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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 275-284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158186

RESUMO

Purpose: Treatment options for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR DLBCL) represent an unmet medical need. Apatinib is a new oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) to inhibit tumour angiogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of apatinib for patients with RR DLBCL. Patients and Methods: In this phase II, open-label, single-arm, prospective study, we enrolled patients aged 14-70 years with treatment failure of at least two chemotherapeutic regimens using Simon's two-stage design. All patients were administered apatinib at an initial dose of 500 mg on a 4-week cycle at home and visited the outpatient clinic every two cycles to evaluate efficacy and to record adverse events. We considered objective response rate (ORR) as the primary end point, and progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) plus duration of response (DoR) as the secondary end point. (This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03376958.). Results: From January 2017 to February 2019, we screened 35 patients and enrolled 32 eligible patients. At the cutoff point (April 2019), we noted 2 (6.3%) complete responses, 12 (37.5%) partial responses, and 9 (28.1%) stable diseases, attributing to an ORR of 43.8% and a disease control rate of 71.9%. The median PFS and OS were 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-7.9) and 7.9 months (95% CI, 7.0-8.7), respectively. The median DoR was 5.0 months (95% CI, 3.5-6.5) for patients who achieved PR. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events (AE) were hypertension (12.6%), hand-foot syndrome (9.4%), and leucopenia (6.3%). No apatinib-related deaths were noted. Conclusion: Home administration of apatinib shows promising efficacy and manageable AEs in patients with RR DLBCL.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155746

RESUMO

The plant specific LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB)-domain (LBD) proteins belong to a family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as in responses to various stresses. However, a comprehensive study of LBDs in Brassica napus has not yet been reported. In the present study, 126 BnLBD genes were identified in B. napus genome using bioinformatics analyses. The 126 BnLBDs were phylogenetically classified into two groups and nine subgroups. Evolutionary analysis indicated that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication played important roles in the expansion of the BnLBD gene family. On the basis of the RNA-seq analyses, we identified BnLBD genes with tissue or developmental specific expression patterns. Through cis-acting element analysis and hormone treatment, we identified 19 BnLBD genes with putative functions in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. This study provides a comprehensive understanding on the origin and evolutionary history of LBDs in B. napus, and will be helpful in further functional characterisation of BnLBDs.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110032, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187961

RESUMO

This study was devised to investigate if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated the drug-drug interaction (DDI) between genistein and repaglinide. When genistein was added, the plasma concentrations of repaglinide in rats were increased. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of repaglinide increased from 70.80 ± 7.98 ng/mL to 124.71 ± 9.02 ng/mL and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased from 134.89 ± 13.65 µg·h/L to 245.95 ± 7.24 µg·h/L. Intestinal absorption of repaglinide was markedly enhanced by genistein or P-gp inhibitor verapamil (Ver), both in situ rat jejunal perfusion studies and in vitro transport assays using everted rat intestinal sac preparations. Furthermore, the accumulation of repaglinide in both Caco-2 cells and IEC-6 cells also increased significantly in the presence of genistein and Ver. The transepithelial transport rate of repaglinide from basolateral-to-apical in MDR1-MDCK cells was 3.6-fold higher than the apical-to-basolateral rate with a net efflux ratio of 1.92 compared with mock-MDCK cells, which was significantly decreased following co-administration with genistein or Ver. In an intracellular accumulation experiment using Rhodamine 123 as a P-gp substrate, genistein significantly increased the intracellular fluorescence of Rhodamine 123. These results indicated that genistein had an inhibitory effect on the efflux function of P-gp. Through molecular docking assays we further found that genistein could bind to the nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) in the cytoplasm of P-gp, thus affecting the functions of P-gp. In conclusion, genistein inhibited the efflux of repaglinide mediated by P-gp in rats and in vitro. The findings suggested that the DDI between genistein and repaglinide is mediated by P-gp, and a dosage adjustment may be needed when they are co-administered in a clinical setting.

