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1.
J Soc Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413047

RESUMO

Previous western studies revealed a two-dimensional model (valence and dominance) in voice impressions. To explore the cross-cultural validity of this model, the present study recruited Chinese participants to evaluate other people's personality from recordings of Chinese vocal greeting word "Ni Hao". Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax Rotation and Parallel Analysis was used to investigate the dimensions underlying personality judgments. The results also revealed a two-dimensional model: approachability and capability. The approachability dimension was similar to the valence dimension reported in a previous study. It indicated that the approachability/valence dimension has cross-cultural commonality. Unlike the dimension of dominance which was closely related to aggressiveness, the dimension of capability emphasized the social aspects of capability such as intellectuality, social skills, and tenacity. In addition, the acoustic parameters that were used to infer the personality of speakers, as well as the relationship between vocal attractiveness and the personality dimensions of voice, were also partially different from the findings in Western culture.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113782, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421603

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 'Salt-processed Psoraleae Fructus & salt-processed Foeniculi Fructus' (sPF&sFF) is a common Chinese medicinal combination for treating diarrhoea. However, it is not clear how sPF and sFF work together, and why salt-processing is necessary. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the compatibility mechanism of sPF&sFF and the influence of salt-processing on it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the metabolomics approach was appliedto screen the differential components between four (s)PF&(s)FF extracts, i.e., sPF&sFF, sPF&FF, PF&sFF, and PF&FF extracts. Then, an in vivo metabolomics study was carried out to filter critical metabolites reflecting the curative effects of (s)PF&(s)FF, and construct a metabolic network. Finally, a correlation analysis between chemical components in extracts and critical metabolites in vivo was performed to find out the synergistic and/or antagonistic effects between herbs as well as the influence of salt-processing. RESULTS: Salt-processing had a direct influence on the contents of chemical components in sPF and sFF extracts, and there existed positive/negative correlations between the content change of chemical components and the effects of critical metabolites. Therefore, salt-processing indirectly affected on these correlations and was (i) conducive to the positive effects of sPF and sFF on bile acids, making sFF play a synergistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could perform better than sPF and other three combinations and effectively relieve the symptoms of fatty diarrhoea, osmotic diuresis, malnutrition, and weight loss; (ii) conducive to the positive effects of sPF on triacylglycerol, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid, and adverse to that of sFF, making sFF play an antagonistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could prevent a series of side effects caused by over-regulation and suitably relieve the symptoms of osmotic diuresis, polyuria, malnutrition, and weight loss; and (iii) adverse to the positive effects of sPF and sFF on thromboxane A2, sphinganine and sphingosine, making sFF play a synergistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could prevent a series of side effects and moderately relieve the symptoms of metabolic diarrhoea and polyuria. CONCLUSIONS: Salt-processing indirectly affected on the correlations between chemical components in extracts and critical metabolites in vivo, and exhibited both conducive and adverse effects on the efficacy, making sPF and sFF cooperate with each other to moderately repair the metabolic disorders. Thereby, sPF&sFF could suitably relieve the diarrhoea and polyuria symptoms in the model and exert the most appropriate efficacy. Moreover, this novel strategy provided a feasible approach for further studying the compatibility mechanism of herbs.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 6, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414432

RESUMO

The integrated stress response manifests with the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) on serine residue 51 and plays a major role in the adaptation of cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress in the initiation of autophagy and in the ignition of immune responses. Here, we report that lysosomotropic agents, including azithromycin, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine, can trigger eIF2α phosphorylation in vitro (in cultured human cells) and, as validated for hydroxychloroquine, in vivo (in mice). Cells bearing a non-phosphorylatable eIF2α mutant (S51A) failed to accumulate autophagic puncta in response to azithromycin, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Conversely, two inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation, nelfinavir and salubrinal, enhanced the induction of such autophagic puncta. Altogether, these results point to the unexpected capacity of azithromycin, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine to elicit the integrated stress response.

