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1.
Addiction ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597207

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid used in routine stop smoking services in England. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal Social Services (PSS) perspective for 12 months period and lifetime. Costs, including that of both treatments, other smoking cessation help and healthcare services, and health benefits, estimated from EQ-5D-5L and measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for the 12-month analysis, came from a randomised controlled trial. Lifetime analysis was model-based with input from both trial data and published secondary data sources. Cost-effectiveness was measured by an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). SETTING: Three Stop-Smoking Service sites in England PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers (n=886) who sought help to quit in the participating sites INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: An e-cigarette (EC) starter kit versus provision of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for up to three months, both with standard behavioural support. A total of 886 participants were randomised (439 in EC arm, 447 in NRT arm). Excluding one death in each arm, the one-year quit rate was 18.0% and 9.9%, respectively. MEASUREMENTS: Cost of treatments was estimated from treatment log. Costs of other smoking cessation help and healthcare services, and EQ-5D-5L were collected at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-ups. Incremental costs and incremental QALYs were estimated using regression adjusting for baseline covariates and their respective baseline values. FINDINGS: The ICER was £1,100 per QALY gained at the 12 months after quit date (87% probability below £20,000/QALY). Markov model estimated the lifetime ICER of EC to be £65 per QALY (85% probability below £20,000/QALY). CONCLUSION: Using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid with standard behavioural support in stop-smoking services in England is likely to be more cost-effective than using nicotine replacement therapy in the same setting.

2.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598896

RESUMO

Similar to the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) also have pluripotent differentiation characteristic and may be more ideal for tissue regeneration, especially in tooth regeneration engineering. However, bacterial infection may be a powerful obstacle. Berberine (BBR), known with antibacterial effects, was recently found to play functions in bone formation through promoting osteogenic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. However, whether BBR also function in DPSCs osteogenic differentiation has not yet been reported. Primary DPSCs were isolated from dental pulp tissues extracted from human impacted mandibular third molars, and identified by flow cytometry for cell surface antigen molecules. A dexamethasone osteogenic medium was used to induce DPSCs osteogenic differentiation. BBR (1 µM and 5 µM) was pre-added to into medium, and then cell proliferation, spheroid formation and osteogenic differentiation capacities of DPSCs were analyzed, as well as the underlying molecules modulation mechanism. Flow cytometry identified that CD44, CD90, CD81 and CD105 positively expressed in the isolated hDPSCs, with CD34 and CD45 negetively expressed. BBR enhanced the cell proliferation of hDPSCs in a dose-dependent pattern, and promoted dexamethasone-induced osteogenic differentiation via enhancing Runx2 transcription factor activity followed by upregulating osteogenesis markers expression, whereas the adipogenic differentiation of hDPSCs was suppressed dramatically by BBR. The EGFR and MAPK pathways were activated by BBR, and inhibitors for these pathways significantly suppressed the osteogenic differentiation promotion of BBR. These results have revealed a novel mechanism that berberine might promote hDPSCs osteogenic differentiation through activating EGFR-MAPK-Runx2 signaling pathways.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583844

