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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010159

RESUMO

Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), which selectively degrade targeted proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, have emerged as a novel therapeutic technology with potential advantages over traditional inhibition strategies. In the past few years, this technology has achieved substantial progress and two PROTACs have been advanced into phase I clinical trials. However, this technology is still maturing and the design of PROTACs remains a great challenge. In order to promote the rational design of PROTACs, we present PROTAC-DB, a web-based open-access database that integrates structural information and experimental data of PROTACs. Currently, PROTAC-DB consists of 1662 PROTACs, 202 warheads (small molecules that target the proteins of interest), 65 E3 ligands (small molecules capable of recruiting E3 ligases) and 806 linkers, as well as their chemical structures, biological activities, and physicochemical properties. Except the biological activities of warheads and E3 ligands, PROTAC-DB also provides the degradation capacities, binding affinities and cellular activities for PROTACs. PROTAC-DB can be queried with two general searching approaches: text-based (target name, compound name or ID) and structure-based. In addition, for the convenience of users, a filtering tool for the searching results based on the physicochemical properties of compounds is also offered. PROTAC-DB is freely accessible at http://cadd.zju.edu.cn/protacdb/.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e21533, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019383

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Midodrine is widely used in the treatment of hypotensive states, there have been no reports of myoclonus associated with midodrine use in hypotension with chronic kidney disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 58-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting with involuntary tremor 2 h after taking midodrine, which became more frequent after 6 h. Brain CT and neurological examination did not yield findings of note. Blood chemistry showed serum albumin of 3.1 g/L, ALT of 19 U/L, AST of 22 U/L, SCr of 273.9 µmol/L, K of 2.94 mmol/L, Ca of 1.63 mmol/L, and Mg of 0.46 mmol/L. Her BP was maintained at 83-110/56-75 mmHg. Her urine volume was 600-1000 mL/d, and her heart rate was within a range of 90-100 beats/min. DIAGNOSIS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. INTERVENTIONS: Midodrine treatment was stopped and the patient was treated with intravascular rehydration and furosemide. Myoclonus ceased one day after midodrine withdrawal. LESSONS: Oral midodrine is widely used in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension, recurrent reflex syncope and dialysis-associated hypotension and the adverse effects are mostly mild. However, clinicians should be alert for midodrine-induced myoclonus, especially in patients with CKD.

4.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022788

RESUMO

The application of natural preservatives has become an attractive method for controlling postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables. Allicin, the main active ingredient of allium plants, has broad-spectrum antifungal activity. However, the unstable properties of allicin limit its wide application. In this study, 1-[(R)-ethylsulfinyl]sulfanylethane, a structurally stable derivative of allicin, was used to explore its antifungal activity and potential mechanism on the expansion of Penicillium expansum. We demonstrated the antifungal activity of 1-[(R)-ethylsulfinyl]sulfanylethane through in vitro antifungal experiments. At the concentration is 2 mg/L, 1-[((R)-ethylsulfinyl]sulfanyl]ethane can completely inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth, whereas the concentration of allicin needs to reach 16 mg/L. Fungal Biochemical assay indicated that decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, overgeneration of reactive oxygen species, decrease of adenosine triphosphate and glutathione content, increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde content. The results revealed that 1-[(R)-ethylsulfinyl]sulfanylethane induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in P. expansum. Due to its excellent antifungal activity, 1-[((R)-ethylsulfinyl]sulfanyl]ethane might be developed as a substitute for fungicides against P. expansum in postharvest fruit storage.

