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1.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586013

RESUMO

Immune cell-mediated killing of cancer cells in a solid tumor is prefaced by a multi-step infiltration cascade of invasion, directed migration, and cytotoxic activities. In particular, immune cells must invade and migrate through a series of different extracellular matrix (ECM) boundaries and domains before reaching and killing their target tumor cells. These infiltration events are a central challenge to the clinical success of CAR T cells against solid tumors. The current standard in vitro cell killing assays measure cell cytotoxicity in an obstacle-free, two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment, which precludes the study of 3D immune cell-ECM interactions. Here, we present a 3D combined infiltration/cytotoxicity assay based on an oil-in-water microtechnology. This assay measures stromal invasion following extravasation, migration through the stromal matrix, and invasion of the solid tumor in addition to cell killing. We compare this 3D cytotoxicity assay to the benchmark 2D assay through tumor assembloid cocultures with immune cells and engineered immune cells. This assay is amenable to an array of imaging techniques, which allows direct observation and quantification of each stage of infiltration in different immune and oncological contexts. We establish the 3D infiltration/cytotoxicity assay as an important tool for the mechanistic study of immune cell interactions with the tumor microenvironment.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2402170, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587064

RESUMO

The rapid advancement of prevailing communication and sensing technologies necessitates cost-effective millimeter-wave arrays equipped with a massive number of phase-shifting cells to perform complicated beamforming tasks. Conventional approaches employing semiconductor switch/varactor components or tunable materials encounter obstacles such as quantization loss, high cost, high complexity, and limited adaptability for realizing large-scale arrays and operating at millimeter-wave frequencies. Here, we report a low-cost, ultrathin, fast-response, and large-scale solution relying on advanced metasurface (i.e., the 2D version of a bulk 3D metamaterial) concepts combined together with ultrathin liquid crystal (LC) materials requiring a layer thickness of only 5 µm. Rather than immersing resonant structures in LCs, a joint material-circuit-based strategy is devised, via integrating deep-subwavelength-thick nematic LCs into slow-wave structures, to achieve constitutive metacells (i.e., artificial atoms or meta-atoms) with continuous phase shifting and stable reflectivity. A LC-facilitated reconfigurable metasurface system containing more than 2300 metacells is realized with its unprecedented comprehensive wavefront manipulation capacity validated through three diverse beamforming functions, including beam focusing/steering, reconfigurable OAM-carrying beams, and tunable holograms, demonstrating a milli-second-level function-switching speed. The proposed methodology offers a paradigm shift for modulating electromagnetic waves in a non-resonating broadband fashion with fast-response and low-cost properties by exploiting functionalized LC-enabled metasurfaces. Moreover, it is expected that this extremely agile metasurface-enabled antenna technology will facilitate a transformative impact on communication/sensing systems and empower new possibilities for wavefront engineering and diffractive wave calculation/inference. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Redox Rep ; 29(1): 2332038, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gentamicin is one of the most common ototoxic drugs that can lower patients' quality of life. Oxidative stress is a key factors inducing sensory hair cell death during gentamicin administration. So far, there are no effective drugs to prevent or treat gentamicin- induced hearing loss. A recent study found cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a new target to modulate cellular oxidative balance. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the CFTR activator ivacaftor on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity and determine its mechanism. METHODS: The hair cell count was analyzed by Myosin 7a staining. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL Apoptosis Kit. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by DCFH-DA probes. The Nrf2 related proteins expression levels were analyzed by western blot. RESULTS: An in vitro cochlear explant model showed that gentamicin caused ROS accumulation in sensory hair cells and induced apoptosis, and this effect was alleviated by pretreatment with ivacaftor. Western blotting showed that ivacaftor administration markedly increased the protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The protective effect of ivacaftor was abolished by the Nrf2 inhibitor ML385. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate the protective role of the CFTR-Nrf2-HO1/NQO1 pathway in gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Ivacaftor may be repositioned or repurposed towards aminoglycosides-induced hearing loss.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis , Perda Auditiva , Ototoxicidade , Quinolonas , Humanos , Gentamicinas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Oxidativo , Apoptose , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/farmacologia
4.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 78, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies are focusing on the mechanism of erastin acts on prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and essential ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) that can be PCa therapeutic targets are rarely known. METHODS: In this study, in vitro assays were performed and RNA-sequencing was used to measure the expression of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in erastin-induced PCa cells. A series of bioinformatic analyses were applied to analyze the pathways and DEGs. RESULTS: Erastin inhibited the expression of SLC7A11 and cell survivability in LNCaP and PC3 cells. After treatment with erastin, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Fe2+ significantly increased, whereas the glutathione (GSH) and the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) significantly decreased in both cells. A total of 295 overlapping DEGs were identified under erastin exposure and significantly enriched in several pathways, including DNA replication and cell cycle. The percentage of LNCaP and PC3 cells in G1 phase was markedly increased in response to erastin treatment. For four hub FRGs, TMEFF2 was higher in PCa tissue and the expression levels of NRXN3, CLU, and UNC5B were lower in PCa tissue. The expression levels of SLC7A11 and cell survivability were inhibited after the knockdown of TMEFF2 in androgen-dependent cell lines (LNCaP and VCaP) but not in androgen-independent cell lines (PC3 and C4-2). The concentration of Fe2+ only significantly increased in TMEFF2 downregulated LNCaP and VCaP cells. CONCLUSION: TMEFF2 might be likely to develop into a potential ferroptosis target in PCa and this study extends our understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in erastin-affected PCa cells.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Piperazinas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Androgênios , Ferroptose/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Receptores de Netrina
5.
Opt Lett ; 49(7): 1802-1805, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560867