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit therapeutic benefits on aortic aneurysm (AA); however, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of murine bone marrow MSC (BM-MSCs)-derived conditioned medium (MSCs-CM) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AA in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/- ) mice. Murine BM-MSCs, MSCs-CM or control medium were intravenously administrated into AngII-induced AA in apoE-/- mice. Mice were sacrificed at 2 weeks after injection. BM-MSCs and MSCs-CM significantly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression, aortic elastin degradation and AA growth at the site of AA. These treatments with BM-MSCs and MSCs-CM also decreased Ly6chigh monocytes in peripheral blood on day 7 and M1 macrophage infiltration in AA tissues on day 14, whereas they increased M2 macrophages. In addition, BM-MSCs and MSCs-CM reduced MCP-1, IL-1Ra and IL-6 expression and increased IL-10 expression in AA tissues. In vitro, peritoneal macrophages were co-cultured with BM-MSCs or fibroblasts as control in a transwell system. The mRNA and protein expression of M2 macrophage markers were evaluated. IL-6 and IL-1ß were reduced, while IL-10 was increased in the BM-MSC systems. The mRNA and protein expression of M2 markers were up-regulated in the BM-MSC systems. Furthermore, high concentration of IGF1, VEGF and TGF-ß1 was detected in MSCs-CM. Our results suggest that MSCs-CM could prevent AA growth potentially through regulating macrophage polarization. These results may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of BM-MSCs in the therapy of AA.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109475, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug that has been widely used in the clinic. However, recently its application has been limited due to the cardiotoxic effects it has caused. Severe cardiotoxicity of DOX causes cardiac hypertrophy that may lead to heart failure. It has previously been demonstrated that CACNA1H is re-expressed in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of CACNA1H in DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity, and to investigate its possible underlying mechanisms of action involved. METHODS: Firstly, DOX-induced cardiac injury and changes in the expression of CACNA1H were evaluated. We explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in mice that underwent DOX-induced cardiac injury. Next, to explore the role of CACNA1H in this process, we evaluated the changes in DOX-induced cardiac injury and ER stress after treatment with the CACNA1H specific inhibitor ABT-639. Next, we used ER stress inhibitor UR906 to verify the role of ER stress in DOX induced cardiotoxicity in H9C2 cells. RESULTS: DOX-treatment caused acute heart injury, leading to a decrease in cardiac function in mice, an increase in apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, and a significant increase in the expression level of CACNA1H in heart tissue. Next, mice were treated with CACNA1H inhibitor ABT-639 and we demonstrated that it partly protects myocardial function and reduces myocardial cell apoptosis. In addition, our data indicated that CACNA1H may play a role in alleviating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by reducing the severity of ER stress because the use of ABT-639 significantly changed ER stress-related proteins, including p-PERK, PERK, CHOP, GRP78, ATF6, and ATF4. Furthermore, we found that the use of ER stress inhibitor UR906 in H9C2 cells significantly alleviated the increased expression of ER stress related proteins and apoptosis related proteins caused by DOX, and meanwhile reduced the degree of intracellular oxidative stress and intracellular calcium ion concentration. CONCLUSION: CACNA1H inhibitors significantly alleviated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and apoptosis induced by ER stress.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108391, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500728

RESUMO

Vaccination plays a vital role in controlling diseases caused by chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The continuously variant antigenicity of IBV limits the application of current vaccine strategies and serological diagnostic systems. S2 protein is an invariant that harbors broad neutralizing epitopes. However, little is known about the key amino acids that contribute to the broad-spectrum S2 epitopes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the specific amino acids contributing to S2 epitopes. Site mutagenesis and peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that 16R in S2 protein was a key amino acid mediating the antigenicity of S2 protein. S2-derived peptides with 16R, but not those with 16 K, could react with sera against different types of IBVs. Notably, a commercial ELISA kit for detection of antibodies against IBV did not react with sera against all types of IBVs. Taken together, these data demonstrated that S2-derived peptides with 16R could be used as novel marker-based antigens for developing both broad-spectrum vaccines and serological diagnostic kits to control IBV.

6.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110190, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481213

RESUMO

Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid secondary messenger involved in intracellular signaling in eukaryotes. It has been confirmed that PA mediates salt stress signaling by promoting activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6) which phosphorylates Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. However, the MPK6-upstream kinases and their relationship to PA remain unclear. Here, we found that, among the six tested Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinases (MKKs), PA specifically bound to MKK7 and MKK9 which phosphorylate MPK6, and promoted the activation of MKK7/MKK9. Based on phenotypic and physiological analyses, we found that MKK7 and MKK9 positively regulate Arabidopsis salt tolerance and are functionally redundant. NaCl treatment can induce significant increase in MKK7/MKK9 activities, and this depends, in part, on the Phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1). MKK7 and MKK9 also mediate the NaCl-induced activation of MPK6. Furthermore, PA or NaCl treatment could induce translocation of MKK7/MKK9 to the plasma membrane, whereas this translocation disappeared in pldα1. These results indicate that PA binds to MKK7 and MKK9, increases their kinase activity and plasma membrane localization during Arabidopsis response to salt stress. Together with the PA-MPK6-SOS1 pathway identified previously, this mechanism may maximize the signal transduction efficiency, providing novel insights into the link between lipid signaling and MAPK cascade.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540238