5.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003208

RESUMO

Growing consumer desires for clean label, "natural" products drives more meat processors to cure meat products with natural sources of nitrate or nitrite such as celery juice powder (CJP). One particular challenge for these producers is to identify safe cooling rates in CJP-cured products where extended cooling could allow growth of pathogens. USDA FSIS recently added guidelines for stabilization of meat products cured using naturally occurring nitrites, based on control of Clostridium spp . Currently a gap exists in knowledge associated with safe cooling rates of naturally cured ham that prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that are potential post-lethality contaminants. The study aims to investigate the temperature profiles of naturally cured hams of typical sizes during refrigerator cooling and determine the survival behavior of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on ham during these cooling periods. Whole (14 lbs / 6300 g), half (6 lbs / 2700 g) and quarter hams (3 lbs / 1400 g) were slowly cooked in Alkar Ò 1000 smokehouse until internal temperatures reached a minimum of 140 ° F / 60°C and were immediately transferred into walk-in cooler (38 ° F / 3.3°C). Cooling times for all sizes were within the requirements for cured products but not for uncured products. Worst-case scenarios of post-processing surface contamination were simulated by inoculating small, naturally cured ham samples with S. aureus or L. monocytogenes , which were cooled in controlled processes (130-45 ° F / 54.4-7.2 ° C in 720-900 min). B y the end of cooling, each inoculum had a small decrease of 0.5-0.6 log CFU/g. This study helps small processors identify if recommended concentrations of natural cure agents that prevent growth of Clostridium pathogens may also prevent growth of other pathogens during cooling, which aids small meat processors in production and quality control.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; : 188441, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007432

RESUMO

A couple of molecular-targeting medications, such as Lenvatinib, are available for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in addition to Sorafenib in an advanced stage. Approval for the use of immune check-point inhibitors, such as Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab has shifted the paradigm of current HCC treatment, and the monotherapy or in combination with Lenvatinib or Sorafenib has significantly extended overall survival or progression-free survival in a large portion of patients. A combination of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor Atezolizumab with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, Bevacizumab, has recently achieved promising outcome in unresectable HCC patients. Other immunotherapy, such as chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has achieved an evolutional success in hematologic malignancies, and has extended its use in deadly solid tumors, such as HCC. Although there exist various barriers, novel approaches are developed to move potential adoptive T cell therapy strategies, including cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), T cell receptor (TCR) T cells, CAR-T cells, to clinical application.

7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(10): 811-822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043646

RESUMO

Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) causes severe disease in tomato and other Solanaceous crops around globe. To effectively study and manage this viral disease, researchers need new, sensitive, and high-throughput approaches for viral detection. In this study, we purified PepMV particles from the infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants and used virions to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare hybridomas secreting anti-PepMV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A panel of highly specific and sensitive murine mAbs (15B2, 8H6, 23D11, 20D9, 3A6, and 8E3) could be produced through cell fusion, antibody selection, and cell cloning. Using the mAbs as the detection antibodies, we established double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), Dot-ELISA, and Tissue print-ELISA for detecting PepMV infection in tomato plants. Resulting data on sensitivity analysis assays showed that both DAS-ELISA and Dot-ELISA can efficiently monitor the virus in PepMV-infected tissue crude extracts when diluted at 1:1 310 720 and 1:20 480 (weight/volume ratio (w/v), g/mL), respectively. Among the three methods developed, the Tissue print-ELISA was found to be the most practical detection technique. Survey results from field samples by the established serological approaches were verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and DNA sequencing, demonstrating all three serological methods are reliable and effective for monitoring PepMV. Anti-PepMV mAbs and the newly developed DAS-ELISA, Dot-ELISA, and Tissue print-ELISA can benefit PepMV detection and field epidemiological study, and management of this viral disease, which is already widespread in tomato plants in Yunnan Province of China.

8.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820948183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the presence or absence of calcification and whether calcification size affect the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 2014 to April 2019, 445 patients underwent thyroid US and neck CT before thyroid surgery. In each case, US and CT were retrospectively examined by radiologists. We divided the patients into 3 groups according to the type of calcification: no calcification, microcalcification, and macrocalcification. And macrocalcification group divided into rim calcifications and non-rim calcifications groups. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of US and CT for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules using histopathological results as a reference standard. RESULTS: In the overall population, adding CT to US resulted in greater sensitivity, lower specificity, and lower accuracy in the prediction of the benign or malignant nature of nodules. In the group with no calcification, US had a significantly greater accuracy than CT and combined US/CT. In the group with macrocalcification, especially in rim calcifications, adding CT to US resulted in greater sensitivity than US, and CT exhibited greater sensitivity and accuracy than US. CONCLUSION: US is superior to CT for the prediction of the benign or malignant nature of nodules in thyroid lesions according to calcification and CT is also currently not recommended as a routine imaging tool for thyroid nodules. However, the superior sensitivity and accuracy of CT in lesions with macrocalcification especially in rim calcifications may enable CT to play a complementary role in identifying benign and malignant nodules.