4.
Org Lett ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181668

RESUMO

A feasible and convenient strategy for oligosaccharide synthesis, which realizes reaction in solution while product purification occurs only by solid-liquid filtration, has been developed. By using a hop-on/off carrier (polytetrafluoroethylene particle), rapid synthesis of tumor-associated antigen Globo-H hexasaccharide has been successfully achieved within 5 steps in 48% overall yield without any intermediate purification by column chromatography. Also, global deprotection, including the cleavage of the tag, proceeded simultaneously only by one-step hydrogenolysis.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e920711, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The suicide risk of patients with cancer is higher than the general population. Our research aimed to explore the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to define incidence and quest risk factors for death of suicide in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the United States (US). MATERIAL AND METHODS We screened KS patients without human immunodeficiency virus status in the SEER database from 1980 to 2016, calculated the standardized mortality ratios of them by comparing the rates with those of the US general population from 1980 to 2016, and identified relevant suicide risk factors by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The suicide rates of KS patients and US general population were 115.31 (110 suicides among 21 405 patients) and 15.1 per 100 000 person-years, respectively, thus the standardized mortality ratio was 7.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.28-9.21). The multivariate analysis showed that black race (versus white race, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.89, P=0.022), advanced age at diagnosis (≥55 years versus 18-44 years, HR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.66, P=0.002), and chemotherapy (versus no chemotherapy, HR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.37-0.96, P=0.032) were protective factors for suicide among KS patients. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians and caregivers can apply our findings to identify KS patients with high suicide risk characteristics (white race, age of 18-44 years, non-chemotherapy) and exert timely interventions during patient diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up to reduce the suicide rate in this population.


Assuntos
Sarcoma de Kaposi/psicologia , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052078

RESUMO

Dendritic cells are crucial for the initiation and regulation of immune responses against cancer and pathogens. DCs are heterogeneous and highly specialized antigen-presenting cells. Human DCs comprise several subsets with different phenotypes and functional properties. In the steady state, human DC subsets have been well studied. However, the components of DC subsets and their immune functions during the inflamed setting are poorly understood. We identified and characterized DC subsets in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients. We analyzed the capacity of these DC subsets to induce T-cell differentiation. We observed the presence of inflammatory DCs (infDCs) and macrophages in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients, as identified by the CD11C+HLA-DR+CD16-BDCA1+ and CD11C+HLA-DR+CD16+BDCA1- phenotypes, respectively. InfDCs represented approximately 1% of the total light-density cells in the pleural effusion and were characterized by the expression of CD206, CD14, CD11b, and CD1α, which were absent on blood DCs. InfDCs also expressed CD80, although at a low level. As infDCs did not express CD40, CD83 and CD275, they remained functionally immature. We found that TLR agonists promoted the maturation of infDCs. Compared with macrophages, infDCs had a weaker capacity to phagocytose necrotic tumor cell lysates. However, only infDCs induced autologous memory CD4+ T-cell differentiation into Th1 cells. For the first time, we found that infDCs were present in the malignant pleural effusions of NSCLC patients. We conclude that infDCs represent a distinct human DC subset and induce Th1 cell differentiation in the presence of TLR agonists.

7.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 26, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in multiple immune-mediated disorders including oral lichen planus (OLP). This study investigated the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk of OLP. METHODS: In total, 177 OLP patients and 207 healthy participants were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs731236, rs739837, rs757343, rs2107301, rs2239185, rs7975232, rs11574129 and rs11568820) in the VDR gene were selected and genotyped. RESULTS: The results showed that OLP risk was increased in subjects with the rs2239185 TT genotype (Recessive model: adjusted Odd ratio(OR) = 2.68, 95% Confidence interval(CI) = 1.28-5.62, P = 0.009) and rs7975232 CC genotype (Recessive model: adjusted OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.10-4.58, P = 0.026). Moreover, rs2239185 and rs7975232 (P < 0.01) showed significant cumulative effects on OLP risk.Haplotype analysis showed that the CC haplotype (rs2239185-rs7975232) was associated with an increased risk of OLP (OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 1.42-6.83, P = 0.005), compared with the AC haplotype. CONCLUSION: The rs2239185 and rs7975232 variants of VDR may influence OLP susceptibility, and VDR gene polymorphisms may be candidate susceptibility regions for OLP in a Chinese Han population.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of intravenous voriconazole (VRC) in critically ill patients with liver dysfunction. METHODS: Patients with liver dysfunction in the intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively included. The Child-Pugh (C-P) score was used to categorize the degree of liver dysfunction. The initial intravenous VRC dosing regimen comprised of a loading dose of 300 mg q12 h for the first 24 h followed by 200 mg q12 h. The first PK curves (PK curve 1) were drawn within one dosing interval of the first dose from 17 patients, and the second PK curves (PK curve 2) were drawn within one dosing interval after a minimum of seven doses from 12 patients. PK parameters were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: There were good correlations between area under the curve (AUC0-12) of PK curve 2 and the corresponding trough concentration (C0) and peak concentration (Cmax) ( r2 = 0.951 and 0.963, respectively; both P < 0.001). The median half-life (t1/2) and clearance (CL) of patients in C-P classes A (n = 3), B (n = 5), and C (n = 4) of PK curve 2 were 24.4 h and 3.31 l/h, 29.1 h and 2.54 l/h, and 60.7 h and 2.04 l/h, respectively. The CL (median) of PK curve 2 were all lower than those of PK curve 1 in different C-P classes. Apparent steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) of PK curve 1 was positively correlated with actual body weight ( r2 = 0.450, P = 0.004). The first C0 of 17 patients determined on day 5 (median) was 5.27 ± 2.61 µg/ml, and 29.4% of C0 exceeded the upper limit of the therapeutic window (2-6 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The CL of VRC was decreased with the increased severity of liver dysfunction according to C-P classification, along with the increased t1/2, which resulted in high plasma exposure of VRC. Adjusted dosing regimens of intravenous VRC should be established based on C-P classes for these ICU patients and plasma concentrations should be closely monitored to avoid serious adverse events. This clinical study is registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn; Registration number: ChiCTR1800019472).