4.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475132

RESUMO

The Casparian Strip (CS) constitutes a physical diffusion barrier to water and nutrients in plant roots, which is formed by the polar deposition of lignin polymer in the endodermis tissue. The precise pattern of lignin deposition is determined by the scaffolding activity of membrane-bound Casparian Strip domain proteins (CASPs), but little is known of the mechanism(s) directing this process. Here, we demonstrate that Endodermis-specific Receptor-like Kinase 1 (ERK1)-and to a lesser extent ROP Binding Kinase1 (RBK1)-are also involved in regulating CS formation, with the former playing an essential role in lignin deposition as well as the localization of CASP1. We show that ERK1 is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the endodermis and that together with the circadian clock regulator, Time for Coffee (TIC), forms part of a novel signaling pathway necessary for correct CS organization and suberisation of the endodermis, with their single or combined loss of function resulting in altered root microbiome composition. In addition, we found that other mutants displaying defects in suberin deposition at the CS also display altered root exudates and microbiome composition. Thus, our work reveals a complex network of signaling factors operating within the root endodermis that establish both the CS diffusion barrier and influence the microbial composition of the rhizosphere.

5.
Aging Cell ; : e13298, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440070

RESUMO

Impaired osteoblast function is involved in osteoporosis, and microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation may cause abnormal osteoblast osteogenic activity. However, the influence of miRNA on osteoblast activity and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, miR-103-3p was found to be negatively correlated with bone formation in bone specimens from elderly women with fractures and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Additionally, miR-103-3p directly targeted Mettl14 to inhibit osteoblast activity, and METTL14-dependent N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) methylation inhibited miR-103-3p processing by the microprocessor protein DGCR8 and promoted osteoblast activity. Moreover, miR-103-3p inhibited bone formation in vivo, and therapeutic inhibition of miR-103-3p counteracted the decreased bone formation in OVX mice. Further, METTL14 was negatively correlated with miR-103-3p but positively correlated with bone formation in bone specimens from elderly women with fractures and OVX mice. Collectively, our results highlight the critical roles of the miR-103-3p/METTL14/m6 A signaling axis in osteoblast activity, identifying this axis as a potential target for ameliorating osteoporosis.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 97, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462219

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women. Mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipogenesis gene (MEDAG) was first reported as a novel adipogenic gene, and its involvement and mechanism in visceral adiposity were analyzed. However, the role of MEDAG in BC is unclear. The biological roles and corresponding mechanisms were investigated in vitro and in vivo. We found that MEDAG was highly expressed in BC samples and that a high MEDAG expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and poor survival in BC patients. MEDAG knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration; triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); and enhanced epirubicin sensitivity in vitro. The opposite results were observed in MEDAG-overexpressing cells. The inhibition of MEDAG suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, MEDAG knockdown led to decreased phosphorylation levels of AKT, increased levels of p-AMPK, and reduced levels of p-mTOR, while the overexpression of MEDAG had the opposite effects. Moreover, the activation of p-AKT and inhibition of p-AMPK restored the effect of MEDAG on EMT and chemosensitivity in BC cell lines, indicating that MEDAG functions as an oncogene by regulating the AKT/AMPK/mTOR pathway. MEDAG regulates BC progression and EMT via the AKT/AMPK/mTOR pathway and reduces chemosensitivity in BC cells. Therefore, MEDAG is a promising target for BC.