RESUMO

We show that in highly multimoded nonlinear photonic systems, the optical thermodynamic pressures emerging from different species of the optical field obey Dalton's law of partial pressures. In multimode settings, the optical thermodynamic pressure is defined as the conjugate to the extensive variable associated with the system's total number of modes and is directly related to the actual electrodynamic radiation forces exerted at the physical boundaries of the system. Here, we extend this notion to photonic configuration supporting different species of the optical field. Under thermal equilibrium conditions, we formally derive an equation that establishes a direct link between the partial thermodynamic pressures and the electrodynamic radiation pressures exerted by each polarization species. Our theoretical framework provides a straightforward approach for quantifying the total radiation pressures through the system's thermodynamic variables without invoking the Maxwell stress tensor formalism. In essence, we show that the total electrodynamic pressure in such arrangements can be obtained in an effortless manner from initial excitation conditions, thus avoiding time-consuming simulations of the utterly complex multimode dynamics. To illustrate the validity of our results, we carry out numerical simulations in multimoded nonlinear optical structures supporting two polarization species and demonstrate excellent agreement with the Maxwell stress tensor method.

6.
Nat Metab ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561509

RESUMO

Disruption of circadian rhythm during pregnancy produces adverse health outcomes in offspring; however, the role of maternal circadian rhythms in the immune system of infants and their susceptibility to inflammation remains poorly understood. Here we show that disruption of circadian rhythms in pregnant mice profoundly aggravates the severity of neonatal inflammatory disorders in both male and female offspring, such as necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. The diminished maternal production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the impaired immunosuppressive function of neonatal myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to this phenomenon. Mechanistically, DHA enhances the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs via PPARγ-mediated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Transfer of MDSCs or perinatal supplementation of DHA relieves neonatal inflammation induced by maternal rhythm disruption. These observations collectively demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of maternal circadian rhythms in the control of neonatal inflammation via metabolic reprograming of myeloid cells.

7.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 123: 106949, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gait initiation (GI) includes automatic and voluntary movements. However, research on their impact on the first step in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their relationship to freezing of gait (FOG) is lacking. We examined the effects of automatic movements (anticipatory postural adjustments [APAs]) and voluntary movements (limits of stability [LOS]) on the first step (first-step duration and first-step range of motion), along with their early recognition and prediction of slight FOG. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with PD and slight freezing (PD + FOG) and 25 non-freezing patients with PD (PD-FOG) were tested while off medications and compared with 24 healthy controls (HC). All participants completed a 7-m Stand and Walk Test (7 m SAW) and wore inertial sensors to quantify the APAs and first step. LOS was quantified by dynamic posturography in different directions using a pressure platform. We compared differences among all three groups, analysed correlations, and evaluated their predictive value for slight FOG. RESULTS: In PD + FOG, APAs and LOS were worse than those in the PD-FOG and HC groups (p < 0.001), and the first step was worse than that in HC (p < 0.001). APAs were correlated mainly with the first-step duration. APAs and LOS were correlated with the first-step range of motion. APAs have been recognized as independent predictors of FOG, and their combination with LOS enhances predictive sensitivity. CONCLUSION: APAs and LOS in patients with PD directly affect the first step during GI. In addition, the combination of APAs and LOS helped predict slight FOG.

