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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 194: 106472, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether there is hypothalamic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its association with clinical symptoms and pathophysiological changes remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify microstructural changes in hypothalamus using a novel deep learning-based tool in patients with PD and those with probable rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (pRBD). We further assessed whether these microstructural changes associated with clinical symptoms and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. METHODS: This study included 186 PD, 67 pRBD, and 179 healthy controls. Multi-shell diffusion MRI were scanned and mean kurtosis (MK) in hypothalamic subunits were calculated. Participants were assessed using Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) Scale. Additionally, a subgroup of PD (n = 31) underwent assessment of FT4. RESULTS: PD showed significant decreases of MK in anterior-superior (a-sHyp), anterior-inferior (a-iHyp), superior tubular (supTub), and inferior tubular hypothalamus when compared with healthy controls. Similarly, pRBD exhibited decreases of MK in a-iHyp and supTub. In PD group, MK in above four subunits were significantly correlated with UPDRS-I, HAMD, and ADL. Moreover, MK in a-iHyp and a-sHyp were significantly correlated with FT4 level. In pRBD group, correlations were observed between MK in a-iHyp and UPDRS-I. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that microstructural changes in the hypothalamus are already significant at the early neurodegenerative stage. These changes are associated with emotional alterations, daily activity levels, and thyroid hormone levels.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Pindolol/análogos & derivados , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499792

RESUMO

It can provide a basis for decision making for the conservation and sustainable use of forest ecosystems in mountains to understand the stoichiometric properties and nutrient allocation strategies of major tree species. However, the plant nutrient allocation strategies under different environmental gradients in forest systems of arid and semi-arid mountains are not fully understand. Therefore, three typical regions in the Qilian Mountains on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were selected based on precipitation and temperature gradients, and the stoichiometric characteristics and nutrient allocation strategies of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) of the dominant tree species under different environmental gradients were investigated. The results showed that (1) the stoichiometric characteristics of plant tissues were different in the three regions. (2) The importance of each tissue in the plant nutrient allocation varied in different regions, showing that the plant roots are more important in the warm-wet region, while the plant leaves, branches and trunks are more important in the transition and hot-dry regions. (3) The influencing factors affecting plant nutrient allocation strategies were inconsistent across regions, which showed that plant nutrient allocation strategies in the warm-wet and transition region were mainly influenced by soil factors, while they were more influenced by climatic factors in the hot-dry region. The patterns of plant nutrient allocation strategies and drivers under different environmental gradients could help us better understand the ecological adaptation mechanism and physiological adjustment mechanism of forest ecosystem in mountains.

3.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 123: 106559, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rest tremor is a movement disorder commonly found in diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). Rest tremor typically shows slower progression in PD, but more severe progression in ET. However, the underlying white matter organization of rest tremor behind PD and ET remains unclear. METHODS: This study included 57 ET patients (40 without rest tremor (ETWR), 17 with rest tremor (ETRT)), 68 PD patients (34 without rest tremor (PDWR), 34 with rest tremor (PDRT)), and 62 normal controls (NC). Fixel-based analysis was used to evaluate the structural changes of white matter in rest tremor in these different diseases. RESULTS: The fiber-bundle cross-section (FC) of the right non-decussating dentato-rubro-thalamic tract and several fibers outside the dentato-rubro-thalamic pathway in ETWR were significantly higher than that in NC. The fiber density and cross-section of the left nigro-pallidal in PDWR is significantly lower than that in NC, while the FC of bilateral nigro-pallidal in PDRT is significantly lower than that in NC. CONCLUSION: ET patients with pure action tremor showed over-activation of fiber tracts. However, when superimposed with rest tremor, ET patients no longer exhibited over-activation of fiber tracts, but rather showed a trend of fiber tract damage. Except for the nigro-pallidal degeneration in all PD, PDRT will not experience further deterioration in fiber organization. These results provide important insights into the unique effects of rest tremor on brain fiber architecture in ET and PD.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(3): 233, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521813