RESUMO

Aging is an unstoppable process coupled to the loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diseases. Epigenetic alteration is one of the hallmarks of aging, which involves changes in DNA methylation patterns, post-translational modification of histones, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNA interference. Invertebrate model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, have been used to investigate the biological mechanisms of aging because they show, evolutionarily, the conservation of many aspects of aging. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the epigenetic changes of aging with invertebrate models, providing insight into the relationship between epigenetic dynamics and aging.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900773, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482642

RESUMO

SCOPE: Considerable evidence supports the view that high-fructose intake is associated with increased and early incidence of obesity and dyslipidemia. However, knowledge on physiopathological alterations introduced by fructose overconsumption is lacking. Therefore, an integrated omics analysis is carried out to investigate the consequences of short-term fructose overfeeding (SFO) and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: SFO of rats demonstrates obvious histopathological hepatic lipid accumulation and significant elevation in adiposity, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Integrated omics analysis demonstrates that SFO disturbed metabolic homeostasis and initiated metabolic stress. Hepatic lipogenesis pathways are also negatively impacted by SFO. Analysis of molecular networks generated by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) implicates involvement of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in SFO and its consequences. Moreover, it is identified that an inherent negative feedback regulation of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) plays an active role in regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that SFO disturbs metabolic homeostasis and that endogenous small molecules positively mediate SFO-induced metabolic adaption. The results also underline that an inherent regulatory mechanism of resilience occurs in response to fructose overconsumption, suggesting that efforts to maintain resilience can be a promising target to prevent and treat metabolic disorder-like conditions.

9.
Geroscience ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473912

RESUMO

Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection associated with acute and chronic neurocognitive consequences, including an increased risk of later-life dementia. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced rat sepsis model, we have demonstrated neuroinflammation, cortical amyloid-beta plaque deposition, and increased whole brain levels of phosphorylated tau. Hippocampal abnormalities, particularly those of the dentate gyrus, are seen in Alzheimer's disease and age-related memory loss. The focus of this study was to determine whether Aß plaques and phosphorylated tau aggregates occur in the hippocampus as a consequence of lipopolysaccharide administration, and whether behavioral abnormalities related to the hippocampus, particularly the dentate gyrus, can be demonstrated. Male Sprague Dawley rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. Control animals received a saline injection. Seven days post injection, Aß plaques and phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus were quantified following immunostaining. Behavioral tests that have previously been shown to result in specific deficits in dentate gyrus-lesioned rats were administered. Lipopolysaccharide treatment results in the deposition of beta amyloid plaques and intracellular phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus, including the dorsal dentate gyrus. Lipopolysaccharide treatment resulted in behavioral deficits attributable to the dorsal dentate gyrus, including episodic-like memory function that primarily involves spatial, contextual, and temporal orientation and integration. Lipopolysaccharide administration results in hippocampal deposition of amyloid-beta plaques and intracellular phosphorylated tau and results in specific behavioral deficits attributable to the dorsal dentate gyrus. These findings, if persistent, could provide a basis for the higher rate of dementia in longitudinal studies of sepsis survivors.