8.
Chemosphere ; 356: 141880, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570049

RESUMO

As an emerging pollutant, microplastics (MPs) cause widespread concern around the world owing to the serious threat they pose to ecosystems. In particular, sediments are thought to be the long-term sink for the continual accumulation of MPs in freshwater ecosystems. Polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been frequently detected with large concentration variations in freshwater sediments from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, one of the most economically developed regions in China, characterized by accelerated urbanization and industrialization, high population density and high plastics consumption. However, the impact of PE and PET on the sedimental bacterial community composition and its function has not been well reported for this specific region. Herein, PE and PET particles were added to freshwater sediments to assess the effects of different MP types on the bacterial community and its function, using three concentrations (500, 1500 and 2500 items/kg) per MP and incubations of 35, 105 and 175 days, respectively. This study identified a total of 68 phyla, 211 classes, 518 orders, 853 families and 1745 genera. Specifically, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteriota, Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes were the top five phyla. A higher bacterial diversity was obtained in control sediments than in the MP-treated sediments. The presence of MPs, whether PET or PE, had significant impact on the bacterial diversity, community structure and community composition. PICRUSt2 and FAPOTAX predictions demonstrated that MPs could potentially affect the metabolic pathways and ecologically functional groups of bacteria in the sediment. Besides the MP-related factors, such as the type, concentration and incubation time, the physicochemical parameters had an effect on the structure and function of the bacterial community in the freshwater sediment. Taken together, this study provides useful information for further understanding how MPs affect bacterial communities in the freshwater sediment of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

9.
Exp Ther Med ; 27(5): 204, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590558

RESUMO

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.3892/etm.2020.9113.].

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591179

RESUMO

Objective: Neurotoxic chemicals are suggested in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We examined the association of environmental and occupational risk factors including persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ALS risk among cases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ALS Registry and age, sex, and county-matched controls. Methods: Participants completed a risk factor survey and provided a blood sample for OCP measurement. ALS cases were confirmed through the Registry. Conditional logistic regression assessed associations between ALS and risk factors including OCP levels. Results: 243 matched case-control pairs (61.7% male, mean [SD] age = 62.9 [10.1]) were included. Fifteen of the 29 OCPs examined had sufficient detectable levels for analysis. Modest correlations of self-reported years of exposure to residential pesticide mixtures and OCP serum levels were found (p<.001). Moreover, occupational exposure to lead including soldering and welding with lead/metal dust and use of lead paint/gasoline were significantly related to ALS risk (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11-2.83). Avocational gardening was a significant risk factor for ALS (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.04-2.37). ALS risk increased for each 10 ng/g of α-Endosulfan (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14-1.77) and oxychlordane (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53). Heptachlor (detectable vs. nondetectable) was also associated with ALS risk (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.50-8.52). Conclusion: This national case-control study revealed both survey and serum levels of OCPs as risk factors for ALS. Despite the United States banning many OCPs in the 1970s and 1980s, their use abroad and long half-lives continue to exert possible neurotoxic health effects.

