Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.026
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8202, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589399

RESUMO

Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) possess several advantages, such as high strengths and low carbon emissions. However, their application is hindered due to their significant shrinkage. This study explored the effect of borax-modified sodium silicate activator and metakaolin (MK) on the mechanical properties and drying shrinkage (DS) of alkali-activated slag (AAS) and AAS/MK (AASM) mortars. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the hydration products. The results showed that the DS reduction of the AAS mortar was related to decreased Na2O content, a reduction in the proportion of mesopores, and the formation of moisture-retaining borate compounds. The DS reduction of the AASM mortar was attributed to the ultra-fine differential effect induced by MK, reducing the connected pores. The modified activator combined with MK increased the chemically bound water content in the matrix. Additionally, the B-O bond and highly active MK improved compactness of the AASM mortar. The use of borax-modified activators and MK provides a new solution to address the significant shrinkage issue in AAMs. This sets the stage for AAMs to potentially replace OPC, contributing to low-carbon emissions and promoting environmental protection.

2.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the optimal B1,rms value of renal amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) images and the reproducibility of this value, and to explore the utility of APT imaging of renal masses and kidney tissues. METHODS: APTw images with different B1,rms values were repeatedly recorded in 15 healthy volunteers to determine the optimal value. Two 4-point Likert scales (poor [1] to excellent [4]) were used to evaluate contour clarity and artifacts in masses and normal tissues. The APTw values of masses and normal tissues were then compared in evaluable images (contour clarity score > 1, artifacts score > 1). The APTw of malignant masses, normal tissues, and benign masses were calculated and compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The optimal scanning parameter of B1,rms was 2 µT, and the APTw images had good agreement in the volunteers. Our study of APTw imaging examined 70 renal masses (13 benign, 57 malignant) and 49 normal kidneys (including those from 15 healthy volunteers). The mean APTw value for renal malignant masses (2.28(1.55)) was different from that for benign masses (0.91(1.30)) (P<0.001), renal cortex (1.30 (1.25)) (P<0.001), renal medulla (1.64 (1.33)) (P<0.05), and renal pelvis (5.49 (2.65)) (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These preliminary data demonstrate that APTw imaging of the kidneys has potential use as an imaging biomarker for the differentiation of normal tissues, malignant masses, and benign masses.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 71: 102580, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618206

RESUMO

Background: The pathological examination of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is crucial for treating prostate cancer (PCa). However, the limitations with naked-eye detection and pathologist workload contribute to a high missed-diagnosis rate for nodal micrometastasis. We aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based, time-efficient, and high-precision PCa LNM detector (ProCaLNMD) and evaluate its clinical application value. Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective, diagnostic study, consecutive patients with PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection at five centres between Sep 2, 2013 and Apr 28, 2023 were included, and histopathological slides of resected lymph nodes were collected and digitised as whole-slide images for model development and validation. ProCaLNMD was trained at a dataset from a single centre (the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University [SYSMH]), and externally validated in the other four centres. A bladder cancer dataset from SYSMH was used to further validate ProCaLNMD, and an additional validation (human-AI comparison and collaboration study) containing consecutive patients with PCa from SYSMH was implemented to evaluate the application value of integrating ProCaLNMD into the clinical workflow. The primary endpoint was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of ProCaLNMD. In addition, the performance measures for pathologists with ProCaLNMD assistance was also assessed. Findings: In total, 8225 slides from 1297 patients with PCa were collected and digitised. Overall, 8158 slides (18,761 lymph nodes) from 1297 patients with PCa (median age 68 years [interquartile range 64-73]; 331 [26%] with LNM) were used to train and validate ProCaLNMD. The AUROC of ProCaLNMD ranged from 0.975 (95% confidence interval 0.953-0.998) to 0.992 (0.982-1.000) in the training and validation datasets, with sensitivities > 0.955 and specificities > 0.921. ProCaLNMD also demonstrated an AUROC of 0.979 in the cross-cancer dataset. ProCaLNMD use triggered true reclassification in 43 (4.3%) slides in which micrometastatic tumour regions were initially missed by pathologists, thereby correcting 28 (8.5%) missed-diagnosed cases of previous routine pathological reports. In the human-AI comparison and collaboration study, the sensitivity of ProCaLNMD (0.983 [0.908-1.000]) surpassed that of two junior pathologists (0.862 [0.746-0.939], P = 0.023; 0.879 [0.767-0.950], P = 0.041) by 10-12% and showed no difference to that of two senior pathologists (both 0.983 [0.908-1.000], both P > 0.99). Furthermore, ProCaLNMD significantly boosted the diagnostic sensitivity of two junior pathologists (both P = 0.041) to the level of senior pathologists (both P > 0.99), and substantially reduced the four pathologists' slide reviewing time (-31%, P < 0.0001; -34%, P < 0.0001; -29%, P < 0.0001; and -27%, P = 0.00031). Interpretation: ProCaLNMD demonstrated high diagnostic capabilities for identifying LNM in prostate cancer, reducing the likelihood of missed diagnoses by pathologists and decreasing the slide reviewing time, highlighting its potential for clinical application. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, the National Key Research and Development Programme of China, the Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Centre for Urological Diseases, and the Science and Technology Projects in Guangzhou.