10.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify biologic and outcome differences between double hormone receptor (HR)-positive (dHR+, estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor [PgR+]) and single HR-positive (sHR+, either ER+/PgR- or ER-/PgR+) breast cancer; and to explore whether hormone therapy (HT) response in HER2-negative breast cancer correlates with HR status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted by using 2 large breast cancer databases: the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) clinical data set. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) among sHR+ and dHR+ patients. RESULTS: In the SEER database, dHR+ patients had significantly longer OS and BCSS than ER+/PgR- patients in short-term follow-up (OS: hazard ratio = 0.620; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.590, 0.652; P < .001; BCSS: hazard ratio = 0.493; 95% CI, 0.462, 0.526; P < .001). Meanwhile, ER-/PgR+ patients had younger age, larger tumor size, and higher disease grade than dHR+ and ER+/PgR- patients. In patients who received HT, dHR+ patients had a more favorable OS than ER+/PgR- patients (hazard ratio = 0.789; 95% CI, 0.635, 0.982; P = .034), and ER-/PgR+ patients had a worse OS than ER+/PgR- patients at 10 years' follow-up (hazard ratio = 7.991; 95% CI, 1.053, 60.644; P = .044). However, these groups had similar outcomes over longer periods. CONCLUSION: In HER2-negative breast cancer, sHR+ patients are associated with relatively worse characteristics and worse short-term outcomes than dHR+ patients. Additionally, the outcome of patients receiving HT may differ according to the HR status. However, further studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(10): e10168, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475771

RESUMO

Accurate risk stratification for patients with stage II/III colon cancer is pivotal for postoperative treatment decisions. Here, we aimed to identify and validate a circRNA-based signature that could improve postoperative prognostic stratification for these patients. In current retrospective analysis, we included 667 patients with R0 resected stage II/III colon cancer. Using RNA-seq analysis of 20 paired frozen tissues collected postoperation, we profiled differential circRNA expression between patients with and without recurrence, followed by quantitative validation. With clinical information, we generated a four-circRNA-based cirScore to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. The patients with high cirScores in the training cohort had a shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with low cirScores. The prognostic capacity of the classifier was validated in the internal and external cohorts. Loss-of-function assays indicated that the selected circRNAs played functional roles in colon cancer progression. Overall, our four-circRNA-based classifier is a reliable prognostic tool for postoperative disease recurrence in patients with stage II/III colon cancer.

12.
J Proteome Res ; 18(10): 3640-3648, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502464

RESUMO

Protein post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a mechanism that allows a diverse response of cells to stress. Five SUMO family members, SUMO1-5, are expressed in mammals. We hypothesized that because kidney epithelial cells are often subject to stresses arising from various physiological conditions, multiple proteins in the kidney will be SUMOylated. Here, we profiled SUMO1- and SUMO2-modified proteins in a polarized epithelial cell model of the renal cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD14 cells). Modified forms of SUMO1 or SUMO2, with a histidine tag and a Thr to Lys mutation preceding the carboxyl-terminal di-gly motif, were expressed in mpkCCD14 cells, allowing SUMO-conjugated proteins to be purified and identified. Protein mass spectrometry identified 1428 SUMO1 and 1957 SUMO2 sites, corresponding to 741 SUMO1 and 971 SUMO2 proteins. Gene ontology indicated that the function of the majority of SUMOylated proteins in mpkCCD14 cells was related to gene transcription. After treatment of the mpkCCD14 cells for 24 h with aldosterone, the levels of SUMOylation at a specific site on the proton and oligopeptide/antibiotic cotransporter protein Pept2 were greatly increased. In conclusion, the SUMOylation landscape of mpkCCD14 cells suggests that protein modification by SUMOylation is a mechanism within renal epithelial cells to modulate gene transcription under various physiological conditions.

