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1.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 43-57, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793300

RESUMO

Intensity inhomogeneity and noise are two common issues in images but inevitably lead to significant challenges for image segmentation and is particularly pronounced when the two issues simultaneously appear in one image. As a result, most existing level set models yield poor performance when applied to this images. To this end, this paper proposes a novel hybrid level set model, named adaptive variational level set model (AVLSM) by integrating an adaptive scale bias field correction term and a denoising term into one level set framework, which can simultaneously correct the severe inhomogeneous intensity and denoise in segmentation. Specifically, an adaptive scale bias field correction term is first defined to correct the severe inhomogeneous intensity by adaptively adjusting the scale according to the degree of intensity inhomogeneity while segmentation. More importantly, the proposed adaptive scale truncation function in the term is model-agnostic, which can be applied to most off-the-shelf models and improves their performance for image segmentation with severe intensity inhomogeneity. Then, a denoising energy term is constructed based on the variational model, which can remove not only common additive noise but also multiplicative noise often occurred in medical image during segmentation. Finally, by integrating the two proposed energy terms into a variational level set framework, the AVLSM is proposed. The experimental results on synthetic and real images demonstrate the superiority of AVLSM over most state-of-the-art level set models in terms of accuracy, robustness and running time.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 525: 115-130, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736960

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cancer burden worldwide with increasing incidence in many developed countries. Super-enhancers (SEs) drive gene expressions required for cell type-specificity and tumor cell identity. However, their roles in HCC remain unclear because of data scarcity from primary tumors. Herein, chromatin profiling of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated HCCs and matched liver tissues uncovered an average of ∼500 somatically-acquired SEs per patient. The identified SE-target genes were functionally enriched for aberrant metabolism and cancer phenotypes, especially chromatin regulators including deacetylases and Polycomb repressive complexes. Notably, all examined tumors exhibited SE activation of Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7), genome-wide promoter H3K18 deacetylation and concurrent H3K27me3, as well as tumor-suppressor gene silencing. Depletion of SIRT7 SE in hepatoma cells induced global H3K18 acetylation and reactivated key metabolic and immune regulators, leading to marked suppression of tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. In concordance, SIRT7 physically interacted with the methyltransferase EZH2, and they were co-expressed in primary HCCs. In summary, our integrative analysis establishes a compendium of SEs in NAFLD-associated HCCs and uncovers SIRT7-driven chromatin regulatory network as potential druggable vulnerability of this increasingly prevalent cancer.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118325, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634408

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal in industrial production, which can seriously threat to human health and food safety. Thus, it is particularly crucial to reduce the content of Pb in the environment. In this study, raw fly ash (FA) was used to synthesise a new active silicate materials (IM) employing the low-temperature-assisted alkali (NaOH) roasting approach. The IM was further synthesised to form zeolite-A (ZA) using the hydrothermal method. The physicochemical characteristics of IM and ZA amendments before and after Pb2+ adsorption were analysed using the Scanning electron microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) apparatuses. The results revealed the considerably change in the microstructure and functional groups of IM and ZA amendments, conducive to Pb2+ removal. Moreover, a 3-year field experiment revealed that the IM and ZA significantly improved the growth of rice and reduced available Pb by 21%-26.8% and 9.7%-16.9%, respectively. After 3 years of remediation, the Pb concentration of the rice grain reached the national edible standard (≤0.2 mg kg-1) of 0.171 mg kg-1 and 0.179 mg kg-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of acid-exchangeable Pb reduced, while those of reducible and residual fractions of Pb increased. There was no significant difference between the IM and ZA treatments. The potential mechanisms of remediation by the amendments were ion-exchange, complexation, precipitation, and electrostatic attraction. Overall, the results indicate that IM is suitable for the remediation of contaminated soil and promotes safe food production, and develops an environmentally friendly and cost-effective amendment for the remediation of polluted soil.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Humanos , Silicatos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113918, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748756