9.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diclofenac is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, adverse effects in the kidney limit its clinical application. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential effect of cilastatin on diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury and to clarify the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in the drug-drug interaction between cilastatin and diclofenac. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of cilastatin was evaluated in diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Human OAT1/3-transfected HEK293 cells and renal primary proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) were used to investigate OAT1/3-mediated transport and the cytotoxicity of diclofenac. KEY RESULTS: Cilastatin treatment decreased the pathological changes, renal dysfunction and elevated renal levels of oxidation products, cytokine production and apoptosis induced by diclofenac in mice. Moreover, cilastatin increased the plasma concentration and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and its glucuronide metabolite, diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DLF-AG). Similarly, cilastatin inhibited cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in RPTCs but did not change the intracellular accumulation of diclofenac. DLF-AG but not diclofenac exhibited OAT-dependent cytotoxicity and was identified as an OAT1/3 substrate. Cilastatin inhibited the intracellular accumulation and decreased the cytotoxicity of DLF-AG in RPTCs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Cilastatin alleviated diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice by restoring the redox balance, suppressing inflammation, and reducing apoptosis. Cilastatin inhibited OATs and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and DLF-AG, which further ameliorated the diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cilastatin can be potentially used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to alleviate the adverse renal reaction to diclofenac.

10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(2): 219-227, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients on maintenance dialysis with in-hospital cardiac arrest have been reported to have worse outcomes relative to those not on dialysis; however, it is unknown if poor outcomes are related to the quality of resuscitation. Using the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) registry, we examined processes of care and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest for patients on maintenance dialysis compared with nondialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used GWTG-R data linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid data to identify patients with ESKD receiving maintenance dialysis from 2000 to 2012. We then case-matched adult patients on maintenance dialysis to nondialysis patients in a 1:3 ratio on the basis of age, sex, race, hospital, and year of arrest. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association of in-hospital cardiac arrest and outcomes by dialysis status. RESULTS: After matching, there were a total of 31,144 GWTG-R patients from 372 sites, of which 8498 (27%) were on maintenance dialysis. Patients on maintenance dialysis were less likely to have a shockable initial rhythm (20% versus 21%) and less likely to be within the intensive care unit at the time of arrest (46% versus 47%) compared with nondialysis patients; they also had lower composite scores for resuscitation quality (89% versus 90%) and were less likely to have defibrillation within 2 minutes (54% versus 58%). After adjustment, patients on maintenance dialysis had similar adjusted odds of survival to discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.97 to 1.13), better acute survival (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.40), and were more likely to have favorable neurologic status (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.22) compared with nondialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although there appears to be opportunities to improve the quality of in-hospital cardiac arrest care for among those on maintenance dialysis, survival to discharge was similar for these patients compared with nondialysis patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combination therapy with cisplatin is the conventional first-line treatment in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X) has been shown to be associated with resistance to chemotherapy drugs in several cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive effects of USP9X on advanced ESCC patients treated with cisplatin-based regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 69 advanced ESCC patients who received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure USP9X mRNA expression. The correlation of USP9X expression with clinical parameters and tumor response was analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis were employed to analyze differences in overall survival (OS). RESULTS: USP9X mRNA expression was positively associated with the TMN stage at initial diagnosis. Patients with low USP9X mRNA expression had a significantly higher objective response rate (57.1% vs. 17.6%, P=0.001) and longer median OS (25.0 vs. 14.0 months, P<0.001) than those with high expression in all patients or in different treatment subgroups (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that low mRNA expression of USP9X emerged as an independent prognostic factor indicating prolonged OS (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.73; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that high USP9X mRNA expression predicts poor clinical efficacy and survival to cisplatin-based therapy in patients with advanced ESCC.