7.
Biomacromolecules ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427463

RESUMO

The synthesis of optically pure polymers is one of the most challenging tasks in polymer chemistry. Herein, Novozym 435 (Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on Lewatit VP OC 1600)-catalyzed polycondensation between d-/l-aspartic acid (Asp) diester and diols for the preparation of helical chiral polyesters was reported. Compared with d-Asp diesters, the fast-reacting l-Asp diesters easily reacted with diols to provide a series of chiral polyesters containing N-substitutional l-Asp repeating units. Besides amino acid configuration, N-substituent side chains and the chain length of diols were also investigated and optimized. It was found that bulky acyl N-substitutional groups like N-Boc and N-Cbz were more favorable for this polymerization than small ones probably due to competitively binding of these small acyl groups into the active site of Novozym 435. The highest molecular weight can reach up to 39.5 × 103 g/mol (Mw, D = 1.64). Moreover, the slow-reacting d-Asp diesters were also successfully polymerized by modifying the substrate structure to create a "nonchiral" condensation environment artificially. These enantiocomplementary chiral polyesters are thermally stable and have specific helical structures, which was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and molecular calculation.

8.
Environ Res ; : 110744, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450238

RESUMO

Due to cause the deterioration of water quality and can produce toxic nitrite, the nitrate constituted of great threatens to human health and eco-systematic safety. Among most well-known biotechnology to remove nitrate, the integrated heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification (IHAD) process is promising, especially for the organic-limited polluted water. In this work, the IHAD coupled manganese oxidation (IHAD-MnO) process was developed by using Pseudomonas sp. SZF15 (Gram negative strain, and rod-shaped morphology with 2.3 µm in length) in the glass serum bottles. It was found that limited organic content could accelerate nitrate removal rate, and manganese oxidation efficiency can reach up to 60.08%. To further explain carbon conversion characteristics of the process, pure heterotrophic condition assays were conducted, the results confirmed that inorganic carbon will be generated by organic carbon metabolism in heterotrophic condition, the maximum accumulation content of inorganic carbon was 142.21 mg/L (when the initial organic carbon level was 293 mg-C/L). Subsequently, since the consumption of organic carbon, biogenic inorganic carbon can be further utilized by microorganisms to support autotrophic denitrification (AuDN). Besides, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze precipitation products produced from the process. The magnified Mn 2p spectra results showed that a typical characteristic peak of manganese dioxide was observed with the intense peak at 641.8 eV and a satellite peak at 653.7 eV, respectively. This showed that Mn(II) was oxidized to manganese dioxide by the process, which may be a functional material with adsorption properties. The process posed a highly efficient and cost effective solution with less carbon consumption and less greenhouse gas emission for sustainable water treatment technologies.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 171: 435-447, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434548

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is an economical crop with excellent edible, nutritional, and medicinal values. However, the production of Tartary buckwheat is very low and it is urgent to breed high-yield varieties for satisfying the increasing market demand. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling involves in the regulation of agronomical traits and fruit development in several plant species. In this study, fifteen genes involved in G-protein signaling were characterized in Tartary buckwheat and their potential roles in fruit development were revealed by expression analysis. The exon-intron organization and conserved motif of Tartary buckwheat G-protein signaling genes were similar to those in other dicot plants. All these genes were ubiquitously and differently expressed in five tissues. The expression patterns of Tartary buckwheat G-protein signaling genes in fruit suggested they may play important roles in the fruit at early development stage, which was supported by meta-analysis of G-protein signaling genes' expression in the fruits from different species. Furthermore, we found the expression of G-protein signaling genes in fruit showed high correlation with 178 transcription factors, which indicated a transcriptional regulatory loop moderating G-protein signaling genes' expression during fruit development. This paper provides new insights into the physiological functions of G-protein signaling in fruit.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 11, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414382

RESUMO

Sufficient feeding is essential for animals' survival, which requires a cognitive capability to facilitate food seeking, but the neurobiological processes regulating food seeking are not fully understood. Here we show that stimulation of agouti-related peptide-expressing (AgRP) neurons triggers a long-term depression (LTD) of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic current (sEPSC) in adjacent pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and in most of their distant synaptic targets, including neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). The AgRP-induced sEPCS LTD can be enhanced by fasting but blunted by satiety signals, e.g. leptin and insulin. Mice subjected to food-seeking tasks develop similar neural plasticity in AgRP-innervated PVT neurons. Further, ablation of the majority of AgRP neurons, or only a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the PVT, impairs animals' ability to associate spatial and contextual cues with food availability during food seeking. A similar impairment can be also induced by optogenetic inhibition of the AgRP→PVT projections. Together, these results indicate that the AgRP→PVT circuit is necessary for food seeking.

