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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 2060288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336086

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation significantly affects insect life and, as a result, has been widely used to control different invertebrate pests. The current results demonstrate that when Bemisia tabaci first instar nymphs are exposed to UV-A light for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, their developmental and biological parameters are negatively affected by UV-A exposure; the effect increased with an increase in exposure time. We hypothesized that UV-A light is compatible with other biological control agents. Results showed that when the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps fumosorosea was applied to third instar nymphs of B. tabaci previously exposed to UV-A light, the LC50 was 3.4% lower after 72 h of exposure to UV-A light compared to the control. However, when the fungus was exposed to UV-A light, its virulence decreased with an increase in UV-A exposure time. The parasitism rate of Encarsia formosa against 24 h UV-A-exposed third instar nymphs of B. tabaci increased while the adult emergence from parasitized nymphs was not affected after UV-A light exposure. Parasitism rate was significantly reduced however following E. formosa exposure to UV-A light; but again, adult emergence was not affected from parasitized nymphs. The percentage mortality of E. formosa increased with increasing exposure time to UV-A light. The enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, GST, and AChE and the energy reserve contents were negatively affected due to UV-A exposure. Collectively, this study has demonstrated that UV-A light significantly suppresses the immune system of B. tabaci and that UV-A light is compatible with other biological control agents if it is applied separately from the biological agent.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 701253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234746

RESUMO

Objective: We aim to assess the accuracy of near infrared autofluorescence in identifying parathyroid gland during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted by using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases for studies that were published up to February 2021. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted the data. A random-effects model was used to calculate the combined variable. Publication bias in these studies was evaluated with the Deeks' funnel plots. Result: A total of 24 studies involving 2,062 patients and 6,680 specimens were included for the meta-analysis. The overall combined sensitivity and specificity, and the area under curve of near infrared autofluorescence were 0.96, 0.96, and 0.99, respectively. Significant heterogeneities were presented (Sen: I2 = 87.97%, Spe: I2 = 65.38%). In the subgroup of thyroid surgery, the combined sensitivity and specificity, and the area under curve of near infrared autofluorescence was 0.98, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively, and the heterogeneities were moderate (Sen: I2 = 59.71%, Spe: I2 = 67.65%). Conclusion: Near infrared autofluorescence is an excellent indicator for identifying parathyroid gland during thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330820