9.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(11): 3310-3320, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915289

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare the microbiota in different pig-present settings in China. Bioaerosol samples from pig farms and slaughterhouses and nasal samples from pig farmers and slaughterhouse workers were collected in Guangdong, southern China. The bacterial genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to 16S sequencing. The data were analyzed using QIIME2 with the DADA2 pipeline. A total of 14,923,551 clean reads and 2785 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, which were mostly grouped into 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria) and 220 families. The microbiota richness of nasal samples in pig-present workers was higher than that of bioaerosols collected in the vicinity of the pig enclosures. There were 31.7% (620/1954) shared OTUs between pig farm bioaerosols and pig farmers which was higher than that between pig slaughterhouses and slaughterhouse workers (23.4%, 364/1553) (p < 0.001). Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were the most abundant in pig-present bioaerosols, and Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium were dominant bacterial genus in pig farmers. The bacterial patterns are also specific to the location of sample collected. The results suggest that bioaerosol microbiota interact with human nasal microbes in the vicinity of the pig farm enclosures, providing the basis for further analysis of microbial transmission across hosts in pig-present settings.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15138, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934283

RESUMO

Vision loss caused by diabetic macular edema (DME) can be prevented by early detection and laser photocoagulation. As there is no comprehensive detection technique to recognize NPA, we proposed an automatic detection method of NPA on fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in DME. The study included 3,014 FFA images of 221 patients with DME. We use 3 convolutional neural networks (CNNs), including DenseNet, ResNet50, and VGG16, to identify non-perfusion regions (NP), microaneurysms, and leakages in FFA images. The NPA was segmented using attention U-net. To validate its performance, we applied our detection algorithm on 249 FFA images in which the NPA areas were manually delineated by 3 ophthalmologists. For DR lesion classification, area under the curve is 0.8855 for NP regions, 0.9782 for microaneurysms, and 0.9765 for leakage classifier. The average precision of NP region overlap ratio is 0.643. NP regions of DME in FFA images are identified based a new automated deep learning algorithm. This study is an in-depth study from computer-aided diagnosis to treatment, and will be the theoretical basis for the application of intelligent guided laser.

11.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 196, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rural areas of China, hypertension is on the rise and it is drawing the Chinese government's attention. The health outcomes of hypertension management can be positively impacted by patient satisfaction with primary care physicians (PCPs), and the influence of patient trust on satisfaction cannot be ignored. This study aimed to analyze the effect of trust in PCPs on patient satisfaction among patients with hypertension in rural China, and the influence of patients' socio-demographic characteristics and hypertension-management-related factors. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted to investigate 2665 patients with hypertension in rural China. Patient trust and satisfaction were measured using the Chinese version of the Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale and the European Task Force on Patient Evaluation of General Practice. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the factors influencing patient satisfaction, and structural equation modeling was conducted to clarify the relationships among patient trust and patient satisfaction with PCPs. RESULTS: Patients' trust in their PCPs' benevolence had a positive main effect on all three satisfaction dimensions (clinical behavior: ß = 0.940, p <  0.01; continuity and cooperation: ß = 0.910, p <  0.01; and organization of care: ß = 0.879, p <  0.01). Patients' trust in their PCPs' technical competence had a small negative effect on all three satisfaction dimensions (clinical behavior: ß = - 0.077, p <  0.01; continuity and cooperation: ß = - 0.136, p <  0.01; and organization of care: ß = - 0.064, p <  0.01). Patient satisfaction was also associated with region, gender, insurance status, distance from the nearest medical/health-service institution, and number of visits to PCPs in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Patients focused more on physicians' benevolence than on their technical competence. Hence, medical humanities and communication skills education should be emphasized for PCPs. Regarding region-based and health-insurance-based differences, the inequities between eastern, central, and western provinces, as well as between urban and rural areas, must also be addressed.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976105

