces carcinogen alkenes and benzene for which the negative long-term medical effects are well recognized. As temperatures reached in vaping devices can be equivalent to a laboratory pyrolysis apparatus, the potential for unexpected chemistries to take place on individual components within a vape mixture is high. Educational programs to inform of the danger are now required, as public perception has grown that vaping is not harmful.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 400, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homoprejudiced violence, defined as physical, verbal, psychological and cyber aggression against others because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation, is an important public health issue. Most homoprejudiced violence research has been conducted in high-income countries. This study examined homoprejudiced violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: MSM in a large Chinese city, Guangzhou, completed an online survey. Data about experiencing and initiating homoprejudiced violence was collected. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, residence, occupation, heterosexual marriage, education and income, were carried out to explore associated factors. RESULTS: A total of 777 responses were analyzed and most (64.9%) men were under the age of 30. Three-hundred-ninety-nine (51.4%) men experienced homoprejudiced violence and 205 (25.9%) men perpetrated homoprejudiced violence against others. Men who identified as heterosexual were less (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) likely to experience homoprejudiced violence compared to men who identified as gay. Men who experienced homoprejudiced violence were more likely to initiate homoprejudiced violence (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.6-3.5). Men who disclosed their sexual orientation to other people were more likely to experience homoprejudiced violence (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the importance of further research and the implementation of interventions focused on preventing and mitigating the effects of homoprejudiced violence among MSM in China.

15.
J Neural Eng ; 17(2): 026006, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurovascular coupling enables rapid adaptation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to support neuronal activity. Modern techniques enable the simultaneous recording of neuronal activities and hemodynamic parameters. However, the causal relationship between electrical brain activity and CBF is still unclarified. In this study, we investigated the causal relationship between surface electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) from transcranial Doppler using Granger causality (GC) analysis. APPROACH: Twenty simultaneous recordings of EEG and FV from 17 acute ischemic stroke patients were studied. Each patient had simultaneous, continuous monitoring of EEG and bilateral FVs in either the middle cerebral arteries or posterior cerebral arteries. The causal interactions between FV (0.006-0.4 Hz) and EEG (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands) were investigated through GC index (GCI). In order to make the GCIs comparable, the proportion of GCI (PGCI) values where G-causality is statistically significant were calculated. Scores on the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for neurologic disability were recorded respectively at discharge. Patients were divided into a deceased (mRS = 6) and a survival group (mRS = 1 to 5), and a favorable (mRS: 1 to 2) and unfavorable outcome group (mRS: 3 ~ 6). MAIN RESULTS: This study identified a causal relationship from EEG→FV, indicating EEG contained information that can be used for FV prediction. PGCI was negatively related with mRS (p < 0.05), indicating that stronger causalities between EEG and FV exist in patients with better outcome. The NIHSS was negatively related with the asymmetry of the two-side PGCI, calculated as the difference between the lesional side and non-lesional side PGCI. SIGNIFICANCE: A causal relationship from EEG→FV may exist in patients with ischemic stroke. The strength of G-causality may be related to stroke severity at discharge.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common and serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. However, little is known about PVT in patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation (AD). We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of PVT in nonmalignant patients with cirrhosis and AD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 2 cohorts of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic liver disease who participated in the CATCH-LIFE study, established by the Chinese Chronic Liver Failure Consortium, from January 2015 through December 2016 (n=2600 patients) and July 2018 through January 2019 (n=1370 patients). We analyzed data on the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors of PVT from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, with and without AD. RESULTS: The prevalence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD was 9.36%, which was significantly higher than in patients with cirrhosis without AD (5.24%) (P=.04). Among patients with cirrhosis and AD, 63.37% developed PVT recently (the first detected PVT with no indication of chronic PVT). Compared to patients without PVT, a significantly higher proportion of patients with PVT had variceal bleeding (47.33% vs 19.63%; P<.001) and patients with PVT had a significantly higher median serum level of D-dimer (2.07 vs 1.25; P<.001). Splenectomy and endoscopic sclerotherapy were independent risk factors for PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD. The 1-year mortality rate did not differ significantly between patients with vs without PVT. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, a significantly higher proportion of those with AD had PVT than those without AD. PVT was associated with increased variceal bleeding, which would increase the risk for AD. Strategies are needed to prevent PVT in patients with cirrhosis, through regular screening, to reduce portal hypertension.