11.
Redox Biol ; 72: 103145, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583415

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic form of regulated cell death that has been reported to play a central role in cardiac ischemia‒reperfusion (I/R) injury. N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) contributes to cardiomyocyte apoptosis by functioning as an RNA ac4c acetyltransferase, but its role in cardiomyocyte ferroptosis during I/R injury has not been determined. This study aimed to elucidate the role of NAT10 in cardiac ferroptosis as well as the underlying mechanism. The mRNA and protein levels of NAT10 were increased in mouse hearts after I/R and in cardiomyocytes that were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation. P53 acted as an endogenous activator of NAT10 during I/R in a transcription-dependent manner. Cardiac overexpression of NAT10 caused cardiomyocyte ferroptosis to exacerbate I/R injury, while cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of NAT10 or pharmacological inhibition of NAT10 with Remodelin had the opposite effects. The inhibition of cardiomyocyte ferroptosis by Fer-1 exerted superior cardioprotective effects against the NAT10-induced exacerbation of post-I/R cardiac damage than the inhibition of apoptosis by emricasan. Mechanistically, NAT10 induced the ac4C modification of Mybbp1a, increasing its stability, which in turn activated p53 and subsequently repressed the transcription of the anti-ferroptotic gene SLC7A11. Moreover, knockdown of Mybbp1a partially abolished the detrimental effects of NAT10 overexpression on cardiomyocyte ferroptosis and cardiac I/R injury. Collectively, our study revealed that p53 and NAT10 interdependently cooperate to form a positive feedback loop that promotes cardiomyocyte ferroptosis to exacerbate cardiac I/R injury, suggesting that targeting the NAT10/Mybbp1a/p53 axis may be a novel approach for treating cardiac I/R.

12.
JAMIA Open ; 7(2): ooae027, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596697

RESUMO

Objectives: We introduce the Bitemporal Lens Model, a comprehensive methodology for chronic disease prevention using digital biomarkers. Materials and Methods: The Bitemporal Lens Model integrates the change-point model, focusing on critical disease-specific parameters, and the recurrent-pattern model, emphasizing lifestyle and behavioral patterns, for early risk identification. Results: By incorporating both the change-point and recurrent-pattern models, the Bitemporal Lens Model offers a comprehensive approach to preventive healthcare, enabling a more nuanced understanding of individual health trajectories, demonstrated through its application in cardiovascular disease prevention. Discussion: We explore the benefits of the Bitemporal Lens Model, highlighting its capacity for personalized risk assessment through the integration of two distinct lenses. We also acknowledge challenges associated with handling intricate data across dual temporal dimensions, maintaining data integrity, and addressing ethical concerns pertaining to privacy and data protection. Conclusion: The Bitemporal Lens Model presents a novel approach to enhancing preventive healthcare effectiveness.

13.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 84, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid advances in modern medical technology, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) remains a challenging clinical problem in urology. Researchers urgently search for useful markers to break through the therapeutic conundrum due to its high lethality. Therefore, the study explores the value of ADH5 on overall survival (OS) and the immunology of KIRC. METHODS: The gene expression matrix and clinical information on ADH5 in the TCGA database were validated using external databases and qRT-PCR. To confirm the correlation between ADH5 and KIRC prognosis, univariate/multivariate Cox regression analysis was used. We also explored the signaling pathways associated with ADH5 in KIRC and investigated its association with immunity. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein levels showed an apparent downregulation of ADH5 in KIRC. Correlation analysis revealed that ADH5 was directly related to histological grade, clinical stage, and TMN stage (p < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis identified ADH5 as an independent factor affecting the prognosis of KIRC. Enrichment analysis looked into five ADH5-related signaling pathways. The results showed no correlation between ADH5 and TMB, TNB, and MSI. From an immunological perspective, ADH5 was found to be associated with the tumor microenvironment, immune cell infiltration, and immune checkpoints. Lower ADH5 expression was associated with greater responsiveness to immunotherapy. Single-cell sequencing revealed that ADH5 is highly expressed in immune cells. CONCLUSION: ADH5 could be a promising prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for KIRC. Besides, it was found that KIRC patients with low ADH5 expression were more sensitive to immunotherapy.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1357071, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515843