11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 50-56, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474889

RESUMO

Historically, the Cambrian explosion was a major life evolution event caused by changes of natural environmental oxygen concentration. The use of oxygen was part of the basic survival instinct of higher life, which evolved a complex regulation system in response to variant levels of oxygen concentration. Hypoxia is one of the typical environmental characteristics in plateau areas. After long-term natural selection in hypoxic conditions, numerous species living in plateau areas have evolved unique mechanisms adapted to hypoxia. Recent studies have found that there are some similarities in adaptation to hypoxia between the animals in highland and different types of human solid tumor cells. Herein, we will summarize recent findings about the hypoxia adaptation evolution in high-altitude animals and the characteristics of hypoxic solid tumors, especially the reactive oxygen species responses in hypoxic solid tumors. We believe that deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxia adaptation in highland will facilitate the identification of new genes or biomarkers critical for research on hypoxic solid tumors in the future.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Altitude , Aclimatação , Animais , Humanos , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , Seleção Genética
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1134-1144, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356192

RESUMO

Black phosphorus (BP) has extensive applications in various fields. The release of BP into aquatic ecosystems and the potential toxic effects on aquatic organisms are becoming major concerns. Here, we investigated the developmental toxicity of few-layered BP toward the zebrafish. We found that BP could adsorb on the surface of the chorion and could subsequently penetrate within the embryo. After exposure of embryos to 10 mg/L BP, developmental malformations appeared at 96 hpf, especially heart deformities such as pericardial edema and bradycardia, accompanied by severe circulatory system failure. Using transgenic zebrafish larvae, we further characterized cardiovascular defects with cardiac enlargement and impaired cardiac vessels as indicators of damage to the cardiovascular system upon BP exposure. We performed transcriptomic analysis on zebrafish embryos treated with a lower concentration of 2 mg/L. The results showed disruption in genes associated with muscle development, oxygen involved processes, focal adhesion, and VEGF and MAPK signaling pathways. These alterations also indicated that BP carries a risk of developmental perturbation at lower concentrations. This study provides new insights into the effects of BP on aquatic organisms.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123618, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823029

RESUMO

The usage of alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been increasing due to the restriction and elimination of legacy PFASs. However, there is limited knowledge on bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of alternative PFASs, especially in subtropical ecosystems. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive survey to investigate the occurrence, bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of legacy and alternative PFASs in subtropical marine food webs in the Beibu Gulf, South China. Results showed that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the predominant PFASs in water phase, while perfluorooctane sufonate (PFOS) contributed most to the sum of target PFASs in sediments and marine organisms. Of the investigated PFASs, PFOS and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (F-53B) exhibited the highest bioaccumulation factor with values > 5000, qualifying as very bioaccumulative chemicals. There was a significant positive correlation between log BSAF and the carbon chain length of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Trophic magnification (TMF) was observed for PFOS and F-53B, while the remaining PFASs were biodiluted through the present food web. The hazard ratios for PFOS and PFOA in all organisms were far less than unity, suggesting overall low PFAS risks for humans through consumption of marine organisms.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141718, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889462