RESUMO

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), abnormal axon guidance and synapse formation lead to sprouting of mossy fibers in the hippocampus, which is one of the most consistent pathological findings in patients and animal models with TLE. Glypican 4 (Gpc4) belongs to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan family, which play an important role in axon guidance and excitatory synapse formation. However, the role of Gpc4 in the development of mossy fibers sprouting (MFS) and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. Using a pilocarpine-induced mice model of epilepsy, we showed that Gpc4 expression was significantly increased in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus at 1 week after status epilepticus (SE). Using Gpc4 overexpression or Gpc4 shRNA lentivirus to regulate the Gpc4 level in the dentate gyrus, increased or decreased levels of netrin-1, SynI, PSD-95, and Timm score were observed in the dentate gyrus, indicating a crucial role of Gpc4 in modulating the development of functional MFS. The observed effects of Gpc4 on MFS were significantly antagonized when mice were treated with L-leucine or rapamycin, an agonist or antagonist of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal, respectively, demonstrating that mTOR pathway is an essential requirement for Gpc4-regulated MFS. Additionally, the attenuated spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were observed during chronic stage of the disease by suppressing the Gpc4 expression after SE. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a novel control of neuronal Gpc4 on the development of MFS through the mTOR pathway after pilocarpine-induced SE. Our results also strongly suggest that Gpc4 may serve as a promising target for antiepileptic studies.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 660-666, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Male lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) is common and may increase the risk of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the associated factors of LUTS/BPH and its association with depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older Chinese men. METHODS: This study used data from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total number of 8,586 men aged ≥45 years were included in this study. Participants answered positively to whether they have ever been diagnosed with a prostate illness (excluding prostatic cancer) were defined as LUTS/BPH individuals. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Multivariate logistic analyses were applied to explore the associated factors of LUTS/BPH, association between LUTS/BPH and depressive symptoms, and risk factors of depressive symptoms according to LUTS/BPH status. RESULTS: The weighted overall prevalence of LUTS/BPH was 13.1% in Chinese men aged ≥45 years. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 29.1% in LUTS/BPH individuals and 22.9% in non-LUTS/BPH individuals. Depressive symptoms and LUTS/BPH shared some same risk factors, which were education, living regions, annual household consumption, sleep duration and multimorbidity. The results from logistic models showed that education, sleep duration and multimorbidity were significantly and independently associated with depression of LUTS/BPH individuals (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of depressive symptoms in LUTS/BPH population was higher than in non-LUTS/BPH population. Education, sleep duration and multimorbidity were associated with the onset of depressive symptoms in LUTS/BPH individuals (P<0.001).

6.
Food Chem ; 366: 130553, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284194

RESUMO

A method for real-time monitoring of lipid digestion based on photonic crystals formed from silica was developed. As an effective "net", the highly ordered silica colloidal crystal (SCC) film provides structural support for lipid payload. This method based on optical interferometric film kinetics was used to record the whole kinetics progress of olive oil hydrolysis by lipase in real time and calculate the kinetic Michaelis constant. The kinetic parameters were compared with the results determined by the titration method. The effects of bile salt content on lipase and olive oil layer were studied. This method provides a potential evaluation system for real-time digestion and degradation of edible oil in the food field. It also provides a basis for further real-time evaluation of lipid bioavailability in food systems by real-time recording the release and degradation of lipids in the food nano-matrix.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Lipólise , Digestão , Interferometria , Lipase/metabolismo
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126806, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388930