RESUMO

Deep learning has been successfully applied to surprisingly different domains. Researchers and practitioners are employing trained deep learning models to enrich our knowledge. Transcription factors (TFs) are essential for regulating gene expression in all organisms by binding to specific DNA sequences. Here, we designed a deep learning model named SemanticCS (Semantic ChIP-seq) to predict TF binding specificities. We trained our learning model on an ensemble of ChIP-seq datasets (Multi-TF-cell) to learn useful intermediate features across multiple TFs and cells. To interpret these feature vectors, visualization analysis was used. Our results indicate that these learned representations can be used to train shallow machines for other tasks. Using diverse experimental data and evaluation metrics, we show that SemanticCS outperforms other popular methods. In addition, from experimental data, SemanticCS can help to identify the substitutions that cause regulatory abnormalities and to evaluate the effect of substitutions on the binding affinity for the RXR transcription factor. The online server for SemanticCS is freely available at http://qianglab.scst.suda.edu.cn/semanticCS/.

15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112642, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979593

RESUMO

The outbreaks of the infectious disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 seriously threatened the life of humans. A rapid, reliable and specific detection method was urgently needed. Herein, we reported a contamination-free visual detection method for SARS-CoV-2 with LAMP and CRISPR/Cas12a technology. CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were pre-added on the inner wall of the tube lid. After LAMP reaction, CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were flowed into the tube and mixed with amplicon solution by hand shaking, which can effectively avoid possible amplicon formed aerosol contamination caused by re-opening the lid after amplification. CRISPR/Cas12a can highly specific recognize target sequence and discriminately cleave single strand DNA probes (5'-6FAM 3'-BHQ1). With smart phone and portable 3D printing instrument, the produced fluorescence can be seen by naked eyes without any dedicated instruments, which is promising in the point-of-care detection. The whole amplification and detection process could be completed within 40 min with high sensitivity of 20 copies RNA of SARS-CoV-2. This reaction had high specificity and could avoid cross-reactivity with other common viruses such as influenza virus. For 7 positive and 3 negative respiratory swab samples provided by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, our detection results had 100% positive agreement and 100% negative agreement, which demonstrated the accuracy and application prospect of this method.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(3): 420-426, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888649

RESUMO

The efficiency of cell therapy after spinal cord injury (SCI) depend on the survival of transplanted cells. However, sterile microenvironment and glial scar hyperplasia extremely reduce their numbers. Our previous study found overexpression of ChABC gene is positively correlated to migration ability. Expression of PTEN gene is closely associated with proliferation. However, whether manipulation of PTEN and ChABC on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) promote motor recovery is unknown. This study aimed to promote hindlimb function recovery in SCI rats by enhancing proliferation and migration ability of ADSCs, transiently silencing expression of PTEN following overexpression of ChABC (double-gene modified ADSCs, DG-ADSCs). After PTEN silencing, we observed strong proliferation and accelerated G1-S transition in DG-ADSCs using CCK8 assay and flow cytometry. In addition, we demonstrated that migration numbers of DG-ADSCs were higher than control group using Transwell assay. The protein and mRNA levels of MAP2 and ßⅢ-tubulin in DG-ADSCs were increased compared with ADSCs. These results were further confirmed in SCI rats. Increased survival cells and reduction of glial scars were quantitatively analyzed in DG-ADSCs groups, which is definitely correlated to function recovery. Recovery of motor function was observed in DG-ADSCs treatment rats using BBB score, which emphasized that improved viability of transplanted cells and reduction of glial scars were an effective strategy for enhancing recovery of neurological function after SCI.

17.
Exp Cell Res ; 396(1): 112289, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950474

RESUMO

Lesion healing without treatment is a unique clinical characteristic of the early stages of syphilis infection. Angiogenesis, which involves endothelial cell migration, is an important process in wound healing. Tp0136, an outer membrane protein of T. pallidum, has the ability to bind host fibronectin-producing cells, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of syphilis. In this research, we purposed to analyze the role of Tp0136 in the migration of human microvascular endothelial (HMEC-1) cells and to explore the related mechanism. First, Tp0136 significantly promoted HMEC-1 cell migration. Furthermore, the levels of C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) mRNA and protein expression rose with the concentration and time increasing of Tp0136. The migration of HMEC-1 cells was significantly suppressed by an anti-CCL2 antibody and a CCR2 (the CCL2 receptor) inhibitor. Further study revealed that, in cells pretreated with anti-fibronectin antibody, anti-integrin ß1 antibody or RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp), the expression levels of CCL2 induced by Tp0136 were notably decreased. Additionally, after pretreatment with an anti-fibronectin antibody, an anti-integrin ß1 antibody or RGD, the migration of HMEC-1 cells treated with Tp0136 was obviously suppressed. These results show that Tp0136 promots the migration of HMEC-1 cells by inducing CCL2 expression via the interaction of the fibronectin RGD domain with integrin ß1 and the CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway, and these interactions may contribute to the mechanisms that increase the capacity for self-healing syphilis infection.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 804, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978372