RESUMO

The catalytic subunit of PKA is regulated by two tails that each wrap around the N- and C-lobes of the kinase core. While the Ct-Tail is classified as an intrinsically disordered region (IDR), the Nt-Tail is dominated by a strong helix that is flanked by short IDRs. In contrast to the Ct-Tail, which is a conserved and highly regulated feature of all AGC kinases, the Nt-Tail has evolved more recently and is not even conserved in non-mammalian PKAs. In addition, and most importantly, there is a large family of Cb subunits that are highly expressed in mammalian cells in a tissue-specific manner. While we know so much about the Ca1 subunit, we know almost nothing about these Cb isoforms where Cb2 is highly expressed in lymphocytes and Cb3 and Cb4 isoforms account for ~50% of PKA signaling in brain. Based on recent disease mutations, the Cb proteins appear to be functionally important and non-redundant with the Ca isoforms. Imaging in retina also supports non-redundant roles for Cb as well as isoform-specific localization to mitochondria. This represents a new frontier in PKA signaling. Significance Statement How tails and adjacent domains regulate each protein kinase is a fundamental challenge for the biological community. Here we highlight how the N- and C-terminal tails of PKA (Nt-Tails/Ct-Tails) regulate the structure and function of the kinase core and show the combinatorial variations that are introduced into the Nt-Tail of the Ca and Cb subunits of PKA in contrast to the Ct-Tail which is conserved across the entire AGC subfamily of protein kinases.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045386, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of worry and its influencing factors during the COVID-19 epidemic among teachers in Henan Province in China. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional survey that included 88 611 teachers from three cities in Henan Province, China between 4 February 2020 and 12 February 2020. Level of worry was measured using a five-item Likert scale, with 1 being 'not worried' and 5 being 'very worried'. The OR and 95% CI of potential influencing factors for level of worry among study participants were estimated using ordinal logistic regression models. RESULTS: About 59% of teachers reported being 'very worried' about the COVID-19 epidemic. The proportion of female teachers was higher than of male teachers (60.33% vs 52.89%). In all age groups considered in this study, a 'very worried' condition accounted for the highest proportion. The age group 40-49 years had the lowest proportion of participants who were very worried, 52.34% of whom were men and 58.62% were women. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, education level, type of teacher, school location, attention level, fear level, anxiety level and behaviour status were all related to level of worry (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 epidemic, there was a high proportion of teachers who were 'very worried' about the situation in Henan Province, China. Our study may remind policymakers to consider factors including age, educational status, type of teacher, school location, source of information on COVID-19, attention level, anxiety level, fear level and behaviour status to alleviate worry.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main liver diseases, and its pathologic profile includes nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, there is no reliable non-invasive parameter in distinguishing NASH from NAFL in clinical practice. The present study was to find a non-invasive way to differentiate these two categories of NAFLD via lipidomic analysis. METHODS: Lipidomic analysis was used to determine the changes of lipid moieties in blood from 20 NAFL and 10 NASH patients with liver biopsy. Liver histology was evaluated after hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining. The profile of lipid metabolites in correlation with steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular necroptosis, fibrosis, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) was analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with NAFL patients, NASH patients had higher degree of steatosis, ballooning degeneration, lobular inflammation. A total of 434 different lipid molecules were identified, which were mainly composed of various phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Many lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) (P-22:0/18:1), sphingomyelin (SM) (d14:0/18:0), SM (d14:0/24:0), SM (d14:0/22:0), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (18:0/22:5), PC (O-22:2/12:0), and PC (26:1/11:0) were elevated in the NASH group compared to those in the NAFL group. Specific analysis revealed an overall lipidomic profile shift from NAFL to NASH, and identified valuable lipid moieties, such as PCs [PC (14:0/18:2), PE (18:0/22:5) and PC (26:1/11:0)] or plasmalogens [PC (O-22:0/0:0), PC (O-18:0/0:0), PC (O-16:0/0:0)], which were significantly altered in NASH patients. In addition, PC (14:0/18:2), phosphatidic acid (18:2/24:4) were positively correlated with NAS; whereas PC (18:0/0:0) was correlated positively with fibrosis score. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed overall lipidomic profile shift from NAFL to NASH, identified valuable lipid moieties which may be non-invasive biomarkers in the categorization of NAFLD. The correlations between lipid moieties and NAS and fibrosis scores indicate that these lipid biomarkers may be used to predict the severity of the disease.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929346, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Emodin has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, but few studies have tried to understand the mechanism of its anti-hypercholesterolemic effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS To delineate the underlying pathways, high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administrated emodin or the lipid-lowering medicine simvastatin. Emodin was administered at 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, while simvastatin was administered at 10 mg/kg. Parameters measured included lipid profiles (serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aorta endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine, and nitric oxide (NO) production. RT-qPCR and western blotting were performed to evaluate aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS), and hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Indices of liver and serum oxidation were also measured. RESULTS The atherogenic index was increased by the HCD but significantly reduced in all treatment groups. The HCD-fed experimental group treated with emodin at 10 mg/kg had significantly lower serum total-C and LDL-C and improved aorta vasorelaxation and enhanced NO production. Also, emodin significantly attenuated the lipid profiles and restored endothelial function, as reflected by upregulated expression of hepatic LDLR and p-eNOS, respectively. Furthermore, emodin at 10 mg/kg significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase activity, lowered the malondialdehyde level in both liver and serum, and enhanced catalase activity in serum. CONCLUSIONS The ability of emodin to inhibit hypercholesterolemia in HCD-fed rats was associated with lower serum total-C and LDL-C, restoration of aortic endothelial function, and improved antioxidant capacity. Low-dose emodin showed better protection of aortic endothelium and better antioxidant activity than did higher doses.