RESUMO

Under anoxic conditions, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq)-induced recrystallization of iron (oxyhydr)oxides changes the speciation and geochemical cycle of trace elements in environments. Oxidation of trace element, i.e., As(III), driven by Fe(II)aq-iron (oxyhydr)oxides interactions under anoxic condition was observed previously, but the oxidative species and involved mechanisms are remained unknown. In the present study, we explored the formed oxidative intermediates during Fe(II)aq-induced recrystallization of goethite under anoxic conditions. The methyl phenyl sulfoxide-based probe experiment suggested the featured oxidation by Fe(IV) species in Fe(II)aq-goethite system. Both the Mössbauer spectra and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic evidenced the generation and quenching of Fe(IV) intermediate. It was proved that the interfacial electron exchange between Fe(II)aq and Fe(III) of goethite initiated the generation of Fe(IV). After transferring electrons to goethite, Fe(II)aq was transformed to labile Fe(III), which was then transformed to Fe(IV) via a proton-coupled electron transfer process. This highly reactive transient Fe(IV) could quickly react with reductive species, i.e. Fe(II) or As(III). Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of Fe(II)-iron (oxyhydr)oxides reactions under anoxic conditions, our findings are expected to provide new insight into the anoxic oxidative transformation processes of matters in non-surface environments on earth.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos Ferrosos , Minerais , Oxirredução
8.
Talanta ; 237: 122958, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736683

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a significant ingredient of immunological activity in milk and colostrum, the activity and content of which is easily disturbed by potentially conditional variant during sterilization. Therefore, developing robust methods for the detection of IgG levels in milk is especially important. Herein, protein A from the Staphylococcus aureus functionalized silica colloidal crystalline film (SCC@SPA) sensing unit combined with ordered porous layer interferometry (OPLI) for IgG detection in untreated bovine milk was developed. Calibration curves in milk and buffer were set up by the variations of the optical thickness (OT) of the sensing unit after the IgG association and dissociation phases. The influence of temperature on the level of IgG was evaluated. Furthermore, the identification of IgG levels with pasteurized milk and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) sterilized milk from the market randomly was successfully carried out without any sample pretreatment. More importantly, compared with other methods, this novel method has the advantages of convenient operation, low cost, and suitability for point-of-care (POC) testing.


Assuntos
Colostro , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G , Interferometria , Porosidade , Gravidez
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 983-993, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487945

RESUMO

The numerous oxygenated functional groups on graphite oxide (GO) make it a promising adsorbent for toxic heavy metals in water. However, the GO prepared from natural graphite is water-soluble after exfoliation, making its recovery for reuse extremely difficult. In this study, porous graphitized carbon (PGC) was oxidized to fabricate a GO-like material, PGCO. The PGCO showed an O/C molar ratio of 0.63, and 8.4% of the surface carbon species were carboxyl, exhibiting enhanced oxidation degree compared to GO. The small PGCO sheets were intensely aggregated chemically, yielding an insoluble solid easily separable from water by sedimentation or filtration. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the PGCO afforded significantly higher removal efficiencies for heavy metals than GO, owing to the former's greater functionalization with oxygenated groups. An isotherm study suggested that the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir model, and the derived maximum adsorption capacities for Cr3+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ were 119.6, 377.1, 99.1, 65.2, 53.0, and 58.1 mg/g, respectively. Furthermore, the spent PGCO was successively regenerated by acid treatment. The results of the study indicate that PGCO could be an alternative adsorbent for remediating toxic metal-contaminated waters.


Assuntos
Grafite , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Cinética , Óxidos , Porosidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809422

RESUMO

Determining the expression level of biomarkers is crucial for disease diagnosis. However, the low abundance of biomarkers in the early stage makes the detection extremely difficult by traditional aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-based fluorescent probes. Here, by tuning the intermolecular interaction, a two steps-based MP/NPs-SLIPS sensing system is designed for ultrasensitive detection of the tumor marker matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). During the sensing process, aggregation of AIE residual could be intensified through the electrostatic absorption by negatively charged nanoparticles (NPs), as well as the confined space formed by the self-assembly of NPs to photonic crystals (PCs) on slippery lubricant-infused porous substrates (SLIPS). The fluorescent signals obviously increased with a strengthened aggregation degree, which contributes to improved sensitivity. Thus, the limit of detection is decreased to 3.7 ng/mL for MP/NPs-SLIPS sensing system, which could be used for detecting the MMP-2 secreted by tumor cells directly. This strategy also demonstrated its potential applications as high-throughput detection devices and will be of significance for the ultrasensitive analysis of biomarkers.