12.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 14, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941535

RESUMO

In the original publication of this manuscript [1], the author mislabeled the CTL group and ZNF326 group in Fig. 2-I,J (MTT result). The revised Fig. 2 is shown below.

13.
Elife ; 92020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975688

RESUMO

Lateral olivocochlear (LOC) efferent neurons modulate auditory nerve fiber (ANF) activity using a large repertoire of neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Little is known about how individual neurotransmitter systems are differentially utilized in response to the ever-changing acoustic environment. Here we present quantitative evidence in rodents that the dopaminergic LOC input to ANFs is dynamically regulated according to the animal's recent acoustic experience. Sound exposure upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for dopamine synthesis, in cholinergic LOC intrinsic neurons, suggesting that individual LOC neurons might at times co-release ACh and DA. We further demonstrate that dopamine down-regulates ANF firing rates by reducing both the hair cell release rate and the size of synaptic events. Collectively, our results suggest that LOC intrinsic neurons can undergo on-demand neurotransmitter re-specification to re-calibrate ANF activity, adjust the gain at hair cell/ANF synapses, and possibly to protect these synapses from noise damage.

14.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996423

RESUMO

Acute liver failure is a severe liver disorder that poses considerable global challenges. Previous studies on Bifidobacterium longum R0175 have mainly focused on its psychotropic functions. The current research focused on the protective efficacy of B. longum R0175 against acute liver failure caused by d-galactosamine (d-GalN) in rats and further tested the hypothesis that B. longum R0175 exerted liver-protective effects by affecting the intestinal microbiota and fecal metabolites and by inhibiting inflammation. We found that oral gavage of B. longum R0175 markedly reduced the severity of liver injury in d-GalN-treated rats, as evidenced by decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bile acids (TBAs) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß [IL-1ß] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and chemokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1 [CXCL1], chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 5 [CCL5], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α]) were also markedly reduced (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with B. longum R0175 partially reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats with liver injury by increasing the relative abundances of potentially beneficial bacteria, such as Alloprevotella spp., and decreasing the relative abundances of potentially harmful bacteria, such as Acetatifactor muris, Butyricimonas spp., and Oscillibacter spp. Furthermore, B. longum R0175 administration partially improved the metabolic function of the intestinal microbes, as indicated by the decreased level of lithocholic acid found in the feces.IMPORTANCE Our research investigated the protective and preventive roles of B. longum R0175 in a rat model of acute liver failure. The results illustrated that this probiotic strain exhibited protective effects in rats with acute liver failure. Thus, B. longum R0175 showed clinical application prospects that required further exploration.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Disbiose , Galactosamina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 29: 101642, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899380

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) affects not only tumor growth and metastasis, but also therapy efficacy. In the present study, an oxygen self-supplying delivery system for a photosensitizer (O2-PDS), with an oxygen source of calcium peroxide (CPO), has been designed to induce multi-path tumor apoptosis through interactive effects with the TME. In anti-tumor experiments, the CPO decomposition and O2 released from the O2-PDS are site-activated and accelerated by high interstitial pressure and low pH level of the TME. The CPO decomposition products of O2 and Ca2+ lead to direct tumor apoptosis by irradiation generated singlet oxygen and mitochondrial calcium overload. The decomposition products of OH- and O2 relieves the acid and hypoxic state of TME, inducing a decrease in tumor proliferation and metastasis. This multi-path tumor apoptosis leads to a positive therapeutic effect on an animal tumor model and nontoxicity in normal tissue.