RESUMO

The concept of breast-conserving surgery is a remarkable achievement of breast cancer therapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being used increasingly to shrink the tumor prior to surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reducing the tumor size to make the surgery with less damaging to surrounding tissue and downstage locally inoperable disease to operable. However, non-effective neoadjuvant chemotherapy could increase the risks of delaying surgery, develop unresectable disease and metastatic tumor spread. The biomarkers for predicting the neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect are scarce in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we identified that FZR1 can be a novel biomarker for breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to clinical patient cohort evaluation and molecular mechanism investigation. Transcriptomic data analysis indicated that the expression of FZR1 is correlated with the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that FZR1 is pivotal to the chemotherapy drugs induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. FZR1 is involved in the stability of p53 by impairing the phosphorylation at ser15 site. We demonstrate that the expression of FZR1 detected by quantification of IHC can be an effective predictor of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in animal experiment and clinical patient cohort. To obtain more benefit for breast cancer patient, we propose that the FZR1 IHC score using at the clinical to predict the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870775

RESUMO

Significance: Wound dressings are frequently used for wound covering and healing. Ideal wound dressings should provide a moist environment for wounds and actively promote wound healing and skin recovery. The materials used as ideal wound dressings should possess specific properties, thus accelerating skin tissue regeneration process. Recent Advances: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polymer synthesized by some bacteria. As a kind of natural biopolymer, BC shows good biological activity, biodegradability, and biological adaptability. It has many unique physical, chemical, and biological properties, such as ultrafine nanofiber network, high crystallinity, high water absorption and retention capacity, and high tensile strength and elastic modulus. These excellent properties of BC have laid the foundation for its application as dressing in wound healing. Critical Issues: To optimize the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of BC, different methods including microbial fermentation, physical modification, chemical modification, and compound modification have been adopted to modify BC to ensure a better application in wound healing. BC-based wound dressings have been applied in infected wounds, acute traumatic injuries, burns, and diabetic wounds, showing remarkable therapeutic effects on promoting wound healing. Furthermore, there have been some commercial BC-based dressings and they have been utilized in clinical practice. Future Directions: Because of its excellent physicochemical characteristics and biological properties, BC shows high clinical value to be used as a wound dressing for skin tissue regeneration.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(30): 4501-4522, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No guideline recommends antiviral therapy for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a Chinese herbal formula as a therapeutic option for chronic HBV infection. METHODS: In total, 395 patients (30-65 years old) with confirmed HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase were randomized to receive either Chinese herbal formula or placebo for 96 wk. Endpoints to evaluate therapeutic efficacy included: (1) HBV DNA levels decreased to less than 4 log10 IU/mL at weeks 48 and 96; and (2) HBeAg clearance and seroconversion rates at weeks 48 and 96. RESULTS: HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 10.05% at week 48 and 18.59% at week 96 in the treatment group. The HBeAg clearance and conversion rates were 8.54% and 8.04% at week 48 and 16.08% and 14.57% at week 96, respectively. However, HBV DNA levels ≤ 4 log10 IU/mL were 2.55% and 2.55% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, and the HBeAg clearance rates were 3.06% and 5.61% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively, in the control group. The quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen and HBeAg levels at baseline and changes during the treatment period as well as the alanine aminotransferase elevation at weeks 12 and 24 were strong predictors of HBeAg clearance. CONCLUSION: High rates of HBV DNA reduction, HBeAg clearance and seroconversion could be achieved with Chinese herbal formula treatments, and the treatments were relatively safe for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B-infected patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase. The ability of the compound to modulate host immune function probably contributed to this effect.

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