8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259890

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A number of potential genes and pathways involved in tepal trichome development were identified in a natural lily mutant by transcriptome analysis and were confirmed with trichome and trichomeless species. Trichome is a specialized structure found on the surface of the plant with an important function in survival against abiotic and biotic stress. It is also an important economic trait in crop breeding. Extensive research has investigated the foliar trichome in model plants (Arabidopsis and tomato). However, the developmental mechanism of tepal trichome remains elusive. Lilium pumilum is an edible ornamental bulb and a good breeding parent possessing cold and salt-alkali resistance. Here, we found a natural mutant of Lilium pumilum grown on a highland whose tepals are covered by trichomes. Our data indicate that trichomes of the mutant are multicellular and branchless. Notably, stomata are also developed on the tepal of the mutant as well, suggesting there may be a correlation between trichome and stomata regulation. Furthermore, we isolated 27 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing the transcriptome profiling between the natural mutant and the wild type. These 27 genes belong to 4 groups: epidermal cell cycle and division, trichome morphogenesis, stress response, and transcription factors. Quantitative real-time PCR in Lilium pumilum (natural mutant and the wild type) and other lily species (Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii/trichome; Lilium davidii var. willmottiae/, trichomeless) confirmed the validation of RNA-seq data and identified several trichome-related genes.

9.
Int Immunol ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297096

RESUMO

As a key virulence factor for persistent colonization, Urease B subunit (UreB) is considered to be an ideal vaccine antigen against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of UreB involved in immune microenvironment dysregulation still remains largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of UreB on macrophage activation and found that UreB induced PD-L1 accumulation on Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Co-culture assays further revealed that UreB-induced PD-L1 expression on BMDMs significantly decreased the proliferation and secretion of cytolytic molecules (granzyme B and perforin) of splenic CD8 + T cells isolated from inactivated H. pylori-immunized mice. More importantly, myosin heavy chain 9 (Myh9) was confirmed to be a direct membrane receptor of UreB via using LC-MS/MS and Co-immunoprecipitation and required for PD-L1 upregulation on BMDMs. Molecular studies further demonstrated that the interaction between UreB and Myh9 decreased GCN2 autophosphorylation and enhanced intracellular pool of amino acids, leading to the upregulation of S6K phosphorylation, a commonly used marker for monitoring activation of mTORC1 signaling activity. Furthermore, blocking mTORC1 activation with its inhibitor Temsirolimus reversed UreB-induced PD-L1 upregulation and the subsequently inhibitory effects of BMDMs on activation of cytotoxic CD8 + T cell responses. Overall, our data unveil a novel immunosuppressive mechanism of UreB during H. pylori infection, which may provide valuable clue for the optimization of H. pylori vaccine.

10.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130977, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289625