5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8142, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584177

RESUMO

Disc cutters are essential for full-section hard-rock tunnel boring machines. The performance of these devices directly affects tunnel engineering costs and duration. This paper proposes a sinusoidal variable cross-section (VCS) cutter ring and design method and establishes a digital model. Rock-like materials are simulated with a finite element model, and the model validity is verified via rock simulation mechanics tests. A disc cutter rolling rock simulation model for a linear cutting machine is also established, and simulation tests are performed for single- and three-cutter rolling using sinusoidal VCSs and constant cross-section (CCS) cutter models, respectively. The stress and energy changes for the cutters and rock-like material damage area were compared via simulation, confirming that some sinusoidal VCS cutter rings do less work on rock-like materials and cause larger crushing areas under the same engineering parameters; therefore, these cutter rings have smaller specific energies. The sinusoidal VCS cutter ring performance is 7% greater than that of CCS on average under single-cutter simulation, and the intermediate cutter performance of the intermediate cutter is 9% greater than that of CCS on average under three-cutter simulation. Thus, sinusoidal VCS cutter rings offer improved rock damage performance, and further research and application of this technology will improve the working efficiency of tunnel boring machines.

6.
Anal Chem ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626114

RESUMO

Portable nucleic acid testing (NAT) holds great promise for point-of-care disease diagnosis and field-based applications but remains difficult to achieve. Herein, we describe a portable NAT that streamlines loop-mediated isothermal amplification with photosensitization-based color development in a fully sealed 3D-printed multipiece chip. Using a smartphone accessory and an APP, we also introduce a calibration-free quantification approach via digital color sensing and library matching. With these innovative approaches, our detection platform is highly accessible, allowing for rapid and sensitive NAT without requiring sophisticated instruments and well-trained personnel. The field applicability of our NAT platform was demonstrated by detecting tuberculosis infections in clinical sputum samples and food adulteration in commercial salmon meat products.

7.
Vaccine ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognising the importance of attaining high vaccine coverage to mitigate the COVID-19 impact, a Vaccine Pass scheme was implemented during and after the first large Omicron wave with high mortality in older ages in Hong Kong in early 2022 requiring three doses by June 2022. We did not identify any studies evaluating the policy impact of vaccination mandates with vaccine uptake over whole policy period of time in a Chinese population. We aim to evaluate the impact of the Vaccine Pass policy on COVID-19 vaccine uptake in adults in a Chinese population in Hong Kong. METHODS: We analysed patterns in vaccine uptake and hesitancy using local data from population vaccine registry and 32 cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted from October 2021 to December 2022. The association of Vaccine Pass phases with vaccine uptake was examined using logistic regression analyses, taking into account covariates including self-risk perception, perceived self-efficacy in preventing COVID-19 and trust in government in pandemic control as well as physical distancing measures and demographics. RESULTS: The uptake of primary series and third doses was positively significantly associated with the successive stages of Vaccine Pass implementation (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 2.41 to 7.81). Other statistically significant drivers of uptake included age group, chronic condition, higher perceived personal susceptibility to COVID-19, higher trust in government, and higher educational attainment. CONCLUSION: Vaccine uptake in older adults was observed to have increased by a greater extent after the policy annoucement and implementation, under the contextual changes during and after a large Omicron wave with high mortality in Hong Kong in early 2022. Since the policy withdrawal the uptake of further booster doses has been very low in all ages. We suggest that improving voluntary booster uptake in older adults should be prioritized.