RESUMO

AURKA is an established target for cancer therapy; however, the efficacy of its inhibitors in clinical trials is hindered by differential response rates across different tumor subtypes. In this study, we demonstrate AURKA regulates amino acid synthesis, rendering it a vulnerable target in KEAP1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Through CRISPR metabolic screens, we identified that KEAP1-knockdown cells showed the highest sensitivity to the AURKA inhibitor MLN8237. Subsequent investigations confirmed that KEAP1 deficiency heightens the susceptibility of NSCLC cells to AURKA inhibition both in vitro and in vivo, with the response depending on NRF2 activation. Mechanistically, AURKA interacts with the eIF2α kinase GCN2 and maintains its phosphorylation to regulate eIF2α-ATF4-mediated amino acid biosynthesis. AURKA inhibition restrains the expression of asparagine synthetase (ASNS), making KEAP1-deficient NSCLC cells vulnerable to AURKA inhibitors, in which ASNS is highly expressed. Our study unveils the pivotal role of AURKA in amino acid metabolism and identifies a specific metabolic indication for AURKA inhibitors. These findings also provide a novel clinical therapeutic target for KEAP1-mutant/deficient NSCLC, which is characterized by resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Asparagina , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5575, 2024 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448481

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance has proven a cost-effective key public health tool to understand a wide range of community health diseases and has been a strong source of information on community levels and spread for health departments throughout the SARS- CoV-2 pandemic. Studies spanning the globe demonstrate the strong association between virus levels observed in wastewater and quality clinical case information of the population served by the sewershed. Few of these studies incorporate the temporal dependence present in sampling over time, which can lead to estimation issues which in turn impact conclusions. We contribute to the literature for this important public health science by putting forward time series methods coupled with statistical process control that (1) capture the evolving trend of a disease in the population; (2) separate the uncertainty in the population disease trend from the uncertainty due to sampling and measurement; and (3) support comparison of sub-sewershed population disease dynamics with those of the population represented by the larger downstream treatment plant. Our statistical methods incorporate the fact that measurements are over time, ensuring correct statistical conclusions. We provide a retrospective example of how sub-sewersheds virus levels compare to the upstream wastewater treatment plant virus levels. An on-line algorithm supports real-time statistical assessment of deviations of virus level in a population represented by a sub-sewershed to the virus level in the corresponding larger downstream wastewater treatment plant. This information supports public health decisions by spotlighting segments of the population where outbreaks may be occurring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7494, 2024 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553518

RESUMO

Brain structural changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are progressive throughout the disease course. Changes in surface morphology with disease progression remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the volumetric and shape changes of the subcortical nuclei during disease progression and explore their association with clinical symptoms. Thirty-four patients and 32 healthy controls were enrolled. The global volume and shape of the subcortical nuclei were compared between patients and controls at baseline. The volume and shape changes of the subcortical nuclei were also explored between baseline and 2 years of follow-up. Association analysis was performed between the volume of subcortical structures and clinical symptoms. In patients with PD, there were significantly atrophied areas in the left pallidum and left putamen, while in healthy controls, the right putamen was dilated compared to baseline. The local morphology of the left pallidum was correlated with Mini Mental State Examination scores. The left putamen shape variation was negatively correlated with changes in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale PART III scores. Local morphological atrophy of the putamen and pallidum is an important pathophysiological change in the development of PD, and is associated with motor symptoms and cognitive status in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/patologia , Putamen/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Atrofia/patologia
7.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(3): e13754, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476031

RESUMO

This study examined the levels of soluble CD146 (sCD146) in plasma samples from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and assessed the relationship between sCD146 and the severity of COPD. A total of 97 COPD patients were recruited from 20 medical centers in Jiangsu, China, including 13 stable subjects and 84 exacerbated subjects. The plasma sCD146 level in exacerbated subjects (28.77 ± 10.80 ng/mL) was significantly lower than that in stable subjects (38.84 ± 15.00 ng/mL). In the high sCD146 group, the proportion of subjects with modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores of 0-1 was higher, the proportion of subjects with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 4 was lower, and the proportion of subjects with ≥1 hospitalizations in the past year was lower. The plasma sCD146 level was negatively correlated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score (r = -0.2664, p = 0.0087). Logistic regression analysis showed that sCD146 was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that sCD146 combined with sex, age, pulmonary function, and acute exacerbations in the past year had clinical value for the accurate identification of AECOPD, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.908 (95% CI: 0.810-1.000, p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma sCD146 and S100A9 (r = -0.3939, p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Biomarcadores , Fatores de Risco , Hospitalização , Progressão da Doença
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1328297, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550599