RESUMO

Per-, Poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) accumulation in benthic environments is mainly determined by material mixing and represents a significant challenge to river remediation. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of sediment distribution on PFASs accumulation, and how PFASs influence microbial community coalescence and biogeochemical processes. In order to identify correlations between PFASs distribution and benthic microbial community functions, we conducted a field study and quantified the ecological constrains of material transportation on benthic microorganisms. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) contributed most to the taxonomic heterogeneity of both archaeal (12.199%) and bacterial (13.675%) communities. Genera Methanoregula (R2 = 0.292) and Bacillus (R2 = 0.791) were identified as indicators that respond to PFASs. Phylogenetic null modeling indicated that deterministic processes (50.0-82.2%) dominated in spatial assembly of archaea, while stochasticity (94.4-97.8%) dominated in bacteria. Furthermore, spatial mixing of PFASs influenced broadly in nitrogen cycling of archaeal genomes, and phosphorus mineralization of bacterial genomes (p < 0.05). Overall, we quantified the effect of PFASs on community assembly and highlighted the constrains of PFASs influence on benthic geochemical potentials, which may provide new insights into riverine remediation.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Microbiota , Archaea/genética , Ecossistema , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Filogenia , Rios
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 649, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urogenital tract infections and is associated with reproductive morbidity. Although MG has been reported across many regions and population groups, it is not yet routinely tested for in China. Our study contributes to current research by reporting the prevalence and correlates of MG infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Guangdong from Jan 2017-May 2018. METHODS: Urethral (from 489 men) and endo-cervical (from 189 women) samples, blood samples, and patient histories (via questionnaires) were collected. Doctors clinically diagnosed anogenital warts (GW) during the examination (n = 678). The presence of MG was evaluated using an in-house via polymerase chain reaction protocol. We also tested all participants for herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), syphilis and HIV. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with MG. RESULTS: MG was detected in 7.2% (49/678) of the patients (men, 7.4%; women, 6.9%). The MG positivity rate was 14.2% among symptomatic patients, and 5.6% for asymptomatic patients, respectively. Only 36.7% (18/49) Mg positive patients were symptomatic. Among the MG-infected patients, 10.2% were co-infected with CT, 6.1% with NG, 8.2% with HSV-2, 4.1% with syphilis and 22.4% with GW. Presentation with clinical symptoms was significantly associated with MG infection [OR = 2.52 (2.03-3.13)]. In our analysis, MG was not associated with other STIs. CONCLUSIONS: MG is a relatively common infection among individuals attending an STI clinic in Guangdong Province. Routine testing of symptomatic patients may be necessary, and more epidemiological studies are needed to provide evidence for future testing guidelines.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) is a post-transcriptional regulatory factor that has been implicated in the development of cancer. Herein, this study was performed to examine the possible role of of IGF2BP2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: First, the expression patterns of IGF2BP2, YAP, and ErbB2 were detected in clinical tissue samples from CRC patients and CRC cell lines. In addition, cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were measured and recorded. Enrichment of TEAD4 in the ErbB2 promoter region was measured. Furthermore, IGF2BP2 binding to m6A-modified YAP mRNA was determined using Me-RIP assay with anti-IGF2BP2 antibody. Lastly, a xenograft tumor mouse model was established to substantiate in vitro findings. RESULTS: IGF2BP2, YAP, and ErbB2 were highly-expressed in CRC tissues and cell lines. In addition, IGF2BP2 was found to be bind to m6A-modified YAP mRNA and increased its stability in CRC cells, thus augmenting the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells while reducing their apoptosis. Meanwhile, YAP regulated ErbB2 expression by promoting TEAD4 enrichment in the ErbB2 promoter region. IGF2BP2 up-regulated ErbB2 by stabilizing YAP expression, and thus promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells while attenuating their apoptosis. Also, IGF2BP2 promoted tumor formation in nude mice by regulating the YAP/ErbB2 axis. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings indicated that IGF2BP2 may bind to m6A-modified YAP mRNA to promote YAP stability and activate the expression of ErbB2, thus facilitating the progression of CRC.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299202

RESUMO

Rice spotted leaf mutants are helpful to investigate programmed cell death (PCD) and defense response pathways in plants. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we characterized novel rice spotted leaf mutation splHM143 that encodes a 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase (OsHCAR). The wild-type (WT) allele could rescue the mutant phenotype, as evidenced by complementation analysis. OsHCAR was constitutively expressed at all rice tissues tested and its expression products localized to chloroplasts. The mutant exhibited PCD and leaf senescence with increased H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) accumulation, increased of ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging enzymes activities and TUNEL (terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) -positive nuclei, upregulation of PCD related genes, decreased chlorophyll (Chl) contents, downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes, and upregulation of senescence-associated genes. Besides, the mutant exhibited enhanced bacterial blight resistance with significant upregulation of defense response genes. Knockout lines of OsHCAR exhibited spotted leaf phenotype, cell death, leaf senescence, and showed increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) coupled with upregulation of five pathogenesis-related marker genes. The overexpression of OsHCAR resulted in increased susceptibility to Xoo with decreased expression of pathogenesis-related marker genes. Altogether, our findings revealed that OsHCAR is involved in regulating cell death and defense response against bacterial blight pathogen in rice.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314364