8.
RSC Adv ; 14(15): 10370-10377, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567343

RESUMO

Solar powered water evaporation is a green and environmentally friendly water treatment technology, which is a hot research topic for water purification at present. Advanced structural design and hydrophilic photothermal materials have achieved efficient solar evaporation of pure water, but the long-term stability of high salinity desalination has become a problem that cannot be ignored in practical applications. In order to solve this problem, a hydrophobic honeycomb structure MXene/AuNFs composite membrane was proposed in this paper, which used the three-dimensional highly porous microstructure of MXene and multibranched structure of gold nanoflowers particles to improve the light absorption and photothermal conversion efficiency of MXene/AuNFs. At the same time, the surface of the composite membrane was modified with hydrophobic fluorosilane 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFTE). The hydrophobic layer can prevent the accumulation of salt particles on the surface of the membrane, so that the composite film can continue to produce water vapor in a high salt environment. With high utilization rate of light energy, multiple-level geometrical structures of MXene for rapid water transport on the filter membrane and salt barrier on the membrane good stability, the hydrophobic MXene/AuNFs achieves solar evaporation rate of 1.59 kg m-2 h-1 and solar conversion efficiency is 97.8%, and stable operation under simulated sea water conditions under one sun irradiation over more than 10 cycles. The hydrophobic MXene/AuNFs membrane proved to be an efficient and stable photothermal material for solar desalination.

9.
Exp Gerontol ; 190: 112413, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic osteoarthritis (OP-OA) is a severe pathological form of OA, urgently requiring precise management strategies and more efficient interventions. Emodin (Emo), an effective ingredient found in the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb, has been dEmonstrated to promote osteogenesis and inhibit extracellular matrix degradation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interventional effects of Emo on the subchondral bone and cartilage of the knee joints in OP-OA model rats. METHODS: Thirty-two SD rats were randomly and equally divided into sham, OP-OA, Emo low-dose, and Emo high-dose groups. Micro-CT scanning was conducted to examine the bone microstructure of the rat knee joints. H&E and Safranin O and Fast Green staining (SO&FG) were performed for the pathomorphological evaluation of the rat cartilage tissues. ELISA was used to estimate the rat serum expression levels of inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Additionally, the CCK-8 assay was utilized for determining the viability of Emo-treated BMSCs. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses were also employed to measure the bone formation indexes and cartilage synthesis and decomposition indexes. Lastly, the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation efficiency of the BMSCs was investigated via Alizarin Red and Alcian Blue staining. RESULTS: Emo intervention alleviated the bone microstructural disruption of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage in the OP-OA rats and up-regulated the expression of bone and cartilage anabolic metabolism indicators, decreased the expression of cartilage catabolism indicators, and diminished the expression of inflammatory factors in the rat serum (P<0.05). Furthermore, Emo reversed the decline in the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation ability of the BMSCs (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Emo intervention mitigates bone loss and cartilage damage in OP-OA rats and promotes the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

10.
Chem Sci ; 15(14): 5333-5339, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577380

RESUMO

Azasulfur(vi) compounds such as sulfoximines and sulfonimidamides are attractive due to the unique properties of the S[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond. While the synthesis of these carbon-attached sulfonimidoyl derivatives is well-established, the situation is different for their heteroatom-bound counterparts. In this work, we propose azasulfur(iv) esters as platform chemicals that can be derivatized to obtain all types of SVI[double bond, length as m-dash]N functional groups, among these are the poorly accessible, all-heteroatom imidosulfate esters. Using a chloroamination workflow established here, S-S bond-containing structures such as elemental sulfur or diaryl disulfides can be transformed into imidothionyl or sulfinimidoyl chlorides, which are easily esterified or amidated. Thus, chloramines serve as a versatile [N] and [Cl+] source, and by using them in the context reported here, we advance the set of mild synthetic methods as the latest toolbox member to cover even more of the azasulfur(iv) and (vi) chemical space.