17.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 103: 103608, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090935

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing has significant advantages, in the biomedical field, allowing for customized medical products where complex architectures can be achieved directly. While additive manufacturing can be used to fabricate synthetic bone models, this approach is limited by the printing resolution, at the level of the trabecular bone architecture. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of using fused deposition modeling (FDM) to this end. To better mimic real bone, both in terms of mechanical properties and biodegradability, a composite of degradable polymer, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and hydroxyapatite (HA) was used as the filament. Three PLA/HA composite formulations with 5-10-15 wt% HA were evaluated, and scaled up human trabecular bone models were printed using these materials. Morphometric and mechanical properties of the printed models were evaluated by micro-computed tomography, compression and screw pull out tests. It was shown that the trabecular architecture could be reproduced with FDM and PLA by applying a scaling factor of 2-4. The incorporation of HA particles reduced the printing accuracy, with respect to morphology, but showed potential for enhancement of the mechanical properties. The scaled-up models displayed comparable, or slightly enhanced, strength compared to the commonly used polymeric foam synthetic bone models (i.e. Sawbones). Reproducing the trabecular morphology by 3D printed PLA/HA composites appears to be a promising strategy for synthetic bone models, when high printed resolution can be achieved.

18.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126035, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014637

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show that there is a link between Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and lung inflammation. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms are not entirely known. This study sought to determine whether exposure to BPA affected the development of ovalbumin (OVA) induced lung inflammation in adolescent female mice and whether the mechanism was related to mTOR-mediated autophagy pathway. Female 4-week-old C57BL/6 mice after one week of domestication were randomly divided into five groups (8/group): control group, OVA group, 0.1 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group, 0.2 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group and 0.4 µg mL-1 BPA + OVA group. BPA exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), induced the pathological changes in the lung, which also enhanced inflammatory cells and cytokine levels. In addition, BPA exposure affected expression of autophagy associated proteins and genes. This research results indicated that BPA aggravated OVA-induced lung inflammation and induced abnormal immune function in mice, and its mechanism was related to the activation of autophagy pathway by down-regulation expression of mTOR. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies to target autophagy may offer a new approach for severe asthma therapy.

19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 154: 112070, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056966

RESUMO

Bead-based immunoassays have shown great promise for rapid and sensitive protein quantification. However, there still lacks holistic understanding of assay performance that can inform assay design and optimization. In this paper, we present an integrated mathematical model for surface coverage bead-based assays. This model examines the building blocks of surface coverage assays, including heterogeneous binding of analyte molecules on bead or sensor surfaces, attachment of bead labels to sensor surfaces, and generation of electrochemical current by bead labels. To demonstrate and validate this model, we analyze a semi-homogeneous bead-based electronic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and find that experimental results agree with various model predictions. We show that the model can provide design guidance for choice of various assay parameters including bead size, bead number, antibody affinity and assay time, and provide a perspective to reconcile the performance of various implementations of surface coverage assays.

20.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 772-780, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008433

RESUMO

The recommendations for the diagnosis of stage 1 hypertension were recently revised by the American Heart Association primarily based on its impact on cardiovascular disease risks. Whether the newly diagnosed stage 1 hypertension impacts pregnancy complications remain poorly defined. We designed a retrospective cohort study to investigate the associations of stage 1 hypertension detected in early gestation (<20 weeks) with risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes stratified by prepregnancy body mass index. A total of 47 874 women with singleton live births and blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg were included, with 5781 identified as stage 1a (systolic BP, 130-134 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 80-84 mm Hg; or both) and 3267 as stage 1b hypertension (systolic BP, 135-139 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 85-90 mm Hg; or both). Slightly higher, yet significant, rates and risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, and low birth weight (<2500 g) were observed in both groups compared with normotensive controls. Importantly, women with stage 1a and stage 1b hypertension had significantly increased incidences of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy compared with normotensive women (adjusted odds ratio, 2.34 [95% CI, 2.16-2.53]; 3.05 [2.78-3.34], respectively). After stratifying by body mass index, stage 1a and 1b hypertension were associated with increased hypertensive disorders in pregnancy risks in both normal weight (body mass index, 18.5-24.9; adjusted odds ratio, 2.44 [2.23-2.67]; 3.26 [2.93-3.63]) and the overweight/obese (body mass index, ≥25; adjusted odds ratio, 1.90 [1.56-2.31]; 2.36 [1.92-2.90]). Current findings suggested significantly increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with stage 1 hypertension based on the revised American Heart Association guidelines, especially in women with prepregnancy normal weight.

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