11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(6): 9076-9093, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814336

RESUMO

With the rise in the popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) in-home health monitoring, the demand of data processing and analysis increases at the server. This is especially true for ECG data which has to be collected and analyzed continuously in real time. The data transmission and storage capacity of a simple home-use IoT system is often limited. In order to provide a responsive and reasonably high-resolution analysis over the data, the ECG recorder sampling rate must be tuned to an acceptable level such as 50Hz (compared to between 100Hz and 500Hz in lab), a huge amount of time series are to be gathered and dealt with. Therefore, a suitable sampling method that helps shorten the ECG data transformation time and uploading time is very important for cost saving.. In this paper, how to down sample the ECG data is investigated; instead of traditional data sampling methods, the use of a novel Brick-up Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithm (BMOA) that automatically optimizes the sampling of ECG data is proposed. By its adaptive design in choosing the most appropriate components, BMOA can build in real-time a best metaheuristic optimization algorithm for each device user assuming no two ECG data series are exactly identical. This dynamic pre-processing approach ensures each time the most optimal part of the ECG data series is harvested for health analysis from the raw data, in different scenarios from different users. In this study various application scenarios using real ECG datasets are simulated. The experimentation is tested with one of the most commonly used ECG classification methods, Long Short-Term Memory Network. The result shows the ECG data sampling by BMOA is indeed adaptive, the classification efficiency is improved, and the data storage requirement is reduced.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(95): 12768-12771, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787134

RESUMO

Oral vaccination has wide applicability in poor areas, particularly during the epidemic periods of infectious diseases. However, successful oral antigen delivery and immune activation remain highly challenging due to the instability of vaccines in gastric acid and the low capture of antigens in the intestine. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of a robust oral delivery system via encapsulating antigen-carrying pseudoviruses inside positively charged polyethyleneimine-modified yeast capsules (P-YC). By virtue of the physical barrier role and surface ß-glucan of YC, encapsulated pseudoviruses can be protected from gastric insult and delivered into Peyer's patches via uptake mediated by microfold cells located in the intestinal epithelium. Given the ability to carry diverse antigens, the enhanced oral delivery of pseudoviruses achieved by P-YC provides a versatile platform for the development of various oral vaccines.

13.
Small ; : e2104390, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741414

RESUMO

Issues with unstable SEI formation and uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth impede the practical use of lithium anode in high-energy batteries. Herein, a lithiophilic carbon channel on separator is designed to regulate lithium deposition behavior. The designed channel is formed by carbon nanosheet with cubic cavity (CNCC) prepared by hard template method. The CNCC with a large specific surface area and good electrolyte wettability can effectively reduce the local current density. Besides, the CNCC coated separator with high Young's modulus can mechanically inhibit the growth of lithium dendrites. Notably, CNCC coating can become lithiophilic during lithium plating/striping process, which is beneficial for homogeneous lithium deposition and low lithium nucleation overpotential. As a result, based on the CNCC coated separator, the symmetric Li|Li cell cycle over 2600h at 6 mA cm-2 for 2 mAh cm-2 , while the Li|Cu cell reaches average Coulombic efficiency of 98.5% at 2 mA cm-2 for 2 mAh cm-2 .