11.
Int J Surg ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498393

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a robust correlation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, no systematic analysis or visualization of relevant publications has been conducted via bibliometrics. This research, centred on 616 publications obtainable through the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), employed CiteSpace software and VOSviewer software for correlation analyses of authors, journals, institutions, countries, keywords, and citations. The findings indicate that the Public Library of Science had the highest number of publications, while the United States, China and South Korea were the most contributory nations. Recent years have seen the mechanisms linking Metabolic Syndrome with Colorectal Cancer, including diet, obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal flora, remain a burgeoning research area. Furthermore, bariatric surgery appears to be a promising new area of study. This paper presents the initial bibliometric and visualization analysis of research literature concerning CRC and MetS which examines research trends and hotspots.

12.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508196

RESUMO

Immunology was one of the first biological fields to embrace chemical approaches. The development of new chemical approaches and techniques has provided immunologists with an impressive arsenal of tools to address challenges once considered insurmountable. This review focuses on advances at the interface of chemistry and immunobiology over the past two decades that have not only opened new avenues in basic immunological research, but also revolutionized drug development for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. These include chemical approaches to understand and manipulate antigen presentation and the T cell priming process, to facilitate immune cell trafficking and regulate immune cell functions, and therapeutic applications of chemical approaches to disease control and treatment.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430150

RESUMO

Objective: Gaucher disease (GD) is a clinically rare single-gene recessive lysosomal storage disease mainly divided into three subtypes I to III. This report aims to present a case of type IIIb GD in a Chinese child with a focus on the manifestation of hearing loss and the importance of early diagnosis and monitoring. Methods: The patient underwent a routine physical examination upon admission, followed by CT scans of the chest and abdomen, MRI of the brain, and bone marrow smear examination. The patient's GBA enzyme activity, Lyso-GL-1 levels, and GBA gene expression were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and next-generation sequencing technology. Finally, auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing was conducted. Results: This report presented a case of a Chinese boy with hematological manifestations as the first symptom, followed by hepatosplenomegaly, and the bilateral femurs showed obvious Erlenmeyer flask-like changes. Combined with GBA enzyme activity, Lyso-GL-1 and GBA genotype analysis results, the boy was initially diagnosed as type I GD. During the follow-up, the boy developed nystagmus, bilateral ABR V wave threshold increased, V/I amplitude ratio <0.5, accompanied by delayed growth and development, and finally diagnosed as type IIIb. Conclusions: This case suggests the necessity of neuropathy monitoring in patients with type I GD during the early stages of the disease. This includes EEG, neuro-ophthalmological examination, and auditory function assessment, which can help reflect the progression of neuropathy and facilitate the early diagnosis of type III GD.

14.
ACS Cent Sci ; 10(2): 315-330, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435516

RESUMO

Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) play key roles in the effector function of IgG, but their inappropriate activation plays a role in several disease etiologies. Therefore, it is critical to better understand how FcγRs are regulated. Numerous studies suggest that sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs), a family of immunomodulatory receptors, modulate FcγR activity; however, it is unclear of the circumstances in which Siglecs can antagonize FcγRs and which Siglecs have this ability. Using liposomes displaying selective ligands to coengage FcγRs with a specific Siglec, we explore the ability of Siglec-3, Siglec-5, Siglec-7, and Siglec-9 to antagonize signaling downstream of FcγRs. We demonstrate that Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 can fully inhibit FcγR activation in U937 cells when coengaged with FcγRs. Cells expressing Siglec mutants reveal differential roles for the immunomodulatory tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunomodulatory tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) in this inhibition. Imaging flow cytometry enabled visualization of SHP-1 recruitment to Siglec-3 in an ITIM-dependent manner, while SHP-2 recruitment is more ITSM-dependent. Conversely, both cytosolic motifs of Siglec-9 contribute to SHP-1/2 recruitment. Siglec-7 poorly antagonizes FcγR activation for two reasons: masking by cis ligands and differences in its ITIM and ITSM. A chimera of the Siglec-3 extracellular domains and Siglec-5 cytosolic tail strongly inhibits FcγR when coengaged, providing evidence that Siglec-5 is more like Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 in its ability to antagonize FcγRs. Additionally, Siglec-3 and Siglec-9 inhibited FcγRs when coengaged by cells displaying ligands for both the Siglec and FcγRs. These results suggest a role for Siglecs in mediating FcγR inhibition in the context of an immunological synapse, which has important relevance to the effectiveness of immunotherapies.