RESUMO

Accurate cervical lesion detection (CLD) methods using colposcopic images are highly demanded in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for automatic diagnosis of High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL). However, compared to natural scene images, the specific characteristics of colposcopic images, such as low contrast, visual similarity, and ambiguous lesion boundaries, pose difficulties to accurately locating HSIL regions and also significantly impede the performance improvement of existing CLD approaches. To tackle these difficulties and better capture cervical lesions, we develop novel feature enhancing mechanisms from both global and local perspectives, and propose a new discriminative CLD framework, called CervixNet, with a Global Class Activation (GCA) module and a Local Bin Excitation (LBE) module. Specifically, the GCA module learns discriminative features by introducing an auxiliary classifier, and guides our model to focus on HSIL regions while ignoring noisy regions. It globally facilitates the feature extraction process and helps boost feature discriminability. Further, our LBE module excites lesion features in a local manner, and allows the lesion regions to be more fine-grained enhanced by explicitly modelling the inter-dependencies among bins of proposal feature. Extensive experiments on a number of 9888 clinical colposcopic images verify the superiority of our method (AP .75=20.45) over state-of-the-art models on four widely used metrics.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26556, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) as an effective and convenient intervention has been adopted extensively for patients with severe aortic disease. However, the efficacy and safety of TAVI have not yet been well evaluated and its noninferiority compared with traditional surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) still lack sufficient evidence. This meta-analysis was designed to comprehensively compare the noninferiority of TAVI with sAVR for patients with severe aortic disease. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science up to October 1, 2020 was conducted for relevant studies that comparing TAVI and sAVR in the treatment of severe aortic disease. The primary outcomes were early, midterm and long term mortality. The secondary outcomes included early complications and other late outcomes. Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted the data independently. All statistical analyzes were performed using the standard statistical procedures provided in Review Manager 5.2. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies including 14394 patients were identified. There was no difference in 30-day, 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year all-cause or cardiovascular mortality as well as stroke between TAVI and sAVR. Regarding to the 30-day outcomes, compared with sAVR, TAVI experienced a significantly lower incidence of myocardial infarction (risk ratio [RR] 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.97; 5441 pts), cardiogenic shock (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; 1936 pts), acute kidney injury (AKI) > stage 2 (RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.25-0.54; 5371 pts), and new-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) (RR 0.29; 95% CI 0.24-0.35; 5371 pts) respectively, but higher incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation (RR 3.16; 95% CI 1.61-6.21; 5441 pts) and major vascular complications (RR 2.22; 95% CI 1.14-4.32; 5371 pts). Regarding to the 1- and 2-year outcomes, compared with sAVR, TAVI experienced a significantly lower incidence of NOAF, but higher incidence of neurological events, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), permanent pacemaker and major vascular complications respectively. Regarding to the 5-year outcomes, compared with sAVR, TAVI experienced a significantly lower incidence of NOAF, but higher incidence of TIA and reintervention respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that TAVI was equal to sAVR in early, midterm and long term mortality for patients with severe aortic disease. In addition, TAVI may be favorable in reducing the incidence of both early, midterm and long term NOAF. However, pooled results showed superiority of sAVR in reducing permanent pacemaker implantation, neurological events, TIA, major vascular complications and reintervention.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Marca-Passo Artificial , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos
17.
J Infect ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324940

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has many extrahepatic manifestations as well as liver symptoms. Multiple studies have shown that HEV infection has symptoms related to the nervous system, kidneys, cryoglobulinemia, hematological system, reproductive system, autoimmunity and pancreas. Hence, HEV infection should be considered as a systemic disease, rather than solely a liver disease. The extrahepatic manifestations induced by different genotypes of HEV vary. The severity of these diseases does not necessarily correlate with the severity of HEV infection, and even asymptomatic HEV infection may trigger and cause systemic diseases. Patients with systemic manifestations of HEV infection should have priority for antiviral therapy, which could alleviate or improve the extrahepatic manifestations related to HEV infection. However, the extrahepatic manifestations caused by different genotypes of HEV and their corresponding mechanisms have not been clearly identified. This review discusses the extrahepatic manifestations related to HEV infection and their triggering mechanisms.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 750, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326314