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 585: 111-116, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800882

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) serves as a prevalent and mortal malignancy among female globally. Ferroptosis, as an oxidative cell death that characterized by abnormal iron accumulation, plays critical role in cancer development. Ketamine is a rapid-acting anesthetic agent and has presented potential anti-tumor properties. However, the effect of Ketamine on breast cancer is still obscure. Here, we aimed to explore the function of Ketamine in the modulation of proliferation and ferroptosis of breast cancer cells. The cell viability of breast cancer cells was repressed by the treatment of Ketamine, while ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin 1 and apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-FMK could restore the cell viability. The treatment of Ketamine significantly decreased the Edu-positive breast cancer cells and the colony formation numbers, and the treatment of ferrostatin 1 reversed the effect of Ketamine. We observed that the levels of ferroptosis markers, such as MDA, lipid ROS, and Fe2+ were increased by the treatment of Ketamine in breast cancer cells. Regarding to the mechanism, we found that Ketamine inhibited the expression of GPX4, an anti-ferroptosis factor, by attenuating KAT5 on the promoter region of GPX4, repressing the enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II). The treatment of Ketamine reduced the cell viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells, in which the overexpression of KAT5 or GPX4 was able to restore the phenotypes. The treatment of Ketamine induced the levels of MDA, lipid ROS, and Fe2+, while KAT5 or GPX4 overexpression could reverse this effect in breast cancer cells. Thus, we concluded that Ketamine suppressed proliferation and induced ferroptosis of breast cancer cells by targeting KAT5/GPX4 axis. Ketamine may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6935, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836960

RESUMO

Across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (MPB; 5.3 million years ago, Ma), late Miocene cooling gave way to the early-to-middle Pliocene Warm Period. This transition, across which atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased to levels similar to present, holds potential for deciphering regional climate responses in Asia-currently home to more than half of the world's population- to global climate change. Here we find that CO2-induced MPB warming both increased summer monsoon moisture transport over East Asia, and enhanced aridification over large parts of Central Asia by increasing evaporation, based on integration of our ~1-2-thousand-year (kyr) resolution summer monsoon records from the Chinese Loess Plateau aeolian red clay with existing terrestrial records, land-sea correlations, and climate model simulations. Our results offer palaeoclimate-based support for 'wet-gets-wetter and dry-gets-drier' projections of future regional hydroclimate responses to sustained anthropogenic forcing. Moreover, our high-resolution monsoon records reveal a dynamic response to eccentricity modulation of solar insolation, with predominant 405-kyr and ~100-kyr periodicities between 8.1 and 3.4 Ma.

16.
Water Res ; 207: 117802, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731670

RESUMO

Atomic hydrogen (H•) is highly reactive for the hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE). In this work, we found that the coprecipitation of Ni2+ and Fe2+ at neutral pH led to an unprecedented catalytic generation of H•. The generated H• effectively dechlorinate TCE to nontoxic ethylene and ethane, and Fe2+ is the only electron donor. The abundant adsorbed H• produced with a Ni/Fe ratio of 0.4 enhances hydrogen evolution reaction causing a low efficiency for hydrodechlorination. In contrast, the active absorbed H• is generated in the crystal lattice of Ni-Fe hydroxides with a Ni/Fe ratio of 3.0 causing highly efficient hydrodechlorination of TCE. This work not only reveals the mechanism of catalytic hydrodechlorination by Ni-Fe hydroxides at neutral pH, but also provides a novel approach to detoxify TCE in contaminated water using facile precipitated Ni-Fe hydroxides.

17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt B): 113140, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800760

RESUMO

The surface intertidal sediments in the Pearl River Estuary of China were analyzed from multiple perspectives, including the distribution characteristics, potential sources, and biological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average concentration of PAHs, ranging from 73.68 ng/g to 933.25 ng/g, was 346.78 ng/g. PAHs are mainly composed of the 2- and 3-ring PAHs, with naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), benzo(g,h, i) perylene (Dib), fluoranthene (Flua), and indeno (1,2,3-c,d) pyrene (Ind) as the dominant constituents. The principal component analysis combined with multiple linear regression showed that petroleum combustion and biomass/coal combustion have contributed 52.78% and 40.53%, respectively, to the PAHs in intertidal sediments of Pearl River Estuary. The occurrence of adverse biological effects as a result of PAH contamination in the intertidal sediments of Pearl River Estuary has increased by 8% based on the mean value of the probable effect quotient.