RESUMO

Background: Obesity and dyslipidemia, major global health concerns, have been linked to psoriasis, but previous studies faced methodological limitations and their shared genetic basis remains unclear. This study examines various obesity-related and lipidemic traits as potential contributors to psoriasis development, aiming to clarify their genetic associations and potential causal links. Methods: Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted for obesity-related traits (body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for the body mass index (WHRadjBMI)) and lipidemic traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, triglyceride (TG), total Cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apolipoprotein E (apoE)) and psoriasis, all in populations of European ancestry, were used. We quantified genetic correlations, identified shared loci and explored causal relationship across traits. Results: We found positive genetic correlation between BMI and psoriasis (rg=0.22, p=2.44×10-18), and between WHR and psoriasis (rg=0.19, p=1.41×10-12). We further found the positive genetic correlation between psoriasis and WHRadjBMI(rg=0.07, p=1.81×10-2) the genetic correlation, in while the effect of BMI was controlled for. We identified 14 shared loci underlying psoriasis and obesity-related traits and 43 shared loci between psoriasis and lipidemic traits via cross-trait meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization (MR) supported the causal roles of BMI (IVW OR=1.483, 95%CI=1.333-1.649), WHR (IVW OR=1.393, 95%CI=1.207-1.608) and WHRadjBMI (IVW OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.047-1.329) in psoriasis, but not observe any significant association between lipidemic traits and the risk of psoriasis. Genetic predisposition to psoriasis did not appear to affect the risk of obesity and lipidemic traits. Conclusions: An intrinsic link between obesity-related traits and psoriasis has been demonstrated. The genetic correlation and causal role of obesity-related traits in psoriasis highlight the significance of weight management in both the prevention and treatment of this condition.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Psoríase , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Psoríase/genética , Apolipoproteínas/genética
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 84: 127419, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461620

RESUMO

Increased exposure to fluoride, which notably affects bone metabolism, is a global concern. However, the correlations and sensitivity of bone metabolism to fluoride remain controversial. In this cross-sectional study, 549 children (aged 7-12 years) and 504 adults (≥ 18 years old) were recruited in the high-fluoride areas of the Henan Province. Urinary fluoride (UF) level was determined using a fluoride electrode. Fasting venous blood serum was collected to measure bone metabolism biomarkers. The selected bone metabolism biomarkers for children included bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), calcitonin (CT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus (P5+), and calcium (Ca2+). For adults, the biomarkers included ALP, CT, PTH, ß-CrossLaps (ß-CTX), P5+, and Ca2+. The correlations between UF and bone metabolism biomarkers were analyzed using binary logistic regression, a trend test, a generalized additive model, and threshold effect analysis. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between serum OCN, PTH, and UF levels in children aged 7-9 years. Serum OCN, PTH, and BALP contents were significantly correlated with UF in boys (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the interaction between age and UF affected serum P5+ and PTH (P < 0.05). The generalized additive model revealed nonlinear dose-response relationships between P5+, BALP, and UF contents in children (P < 0.05). Serum OCN level was linearly correlated with the UF concentration (P < 0.05). Similarly, a significant correlation was observed between ß-CTX and UF levels in adults. In addition, significant correlations were observed between UF-age and serum Ca2+, ß-CTX, and PTH contents. There was a non-linear correlation between serum Ca2+, P5+, and ß- CTX and UF levels (P < 0.05). Overall, serum OCN, BALP, and P5+ levels can serve as sensitive bone metabolism biomarkers in children, while ß-CTX, P5+, and Ca2+ can be considered fluoride-sensitive bone metabolism biomarkers in adults.