RESUMO

Antibiotics are of particular concern because of their ubiquity in aquatic environment and long-term adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. However, there is no information about the bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of antibiotics in subtropical environments. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 22 antibiotics to investigate their occurrence, bioaccumulation and trophic magnification in a subtropical food web from the Beibu Gulf. The total concentrations of target antibiotics ranged from 52.94-77.76 ng/L in seawater, 9.69-15.43 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment, and 0.68-4.75 ng/g wet weight (ww) in marine organisms, respectively. Macrolides were the predominant antibiotics in water, while fluoroquinolones were more abundant in sediment and biota samples. The total concentrations of target antibiotics in examined marine taxa descended in the order: crustacean > cephalopod > fish, with antibiotic profiles displaying distinct difference among taxa. Log BAFs (bioaccumulation factor) for antibiotics in all organisms ranged from -0.50 for erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O) to 2.82 for sulfamonomethoxine (SMM). Significantly negative correlation was observed between the log Dow and log BAF values (p < .05), indicating that log Dow is a good predictor of antibiotics bioaccumulation potential in marine organisms. The trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for sulfadiazine (SDZ) and enoxacin (ENX) were greater than unity, suggesting the trophic magnification of these chemicals through the food web. In contrast, enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIX), ofloxacin (OFX), norfloxacin (NOX), ETM-H2O and trimethoprim (TMP) were biodiluted in the food web from the Beibu Gulf. This study provides substantial information on the fate and trophic transfer of antibiotics in a subtropical marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bioacumulação , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 264-275, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977264

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antenatal depression is common, but most women with the condition choose to remain untreated. The Apgar score, an important indicator of newborn health, has been reported to be influenced by antenatal depression; thus, maternal antenatal depression, as reflected by a poor Apgar score, may harm children's health. AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore whether maternal antenatal depression is associated with the neonatal Apgar score. METHODS: We registered the protocol for this study with PROSPERO (CRD42019137585). We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for published papers that reported the association between depression and Apgar score from inception to December 4, 2019. Two reviewers independently screened and selected the studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data according to the predesigned table. Stata version 12.0 software was used to analyze data. RESULTS: We finally identified 13 studies for inclusion, including a total of 12017 women. We did not find an association between antenatal depression and the 1 min Apgar score of neonates (mean difference= -0.03, 95% CI= -0.15-0.09) or the risk of a low Apgar score (OR=1.82, 95% CI=0.51 to 3.13). We found that antenatal depression increased the risk of a low Apgar score at 5 min (OR= 1.91, 95% CI= 1.23-2.59), but the association between the 5 min Apgar score and antenatal depression was not significant (mean difference= -0.001, 95% CI= -0.07-0.07). The results of the subgroup analyses also indicated that there was no association between the 5 min Apgar score and antenatal depression. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal depression increased the risk of a low 5 min Apgar score; however, we did not find a difference in the mean and distribution of neonatal Apgar scores of mothers with depression and mothers without depression.

17.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106679, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding adolescent drug use mechanisms is critical for drug use prevention. Although some theories such as the gateway theory suggest that drug users gradually transition into using more addictive drugs, there is no consensus about such a hypothesis. One important factor that hinders the advancement of knowledge in this area is the scarcity of longitudinal studies examining the type of drugs adolescents initially use and the different pathways adolescents take to transition into using other drugs as they grow older. METHODS: Using the pooled sample of adolescent dug users (14-17 years old; n = 10,644) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2015-2018), we constructed longitudinal data on adolescents' illicit drug use history other than the use of tobacco and alcohol based on the age of drug initiation. This allowed us to investigate what drugs were initially used by adolescents, how the use of these drugs may have progressed into a new drug, and whether there were racial/ethnic differences in the initiation and progression. The retrospective longitudinal data analyses applied life table method and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Two thirds of the adolescent drug users initiated their drug use trajectories with marijuana, one quarter with inhalants, and the remaining with hallucinogens, prescription drugs, and hard drugs. Adolescent drug users who initiated with different drugs showed unique trajectories to the use of a new drug. By year 8, the probability of using a new drug was about 40% and 70% to 80% for adolescents who initiated with inhalants and other drugs, respectively. The probability of using a new drug for adolescents who initiated with marijuana and inhalants accumulated stably over time, and its difference with that of other drug users diminished over time. The multivariate Cox regression models suggest the observed discrepancies generally held after controlling for covariates. There were also racial/ethnic differences in adolescent drug use initiation and progression, with Black/African American adolescents being the least likely to switch to the use of a new drug. CONCLUSION: Adolescents' initial use of marijuana and inhalants may lead to substantial risks of using other drugs over time. It is therefore important to screen adolescent drug use comprehensively and provide early interventions to prevent an escalation to more detrimental drugs. The findings provide new evidence to support aspects of both the gateway and generalized risk drug use theories.