RESUMO

Background: Desmoid fibromatosis (DF) is a pathological intermediate fibroblastoma that is difficult to control locally due to its invasive nature, especially in the extremities. Although anlotinib demonstrated efficacy in treating DF with tolerable safety, the impact of surgical intervention in conjunction with anlotinib administration on local control in patients with extremity DF remains undetermined. Methods: We conducted a retrospective examination of the clinical medical documentation belonging to patients with resectable DF of the extremities who were treated with surgery between January 2010 and June 2022. The patients were divided into two cohorts: surgery alone cohort and surgery combined with anlotinib group (surgery plus anlotinib cohort), crossover to surgery plus anlotinib cohort was admissible for patients in the surgery alone cohort who experienced disease recurrence postoperatively. Clinical data such as basic information, tumor location, anlotinib toxicity, time to recurrence, surgical complications, follow-up time, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score at the last follow-up were collected. Results: In total, 48 consecutive patients (19 males and 29 females) with resectable DF of the extremities, including 25 patients in the surgery alone cohort, 23 patients in the surgery plus anlotinib cohort, and 10 patients who were transferred from the surgery alone cohort to the surgery plus anlotinib cohort. The VAS score at the last follow-up was 5 (IQR, 3-6) in the surgery alone cohort and 2 (IQR, 1-3) in the surgery plus anlotinib cohort, respectively; the MSTS score at the last follow-up was 19 (IQR, 16.5-24) in the surgery alone cohort and 27 (IQR, 25-28) in the surgery plus anlotinib cohort, respectively; these characteristics were statistically different between the two cohorts. The 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of the surgery alone cohort and the surgery plus anlotinib cohort were 37.7% and 72.6%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Surgery combined with anlotinib appears to be effective in controlling local recurrence in patients with resectable DF of the extremities, and the side effects were acceptable.

15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 132, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470533

RESUMO

Lactococcus garvieae (L. garvieae) is a pathogenic bacterium that is Gram-positive and catalase-negative (GPCN), and it is capable of growing in a wide range of environmental conditions. This bacterium is associated with significant mortality and losses in fisheries, and there are concerns regarding its potential as a zoonotic pathogen, given its presence in cattle and dairy products. While we have identified and characterized virulent strains of L. garvieae through phenotyping and molecular typing studies, their impact on mammary tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the pathogenicity of strong and weak virulent strains of L. garvieae using in vivo mouse models. We aim to establish MAC-T cell model to examine potential injury caused by the strong virulent strain LG41 through the TLR2/NLRP3/NF-kB pathway. Furthermore, we assess the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in dairy mastitis by silencing NLRP3. The outcomes of this study will yield crucial theoretical insights into the potential mechanisms involved in mastitis in cows caused by the L. garvieae-induced inflammatory response in MAC-T cells.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Mastite , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Lactococcus/metabolismo , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Inflamação
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134078, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518699

RESUMO

Recently, aquatic microcosms have attracted considerable attention because they can be used to simulate natural aquatic ecosystems. First, to evaluate the development of trends, hotspots, and national cooperation networks in the field, bibliometric analysis was performed based on 1841 articles on aquatic microcosm (1962-2022). The results of the bibliometric analysis can be categorized as follows: (1) Aquatic microcosm research can be summarized in two sections, with the first part focusing on the ecological processes and services of aquatic ecosystems, and the second focusing on the toxicity and degradation of pollutants. (2) The United States (number of publications: 541, proportion: 29.5%) and China (248, 13.5%) are the two most active countries. Second, to determine whether there is a difference between single-species and microcosm tests, that is, to perform different-tier assessments, the recommended aquatic safety thresholds in risk assessment [i.e., the community-level no effect concentration (NOECcommunity), hazardous concentrations for 5% of species (HC5) and predicted no effect concentration (PNEC)] were compared based on these tests. There was a significant difference between the NOECcommunity and HC5 (P < 0.05). Moreover, regression models predicting microcosm toxicity values were constructed to provide a reference for ecological systemic risk assessments based on aquatic microcosms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Água Doce , China , Medição de Risco , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133910, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432095

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have indeed become the most widely used insecticides worldwide. Concerns have been raised about their potential impact on newborns due to maternal exposure and their unique neurotoxic mode of action. However, it is still poorly understood whether in utero exposure of pregnant women to environmental NEOs and their metabolites can cause carryover effects on vulnerable newborns and subsequent health consequences. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 13 NEOs and their metabolites in the first urine collected from 92 newborns, both preterm and full-term, in southern China during 2020 and 2021. NEOs and their metabolites were identified in 91 urine samples, with over 93% of samples containing a cocktail of these compounds, confirming their maternal-fetal transfer. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, imidaclothiz, clothianidin and flonicamid were the most commonly detected analytes, with detection frequencies of 59-87% and medians of 0.024-0.291 ng/mL in the urine. The relative abundance of imidaclothiz was significantly higher in preterm newborns, those with head circumferences below 33 cm, birth lengths less than 47 cm, and weights below 2500 g (p < 0.05). When comparing newborns in the 2nd quartile of imidaclothiz concentrations with those in the 1st quartile, we observed a significant increase in the odds of preterm outcomes in the unadjusted model (odds ratio = 3.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-10.3). These results suggest that exposure to elevated concentrations of imidaclothiz may be associated with preterm birth.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nascimento Prematuro , Tiazóis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , China , Nitrocompostos
18.
Protein Cell ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442025