10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1215, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331971

RESUMO

Tissue adhesives are promising alternatives to sutures and staples for joining tissues, sealing defects, and immobilizing devices. However, existing adhesives mostly take the forms of glues or hydrogels, which offer limited versatility. We report a direct-ink-write 3D printable tissue adhesive which can be used to fabricate bioadhesive patches and devices with programmable architectures, unlocking new potential for application-specific designs. The adhesive is conformable and stretchable, achieves robust adhesion with wet tissues within seconds, and exhibits favorable biocompatibility. In vivo rat trachea and colon defect models demonstrate the fluid-tight tissue sealing capability of the printed patches, which maintained adhesion over 4 weeks. Moreover, incorporation of a blood-repelling hydrophobic matrix enables the printed patches to seal actively bleeding tissues. Beyond wound closure, the 3D printable adhesive has broad applicability across various tissue-interfacing devices, highlighted through representative proof-of-concept designs. Together, this platform offers a promising strategy toward developing advanced tissue adhesive technologies.


Assuntos
Adesivos Teciduais , Ratos , Animais , Adesivos Teciduais/química , Adesivos , Hidrogéis/química , Tecnologia
11.
Genetics ; 226(4)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314848

RESUMO

Detecting genetic variants with low-effect sizes using a moderate sample size is difficult, hindering downstream efforts to learn pathology and estimating heritability. In this work, by utilizing informative weights learned from training genetically predicted gene expression models, we formed an alternative approach to estimate the polygenic term in a linear mixed model. Our linear mixed model estimates the genetic background by incorporating their relevance to gene expression. Our protocol, expression-directed linear mixed model, enables the discovery of subtle signals of low-effect variants using moderate sample size. By applying expression-directed linear mixed model to cohorts of around 5,000 individuals with either binary (WTCCC) or quantitative (NFBC1966) traits, we demonstrated its power gain at the low-effect end of the genetic etiology spectrum. In aggregate, the additional low-effect variants detected by expression-directed linear mixed model substantially improved estimation of missing heritability. Expression-directed linear mixed model moves precision medicine forward by accurately detecting the contribution of low-effect genetic variants to human diseases.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 44(1): 24, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372822

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is an important pathogenesis of neurological diseases and causes a series of physiopathological changes, such as abnormal activation of glial cells, neuronal degeneration and death, and disruption of the blood‒brain barrier. Therefore, modulating inflammation may be an important therapeutic tool for treating neurological diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as pluripotent stem cells, have great therapeutic potential for neurological diseases due to their regenerative ability, immunity, and ability to regulate inflammation. However, recent studies have shown that MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) play a major role in this process and play a key role in neuroprotection by regulating neuroglia. This review summarizes the recent progress made in regulating neuroinflammation by focusing on the mechanisms by which MSC-Exos are involved in the regulation of glial cells through signaling pathways such as the TLR, NF-κB, MAPK, STAT, and NLRP3 pathways to provide some references for subsequent research and therapy.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Inflamação , Barreira Hematoencefálica
13.
World J Clin Cases ; 12(5): 875-879, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414600

RESUMO

The global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in a significant number of individuals developing pulmonary fibrosis (PF), an irreversible lung injury. This condition can manifest within a short interval following the onset of pneumonia symptoms, sometimes even within a few days. While lung transplantation is a potentially lifesaving procedure, its limited availability, high costs, intricate surgeries, and risk of immunological rejection present significant drawbacks. The optimal timing of medication administration for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced PF remains controversial. Despite this, it is crucial to explore pharmacotherapy interventions, involving early and preventative treatment as well as pharmacotherapy options for advanced-stage PF. Additionally, studies have demonstrated disparities in anti-fibrotic treatment based on race and gender factors. Genetic mutations may also impact therapeutic efficacy. Enhancing research efforts on pharmacotherapy interventions, while considering relevant pharmacological factors and optimizing the timing and dosage of medication administration, will lead to enhanced, personalized, and fair treatment for individuals impacted by COVID-19-related PF. These measures are crucial in lessening the burden of the disease on healthcare systems and improving patients' quality of life.