18.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 220-233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141670

RESUMO

Different from Visual Question Answering task that requires to answer only one question about an image, Visual Dialogue task involves multiple rounds of dialogues which cover a broad range of visual content that could be related to any objects, relationships or high-level semantics. Thus one of the key challenges in Visual Dialogue task is to learn a more comprehensive and semantic-rich image representation that can adaptively attend to the visual content referred by variant questions. In this paper, we first propose a novel scheme to depict an image from both visual and semantic views. Specifically, the visual view aims to capture the appearance-level information in an image, including objects and their visual relationships, while the semantic view enables the agent to understand high-level visual semantics from the whole image to the local regions. Furthermore, on top of such dual-view image representations, we propose a Dual Encoding Visual Dialogue (DualVD) module, which is able to adaptively select question-relevant information from the visual and semantic views in a hierarchical mode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of DualVD, we propose two novel visual dialogue models by applying it to the Late Fusion framework and Memory Network framework. The proposed models achieve state-of-the-art results on three benchmark datasets. A critical advantage of the DualVD module lies in its interpretability. We can analyze which modality (visual or semantic) has more contribution in answering the current question by explicitly visualizing the gate values. It gives us insights in understanding of information selection mode in the Visual Dialogue task. The code is available at https://github.com/JXZe/Learning_DualVD.

19.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1640-1653, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269112

RESUMO

As one of the nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), serine is involved in the anabolism of multiple macromolecular substances by participating in one-carbon unit metabolism. Thus, rapidly proliferating cells such as tumor cells and activated immune cells are highly dependent on serine. Serine supports the proliferation of various immune cells through multiple pathways to enhance the antitumor immune response. Moreover, serine influences aging specificity in an epigenetic and metabolic manner. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the relationship between serine metabolism, antitumor immunity, and senescence. The metabolic regulation of serine seems to be a key point of intervention in antitumor immunity and aging-related disease, providing an opportunity for several novel therapeutics.

20.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 6765474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381605

RESUMO

Obesity could increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and affect its growth and progression, but the mechanical links are unclear. The objective of the study was to explore the impact of obesity on ESCC growth and progression utilizing in vivo trials and cell experiments in vitro. Diet-induced obese and lean nude mice were inoculated with TE-1 cells, then studied for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and visfatin levels were assayed. Sera of nude mice were obtained and then utilized to culture TE-1. MTT, migration and invasion assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to analyze endocrine effect of obesity on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and related genes expression of TE-1. Obese nude mice bore larger tumor xenografts than lean animals, and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic with an elevated level of leptin and visfatin in sera, and also were accompanied by a fatty liver. As for the subcutaneous tumor xenograft model, tumors were more aggressive in obese nude mice than lean animals. Tumor weight correlated positively with mouse body weight, liver weight of mice, serum glucose, HOMA-IR, leptin, and visfatin. Obesity prompted significant TE-1 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by endocrine mechanisms and impacted target genes. The expression of AMPK and p-AMPK protein decreased significantly (P < 0.05); MMP9, total YAP, p-YAP, and nonphosphorylated YAP protein increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the cells cultured with conditioned media and xenograft tumor from the obese group; the mRNA expression of AMPK decreased significantly (P < 0.05); YAP and MMP9 mRNA expression increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the cells exposed to conditioned media from the obese group. In conclusion, the altered adipokine milieu and metabolites in the context of obesity may promote ESCC growth in vivo; affect proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro; and regulate MMP9 and AMPK-YAP signaling pathway through complex effects including the endocrine effect.

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