16.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928491

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are a serious global-scaled public health problem. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) has been found to play a crucial role in relation to the outcomes of HCV infection after it binds to TNF receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A). Thus, we investigated whether or not the TNF/LTA gene cluster and TNFRSF1A gene polymorphisms were associated with the outcomes of HCV infection. 1103 control participants without HCV infection, 497 patients with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection, and 713 patients with persistent HCV infection were enrolled. Rs2229094, rs1041981, rs1799964, and rs767455 were genotyped using the ABI TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. After adjusting for age, gender, and after determining a high-risk population, we used logistic regression analyses for which results indicated that the rs767455-C allele was associated with a reduced risk of HCV infection compared to respective results for the wild-type T allele (dominant model: adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.60-0.92, P = .006; additive model: adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.91, P = .004). Results also indicated that the rs1041981-A allele was associated with a decreased risk of persistent HCV infection compared to respective results for the wild-type C allele (additive model: adjusted OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68-0.96, P = .017). Genetic polymorphisms in the LTA and TNFRSF1A genes were found to have been potentially important in relation to the susceptibility and chronicity of HCV infection among Chinese Han population.

17.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 296: 111029, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918166

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology may damage emotion circuit and cause depression. We investigated whether the neural basis of depressive symptoms varies at different PD stages. Seventy-six healthy controls (HC) and 98 PD patients (divided into early and middle stage groups) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and general neuropsychological tests. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based analysis were used to study the association between brain structural alterations and the Hamilton Depression Scale 17 Item (HAMD-17) scores in different groups. Comparing with HC group, PD patients showed widespread brain alterations in both gray and white matter. The HAMD-17 scores were positively correlated with GM volume in the right pre-central gyrus of early PD patients. In the middle stage group, HAMD-17 scores were positively correlated with GM volume in midbrain and right superior temporal gyrus, and negatively associated with GM volume in left anterior cingulate and superior frontal gyrus. In white matter analysis, The HAMD-17 scores were positively correlated with fractional anisotropy value of the bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in the early stage group, but not the middle stage group. We concluded that the neural basis of depressive symptoms might be distinct in different stages of PD, implying the need for differential treatments.

18.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 477-494, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in the liver delineates the transition from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (SH). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We found that in SH, γδT cells are recruited to the liver by C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 2, CCR5, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 signaling and are skewed toward an interleukin (IL)-17A+ phenotype in an inducible costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS ligand-dependent manner. γδT cells exhibit a distinct Vγ4+ , PD1+ , Ly6C+ CD44+ phenotype in SH. Moreover, γδT cells up-regulate both CD1d, which is necessary for lipid-based antigens presentation, and the free fatty acid receptor, CD36. γδT cells are stimulated to express IL-17A by palmitic acid and CD1d ligation. Deletion, depletion, and targeted interruption of γδT cell recruitment protects against diet-induced SH and accelerates disease resolution. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that hepatic γδT cells exacerbate SH, independent of IL-17 expression, by mitigating conventional CD4+ T-cell expansion and modulating their inflammatory program by CD1d-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

19.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(4): 3309-3319, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore whether rhein could enhance the effects of pemetrexed (PTX) on the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify the associated molecular mechanism. Our study shows that rhein in combination with PTX could obviously increase the systemic exposure of PTX in rats, which would be mediated by the inhibition of organic anion transporters (OATs). Furthermore, the toxicity of PTX was significantly raised by rhein in A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitant administration of rhein and PTX-induced cell apoptosis compared with PTX alone in flow cytometry assays, which was further validated by the protein expressions of the apoptotic markers B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated x (Bcl-2/Bax) and Cleaved-Caspase3 (Cl-Caspase3). Meanwhile, the results of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) dyeing experiments showed that PTX-induced autophagy could be enhanced by combination therapy with rhein in A549 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the synergistic effect of rhein on PTX-mediated autophagy may be interrelated to PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibition and to the enhancement of p-AMPK and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) protein levels. From these findings, it could be surmised that rhein enhanced the antitumor activity of PTX through influencing autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and Bcl-2 family of proteins in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that the potential application of rhein as a candidate drug in combination with PTX is promising for treatment of the human lung cancer.

20.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 121714, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818672

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has been reported to be able to quickly and non-destructively identify target analytes. SERS substrate with high sensitivity and selectivity gave SERS technology a broad application prospect. This contribution aims to provide a detailed and systematic review of the current state of research on SERS-based explosive sensors, with particular attention to current research advances. This review mainly focuses on the strategies for improving SERS performance and the SERS substrates with different dimensions including zero-dimensional (0D) nanocolloids, one-dimensional (1D) nanowires and nanorods, two-dimensional (2D) arrays, and three-dimensional (3D) networks. The effects of elemental composition, the shape and size of metal nanoparticles, hot-spot structure and surface modification on the performance of explosive detection are also reviewed. In addition, the future development tendency and application of SERS-based explosive sensors are prospected.

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