14.
J Org Chem ; 89(5): 3111-3122, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343173

RESUMO

We herein present a study on the Ag(I)-mediated semipinacol rearrangement of iododifluorohomoallyl alcohols, the resulting allylic difluoromethyl ketones underwent oxidative allylic C-H esterification under palladium catalysis in the absence of external ligand. This process yielded a range of difluoromethyl ketones derived from allyl esters in a single operation. The reaction features broad scope of o-nitrobenzoic acids and homoallylic iododifluoroalcohols affording the targeted molecules in synthetically useful yields. Control experiments illustrated that the silver salt acted as not only a Lewis acid to promote the cleavage of a C-I bond and furnish the semipinacol rearrangement but also a co-oxidant in the catalytic cycle for the allylic C-H esterification.

15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5038, 2024 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424104

RESUMO

Post-COVID-19 syndrome may be associated with the abnormal immune status. Compared with the unexposed age-matched elder group, PD-1 in the CD8+ T cells from recovered COVID-19 patients was significantly lower. IFN-γ in the plasma of COVID-19 convalescent patients was increased, which inhibited PD-1 expression in CD8+ T cells from COVID-19 convalescent patients. scRNA-seq bioinformatics analysis revealed that AKT/GSK3ß may regulate the INF-γ/PD-1 axis in CD8+ T cells from COVID-19 convalescent patients. In parallel, an IFN-γ neutralizing antibody reduced AKT and increased GSK3ß in PBMCs. An AKT agonist (SC79) significantly decreased p-GSK3ß. Moreover, AKT decreased PD-1 on CD8+ T cells, and GSK3ß increased PD-1 on CD8+ T cells according to flow cytometry analysis. Collectively, we demonstrated that recovered COVID-19 patients may develop long COVID. Increased IFN-γ in the plasma of recovered Wuhan COVID-19 patients contributed to PD-1 downregulation on CD8+ T cells by regulating the AKT/GSK3ß signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , COVID-19 , Idoso , Humanos , COVID-19/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Oncol Lett ; 27(4): 138, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385112

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (pNEC) is a type of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm with a poor prognosis, and patients with metastatic pNEC have a survival time of only 8-12 months. The treatment options for pNEC are minimal, and the prognosis is unfavorable. The present study reports the case of a 56-year-old male who was diagnosed with advanced pNEC with bone metastases in June 2018. The patient was treated with oral anlotinib after eight cycles of first-line etoposide + cisplatin (EP) chemotherapy until July 2022. The adverse events that occurred during the treatment period were resolved with symptomatic management or drug dose reduction. At the time of writing this report, the patient's survival time was almost 60 months, which is rare for patients with pNEC. This case report suggests that patients with pNEC treated with first-line EP regimen chemotherapy may have a sustained response to anlotinib.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(13): 20399-20408, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374504

RESUMO

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (FEN) is an aryloxy phenoxy propionate herbicide that has been widely used in paddy fields. Previous studies have indicated that FEN is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, but little is known about the developmental effects of FEN. This study investigated acute and developmental toxicity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and metabolomic analyses in zebrafish embryos after 96 h of exposure. FEN exhibited high acute toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae. Exposure to FEN could reduce heartbeat and hatching rates and increase malformation rates in embryos. Oxidative damage was also caused in embryos. The results of metabolomics analysis showed that 102 differentially abundant metabolites were found in zebrafish embryos in the 0.05 mg/L FEN treatment group, and 60 differentially abundant metabolites were found in the 0.20 mg/L FEN treatment group. These differentially abundant metabolites mainly belonged to 9 metabolic pathways, of which folate pathways and ABC transport protein pathways had the greatest impact. These results suggested that FEN induced high acute and developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos.