RESUMO

Emerging discoveries of dynamic and reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification on RNA in mammals have revealed the key roles of the modification in human tumorigenesis. As known m6A readers, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IGF2BPs) are upregulated in most cancers and mediates the enhancement of m6A-modified mRNAs stability. However, the mechanisms of IGF2BPs in renal cell cancer (RCC) still remain unclear. Bioinformatic analysis and RT-qPCR were performed to evaluate the expression of IGF2BPs and m6A writer Wilms tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) in RCC samples and its correlation with patient prognosis. In vitro, in vivo biological assays were performed to investigate the functions of IGF2BPs and WTAP in RCC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) combined with bioinformatics analysis and following western blot assay, dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to validate the regulatory relationships between transcription factor (TF) early growth response 2 (EGR2) and potential target genes IGF2BPs. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), methylated RNA immunoprecipitation-qPCR (MERIP-qPCR), RIP-qPCR, m6A dot blot, and dual-luciferase reporter assays combined with bioinformatics analysis were employed to screen and validate the direct targets of IGF2BPs and WTAP. Here, we showed that early growth response 2 (EGR2) transcription factor could increase IGF2BPs expression in RCC. IGF2BPs in turn regulated sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) expression in an m6A-dependent manner by enhancing the stability of S1PR3 mRNA. They also promoted kidney tumorigenesis via PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, IGF2BPs and WTAP upregulation predicted poor overall survival in RCC. Our studies showed that the EGR2/IGF2BPs regulatory axis and m6A-dependent regulation of S1PR3-driven RCC tumorigenesis, which enrich the m6A-modulated regulatory network in renal cell cancer. Together, our findings provide new evidence for the role of N6-methyladenosine modification in RCC.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263737

RESUMO

Anxiety-related disorders can be treated by cognitive therapies and transcranial magnetic stimulation, which involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Subregions of the mPFC have been implicated in mediating different and even opposite roles in anxiety-related behaviors. However, precise causal targets of these top-down connections among diverse possibilities have not been established. Here, we show that the lateral septum (LS) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) represent 2 direct targets of the infralimbic cortex (IL), a subregion of the mPFC that modulates anxiety and fear. Two projections were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state and learned freezing: the IL-LS projection promoted anxiety-related behaviors and fear-related freezing, whereas the IL-CeA projection exerted anxiolytic and fear-releasing effects for the same features. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements showed opposing behavioral effects compared with excitation. Notably, the IL-CeA projection implemented top-down control of the stress-induced high-anxiety state. These results suggest that distinct IL outputs exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety and fear and that modulating the excitability of these projections with distinct strategies may be beneficial for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260413

RESUMO

Background The gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment has important effects on biological behaviors, such as tumor cell invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which the GC microenvironment promotes GC cell invasion and metastasis is unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the effects and mechanism of galectin-1 (GAL-1, encoded by LGALS1) on GC invasion and metastasis in the GC microenvironment. Methods The expression of GAL-1/ LGALS1 was determined using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in GC tissues. Besides, methods including stable transfection, Matrigel invasion and migration assays, and wound-healing assays in vitro; and metastasis assays in vivo, were also conducted. Results GAL-1 from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of GC cells though the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß1)/ Sma- and mad-related protein (Smad) pathway, and affected the prognosis of patients with GC. The level of GAL-1 was high in CAFs, and treating MGC-803 and SGC -7901 cell line with the conditioned medium from CAFs promoted their invasion and metastasis abilities. Overexpression of LGALS1 promoted the expression of TGF-ß1 and induced EMT of GC cell lines. A TGF-ß1 antagonist inhibited the invasion and migration of GC cells. In vivo, overexpression of LGALS1 promoted GC growth and metastasis, and the TGF-ß1 antagonist dramatically reversed these events. Conclusions These findings suggested that high expression of GAL-1 in the GC microenvironment predicts a poor prognosis in patients with GC by promoting the migration and invasion of GC cells via EMT through the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. The results might provide new therapeutic targets to treat GC.

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