15.
Pediatr Res ; 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To facilitate the identification of less common clinical phenotypes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 236 patients with MOGAD. The following phenotypes were considered to be typical for MOGAD: ADEM, ON, TM, and NMOSD. Less common onset clinical phenotypes were screened out; their clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were summarized and analyzed. RESULTS: 16 cases (6.8%) presented as cortical encephalitis, with convulsions, headache, and fever as the main symptoms. 15 cases were misdiagnosed in the early period. 13 cases (5.5%) showed the overlapping syndrome of MOGAD and anti-N-methyl-D aspartate receptor encephalitis (MNOS), with seizures (92.3%) being the most common clinical symptom. 11 cases (84.6%) showed relapses. The cerebral leukodystrophy-like phenotype was present in seven cases (3.0%), with a recurrence rate of 50%. Isolated seizures without any findings on MRI phenotype was present in three cases (1.3%), with the only clinical symptom being seizures of focal origin. Three cases (1.3%) of aseptic meningitis phenotype presented with prolonged fever. CONCLUSION: 40/236 (16.9%) of children with MOGAD had less common phenotypes. Less common clinical phenotypes of pediatric MOGAD are susceptible to misdiagnosis and deserve more attention. IMPACT: This is the first comprehensive analysis and summary of all less commonl clinical phenotypes of MOGAD in children, while previous studies have only focused on a specific phenotype or case reports. We analyzed the characteristics of MOGAD in children and further revealed the reasons why these less common clinical phenotypes are prone to misdiagnosis and deserve more attention. Our research on treatment has shown that early detection of MOG antibodies and early treatment are of great significance for improving the prognosis of these patients.

16.
Opt Express ; 32(5): 8343-8363, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439492

RESUMO

High-resolution solar absorption spectra were continuously collected by a ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to retrieve the total column of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), and formaldehyde (H2CO). The time series and variation characteristics of these gases were analyzed. The biomass combustion process is identified by using the correlations between the monthly mean deviations of HCN, C2H6, C2H2 and H2CO versus CO and satellite fire point data. The months with high correlation coefficients (R > 0.8) and peaks of fire point number are considered to be with biomass combustion occurrence. The emissions of HCN, C2H6, C2H2 and H2CO in Anhui were estimated using the enhancement ratios of gases to CO in these months when biomass combustion was the main driving factor of gas concentration change. The study proved the ability of FTIR system in inferring the period during biomass combustion and estimating emissions of the trace gases concerning biomass combustion.

17.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 2213-2225, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470582

RESUMO

Video anomaly detection (VAD) has been paid increasing attention due to its potential applications, its current dominant tasks focus on online detecting anomalies, which can be roughly interpreted as the binary or multiple event classification. However, such a setup that builds relationships between complicated anomalous events and single labels, e.g., "vandalism", is superficial, since single labels are deficient to characterize anomalous events. In reality, users tend to search a specific video rather than a series of approximate videos. Therefore, retrieving anomalous events using detailed descriptions is practical and positive but few researches focus on this. In this context, we propose a novel task called Video Anomaly Retrieval (VAR), which aims to pragmatically retrieve relevant anomalous videos by cross-modalities, e.g., language descriptions and synchronous audios. Unlike the current video retrieval where videos are assumed to be temporally well-trimmed with short duration, VAR is devised to retrieve long untrimmed videos which may be partially relevant to the given query. To achieve this, we present two large-scale VAR benchmarks and design a model called Anomaly-Led Alignment Network (ALAN) for VAR. In ALAN, we propose an anomaly-led sampling to focus on key segments in long untrimmed videos. Then, we introduce an efficient pretext task to enhance semantic associations between video-text fine-grained representations. Besides, we leverage two complementary alignments to further match cross-modal contents. Experimental results on two benchmarks reveal the challenges of VAR task and also demonstrate the advantages of our tailored method. Captions are publicly released at https://github.com/Roc-Ng/VAR.