Assuntos
Oxazóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Embrião não Mamífero , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Nature ; 625(7995): 516-522, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233617

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) comprise a solid perovskite absorber sandwiched between several layers of different charge-selective materials, ensuring unidirectional current flow and high voltage output of the devices1,2. A 'buffer material' between the electron-selective layer and the metal electrode in p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) PSCs (also known as inverted PSCs) enables electrons to flow from the electron-selective layer to the electrode3-5. Furthermore, it acts as a barrier inhibiting the inter-diffusion of harmful species into or degradation products out of the perovskite absorber6-8. Thus far, evaporable organic molecules9,10 and atomic-layer-deposited metal oxides11,12 have been successful, but each has specific imperfections. Here we report a chemically stable and multifunctional buffer material, ytterbium oxide (YbOx), for p-i-n PSCs by scalable thermal evaporation deposition. We used this YbOx buffer in the p-i-n PSCs with a narrow-bandgap perovskite absorber, yielding a certified power conversion efficiency of more than 25%. We also demonstrate the broad applicability of YbOx in enabling highly efficient PSCs from various types of perovskite absorber layer, delivering state-of-the-art efficiencies of 20.1% for the wide-bandgap perovskite absorber and 22.1% for the mid-bandgap perovskite absorber, respectively. Moreover, when subjected to ISOS-L-3 accelerated ageing, encapsulated devices with YbOx exhibit markedly enhanced device stability.

19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 327: 121679, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171689

RESUMO

Management of noncompressible torso hemorrhage is an urgent clinical requirement, desiring biomaterials with rapid hemostasis, anti-infection and excellent resilient properties. In this research, we have prepared a highly resilient cryogel with both hemostatic and antibacterial effects by chemical crosslinking and electrostatic interaction. The network structure crosslinked by quaternized chitosan and genipin was interspersed with oxidized bacterial cellulose after lyophilization. The as-prepared cryogel can quickly return to the original volume when soaking in water or blood. The appropriately sized pores in the cryogel help to absorb blood cells and further activate coagulation, while the quaternary ammonium salt groups on quaternized chitosan inhibit bacterial infections. Both cell and animal experiments showed that the cryogel was hypotoxic and could promote the regeneration of wound tissue. This research provides a new pathway for the preparation of double crosslinking cryogels and offers effective and safe biomaterials for the emergent bleeding management of incompressible wounds.


Assuntos
Celulose Oxidada , Quitosana , Hemostáticos , Animais , Criogéis/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Celulose Oxidada/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Hemostáticos/química , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
20.
Environ Pollut ; 344: 123366, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242305

RESUMO

There are conflicting findings regarding the association of ozone (O3) exposure with preterm birth (PTB) occurrence. In the present study, two cohorts were combined to explore the relationship between maternal O3 exposure during pregnancy and PTB risk, and analyze the underlying mechanisms of this relationship in terms of alterations in the preconception telomere length. Cohort 1 included mothers who participated in the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project in Henan Province from 2014 to 2018 along with their newborns (n = 1,066,696). Cohort 2 comprised mothers who conceived between 2016 and 2018 and their newborns (n = 1871) from six areas in Henan Province. The telomere length was assessed in the peripheral blood of mothers at the preconception stage. Data on air pollutant concentrations were collected from environmental monitoring stations and individual exposures were assessed using an inverse distance-weighted model. O3 concentrations (100.60 ± 14.13 µg/m3) were lower in Cohort 1 than in Cohort 2 (114.09 ± 15.17 µg/m3). Linear analyses showed that PTB risk decreased with increasing O3 exposure concentrations in Cohort 1 but increased with increasing O3 exposure concentrations in Cohort 2. Nonlinear analyses revealed that PTB risk tended to decrease and then increase with increasing O3 exposure concentrations in both cohorts. Besides, PTB risk was reduced by 88% for each-unit increase in telomere length in those exposed to moderate O3 concentrations (92.4-123.7 µg/m3, P < 0.05). While no significant association was observed between telomere length and PTB at extreme O3 concentration exposure during entire pregnancy (<92.4 or >123.7 µg/m3, P > 0.05) in Cohort 2. These findings reveal a nonlinear (U-shaped) relationship between O3 exposure and PTB risk. Furthermore, telomere with elevated length was associated with decreased risk of PTB only when exposed to moderate concentrations of O3, but not when exposed to extreme concentrations of O3 during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/toxicidade , Telômero
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