RESUMO

Intensive selection pressure constrains the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 genomes and results in various novel variants with distinct mutation profiles. Point mutations, particularly those within the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein lead to the functional alteration in both receptor engagement and monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognition. Here, we review the data of the RBD point mutations possessed by major SARS-CoV-2 variants and discuss their individual effects on ACE2 affinity and immune evasion. Many single amino acid substitutions within RBD epitopes crucial for the antibody evasion capacity may conversely weaken ACE2 binding affinity. However, this weakened effect could be largely compensated by specific epistatic mutations, such as N501Y, thus maintaining the overall ACE2 affinity for the spike protein of all major variants. The predominant direction of SARS-CoV-2 evolution lies neither in promoting ACE2 affinity nor evading mAb neutralization, but in maintaining a delicate balance between these two dimensions. Together, this review interprets how RBD mutations efficiently resist antibody neutralization and meanwhile how the affinity between ACE2 and spike protein is maintained, emphasizing the significance of comprehensive assessment of spike mutations.

19.
Small ; : e2308378, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453681

RESUMO

Traditional electromagnetic absorbing materials (EWAMs) are usually single functions and can easily affect their performance in diverse application scenarios. Effective integration of EWAMs into multiple function components is a valuable strategy to achieve maximum absorption and multifunction performance while maintaining their indispensable physical and chemical properties. In this work, the polyoxometalates (POMs) serving as "guests" are embedded within the Co-MOFs to construct 3d/4d-bimetallic based crystalline precursors of dielectric/magnetic synergistic system. The proper pyrolysis temperature induced the homogeneously distributed metallic Co and MoCx hetero-units into carbon matrix with modified porous defect engineering to enhance electromagnetic wave (EW). Owing to the brilliant synergistic effect of polarization, magnetic loss, and impedance matching, the superior RLmin of -47.72 dB at 11.76 GHz at the thickness of 2.0 mm and a wide adequate absorption bandwidth (EAB) of 4.58 GHz (7.44-12.02 GHz) covered the whole X-band at the thickness of 2.5 mm for η-MoC/Co@NC-800 are observed. More importantly, the resulting MoCx hybrid polyimide (MCP) aerogel exhibits desirable properties such as structural robustness, nonflammability, excellent thermal insulation, and self-cleaning capabilities that are comparable to those of commercially available products. This work offers inspiration and strategy for creating multipurpose microwave absorbers with intricate structural designs.

20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 114, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436813

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and promotes renal fibrosis, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Unresolved inflammation is strongly associated with renal fibrosis and is a well-known significant contributor to the progression of CKD, including hyperuricemia nephropathy. In the current study, we elucidated the impact of Caspase-11/Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-dependent neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on progressive hyperuricemic nephropathy. We found that the Caspase-11/GSDMD signaling were markedly activated in the kidneys of hyperuricemic nephropathy. Deletion of Gsdmd or Caspase-11 protects against the progression of hyperuricemic nephropathy by reducing kidney inflammation, proinflammatory and profibrogenic factors expression, NETs generation, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and fibrosis. Furthermore, specific deletion of Gsdmd or Caspase-11 in hematopoietic cells showed a protective effect on renal fibrosis in hyperuricemic nephropathy. Additionally, in vitro studies unveiled the capability of uric acid in inducing Caspase-11/GSDMD-dependent NETs formation, consequently enhancing α-smooth muscle actin production in macrophages. In summary, this study demonstrated the contributory role of Caspase-11/GSDMD in the progression of hyperuricemic nephropathy by promoting NETs formation, which may shed new light on the therapeutic approach to treating and reversing hyperuricemic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Hiperuricemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Actinas , Ácido Úrico , Caspases , Inflamação , Fibrose , Gasderminas , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato
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