18.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 1000820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777558

RESUMO

Objective: Based on deep learning, the characteristics of food impaction with tight proximal contacts were studied to guide the subsequent clinical treatment of occlusal adjustment. At the same time, digital model building, software measurement, and statistical correlation analysis were used to explore the cause of tooth impaction and to provide evidence for clinical treatment. Methods: Volunteers with (n = 250) and without (n = 250) tooth impaction were recruited, respectively, to conduct a questionnaire survey. Meanwhile, models were made and perfused by skilled clinical physicians for these patients, and characteristics such as adjacent line length, adjacent surface area, tongue abduction gap angle, buccal abduction gap angle, and occlusal abduction gap angle were measured. A normality test, differential analysis, correlation analysis of pathological characteristics of the impaction group, principal component analysis (PCA), and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: The adjacent line length, adjacent surface area, tongue abduction gap angle, buccal abduction gap angle, and occlusal abduction gap angle all met normal distribution. There were statistically significant differences in adjacent line length (p < 0.001), adjacent surface area (p < 0.001), and occlusal abduction gap angle (p < 0.001) between the two groups. After dimensionality reduction by PCA on characteristics, adjacent line length, adjacent surface area, buccal abduction gap angle, and occlusal abduction gap angle had a strong correlation with the principal components. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that adjacent line length and adjacent surface area had positive effects on impaction. The buccal abduction gap angle and occlusal abduction gap angle had a significant negative influence on impaction. Conclusion: Adjacent line length, adjacent surface area, buccal abduction gap angle, and occlusal abduction gap angle are independent factors influencing food impaction.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127757, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799163

RESUMO

The consumption of lithium-ion batteries raises raw material demand for and the pressure on ecological sustainability. Metals can be recovered in shorter paths while considerably boosting material use, hence selective recycling of specific elements is becoming a hotspot. This paper proposes a thermally-driven closed-loop recycling process for scrap LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes, in which Li is efficiently extracted by water leaching. Then, by combining the leaching residue with Li2CO3, a solid-phase synthesis is carried out, with Li being targeted to heal into Ni-Co-Mn-O to construct the layered structure. The electrochemical performance of the resynthesized cathode material is comparable to that of the commercial LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) material. During the thermal-driven conversion, solid-state processes can be observed. To ensure charge conservation, Li+ in the unstable layered structure is released and mixed with SO42- to produce Li2SO4, and lattice oxygen escapes and transforms with Ni2+ to generate NiO. For the resynthesized process, the spherical shape of Ni-Co-Mn-O is largely retained. Notably, sulfur is remained in the form of SO42- throughout the closed-loop process and is therefore free of contamination. The thermal-driven conversion recycling process revealed in this study will encourage researchers to ensure more efforts in efficient and selective recovery for sustainable energy storage of rechargeable batteries.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6690, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795282

RESUMO

The complex interactions among different immune cells have important functions in the development of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on 62,382 cells from MPE patients induced by non-small cell lung cancer to describe the composition, lineage, and functional states of infiltrating immune cells in MPE. Immune cells in MPE display a number of transcriptional signatures enriched for regulatory T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells compared to corresponding counterparts in blood. Helper T, cytotoxic T, regulatory T, and T follicular helper cells express multiple immune checkpoints or costimulatory molecules. Cell-cell interaction analysis identifies regulatory B cells with more interactions with CD4+ T cells compared to CD8+ T cells. Macrophages are transcriptionally heterogeneous and conform to M2 polarization characteristics. In addition, immune cells in MPE show the general up-regulation of glycolytic pathways associated with the hypoxic microenvironment. These findings show a detailed atlas of immune cells in human MPE and enhance the understanding of potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

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