18.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 123: 106558, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although locus coeruleus (LC) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the cognitive function of Parkinson's disease (PD), the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective was to investigate the relationship among LC degeneration, cognitive performance, and the glymphatic function in PD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 71 PD subjects (21 with normal cognition; 29 with cognitive impairment (PD-MCI); 21 with dementia (PDD)) and 26 healthy controls were included. All participants underwent neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI) and diffusion tensor image scanning on a 3.0 T scanner. The brain glymphatic function was measured using diffusion along the perivascular space (ALPS) index, while LC degeneration was estimated using the NM contrast-to-noise ratio of LC (CNRLC). RESULTS: The ALPS index was significantly lower in both the whole PD group (P = 0.04) and the PDD subgroup (P = 0.02) when compared to the controls. Similarly, the CNRLC was lower in the whole PD group (P < 0.001) compared to the controls. In the PD group, a positive correlation was found between the ALPS index and both the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score (r = 0.36; P = 0.002) and CNRLC (r = 0.26; P = 0.03). Mediation analysis demonstrated that the ALPS index acted as a significant mediator between CNRLC and the MoCA score in PD subjects. CONCLUSION: The ALPS index, a neuroimaging marker of glymphatic function, serves as a mediator between LC degeneration and cognitive function in PD.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 2): 131017, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513909

RESUMO

Water dropwort is favored by consumers for its unique flavor and medicinal value. Terpenoids were identified as the main volatile compounds related to its flavor. In this study, water dropwort was treated with different concentrations of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The contents of volatile terpenoids were determined under various MeJA treatments. The results indicated that 0.1 mM of MeJA most effectively promoted the biosynthesis of flavor-related terpenoids in water dropwort. Terpinolene accounted the highest proportion among terpene compounds in water dropwort. The contents of jasmonates in water dropwort were also increased after exogenous MeJA treatments. Transcriptome analysis indicated that DEGs involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway were upregulated. The TPS family was identified from water dropwort, and the expression levels of Oj0473630, Oj0287510 and Oj0240400 genes in TPS-b subfamily were consistent with the changes of terpene contents under MeJA treatments. Oj0473630 was cloned from the water dropwort and designated as OjTPS3, which is predicted to be related to the biosynthesis of terpinolene in water dropwort. Subcellular localization indicated that OjTPS3 protein was localized in chloroplast. Protein purification and enzyme activity of OjTPS3 protein were conducted. The results showed that the purified OjTPS3 protein catalyzed the biosynthesis of terpinolene by using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as substrate in vitro. This study will facilitate to further understand the molecular mechanism of terpenoid biosynthesis and provide a strategy to improve the flavor of water dropwort.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Oenanthe , Oxilipinas , Terpenos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Oenanthe/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Acetatos/farmacologia
20.
Cancer Lett ; 588: 216655, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460724

RESUMO

Cancer remains a major burden globally and the critical role of early diagnosis is self-evident. Although various miRNA-based signatures have been developed in past decades, clinical utilization is limited due to a lack of precise cutoff value. Here, we innovatively developed a signature based on pairwise expression of miRNAs (miRPs) for pan-cancer diagnosis using machine learning approach. We analyzed miRNA spectrum of 15832 patients, who were divided into training, validation, test, and external test sets, with 13 different cancers from 10 cohorts. Five different machine-learning (ML) algorithms (XGBoost, SVM, RandomForest, LASSO, and Logistic) were adopted for signature construction. The best ML algorithm and the optimal number of miRPs included were identified using area under the curve (AUC) and youden index in validation set. The AUC of the best model was compared to previously published 25 signatures. Overall, Random Forest approach including 31 miRPs (31-miRP) was developed, proving highly efficient in cancer diagnosis across different datasets and cancer types (AUC range: 0.980-1.000). Regarding diagnosis of cancers at early stage, 31-miRP also exhibited high capacities, with AUC ranging from 0.961 to 0.998. Moreover, 31-miRP exhibited advantages in differentiating cancers from normal tissues (AUC range: 0.976-0.998) as well as differentiating cancers from corresponding benign lesions. Encouragingly, comparing to previously published 25 different signatures, 31-miRP also demonstrated clear advantages. In conclusion, 31-miRP acts as a powerful model for cancer diagnosis, characterized by high specificity and sensitivity as well as a clear cutoff value, thereby holding potential as a reliable tool for cancer diagnosis at early stage.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias , Humanos , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Precoce
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...