13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 76: 105877, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522017

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening critical syndromes characterized by the infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells that lead to an excessive inflammatory response. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid mediator, is believed to have anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects. In the present study, we examined the impact of RvD1 on the pulmonary inflammatory response, neutrophil influx, and lung damage in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Treatment with RvD1 protected mice against LPS-induced ALI, and compared to untreated mice, RvD1-treated mice exhibited significantly ameliorated lung pathological changes, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and attenuated neutrophil infiltration. In addition, treatment with RvD1 attenuated LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration via the downregulation of CXCL2 expression on resident alveolar macrophages. Finally, BOC-2, which inhibits the RvD1 receptor lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2), reversed the protective effects of RvD1. These data demonstrate that RvD1 ameliorates LPS-induced ALI via the suppression of neutrophil infiltration by an ALX/FPR2-dependent reduction in CXCL2 expression on resident alveolar macrophages.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chromoendoscopy with iodine staining is used to identify esophageal squamous dysplasia and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs)-absence of staining indicates suspicious regions of dysplasia. However, screening detects precancerous lesions (mild and moderate dysplasia) that do not require immediate treatment; it is a challenge to which lesions are at risk for progression. We investigated the association between absence of iodine staining at chromoendoscopy screening and lesion progression using 6 years of follow-up data from a population-based randomized controlled trial in China. We then constructed and validated a model to calculate risk of progression to severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or ESCC. METHODS: We collected data from 1468 participants (45-69 years old) who were either negative for iodine staining at a baseline chromoendoscopy or found to have mild or moderate dysplasia in histologic analysis of biopsies in the Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer study in China, from January 2012 through September 2016; 788 of these participants were re-examined by endoscopy after a median interval of 4.2 years (development cohort). We investigated the association between absence of iodine staining and progression of esophageal lesions using Cox prediction models, considering corresponding baseline pathology findings and patient answers to a comprehensive questionnaire. Patients who did not receive a follow-up examination (n=680) was used as the validation cohort; outcome events in these patients were identified by annual door to door active interviews or linkage with local electronic registry data. The primary outcome was incident esophageal severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or ESCC. RESULTS: In the development cohort, 11 lesions that did not stain with iodine but were classified as not dysplastic in the histology analysis were found to be severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or ESCC at the follow-up evaluation. These lesions accounted for 39.3% of all progressed lesions (n=28). In the validation cohort, 6 patients with lesions did not stain with iodine but were classified as not dysplastic by histology had a later diagnosis of ESCC, determined from medical records; these patients accounted for 50.0% of all patients with lesion progression (n=12) until the closing date of this study. We developed a model based on patient age, body mass index, pathology findings, and baseline iodine staining to calculate risk for severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or ESCC. It identified patients for severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or ESCC in the development set with an area under the curve of 0.868 (95% CI, 0.817-0.920) and in the validation set with an area under the curve of 0.850 (95% CI, 0.748-0.952). Almost no cases would be missed if subjects determined to be high or intermediate-high risk subjects by the model were included in surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of iodine staining at baseline chromoendoscopy identifies esophageal lesions at risk of progression with a high level of sensitivity. A model that combines results of iodine chromoendoscopy with other patient features identifies patients at risk of lesion progression with greater accuracy than histologic analysis of baseline biopsies.

15.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532436

RESUMO

The human body is a "delicate machine" full of sensors such as the fingers, nose, and mouth. In addition, numerous physiological signals are being created every moment, which can reflect the condition of the body. The quality and the quantity of the physiological signals are important for diagnoses and the execution of therapies. Due to the incompact interface between the sensors and the skin, the signals obtained by commercial rigid sensors do not bond well with the body; this decreases the quality of the signal. To increase the quantity of the data, it is important to detect physiological signals in real time during daily life. In recent years, there has been an obvious trend of applying graphene devices with excellent performance (flexibility, biocompatibility, and electronic characters) in wearable systems. In this review, we will first provide an introduction about the different methods of synthesis of graphene, and then techniques for graphene patterning will be outlined. Moreover, wearable graphene sensors to detect mechanical, electrophysiological, fluid, and gas signals will be introduced. Finally, the challenges and prospects of wearable graphene devices will be discussed. Wearable graphene sensors can improve the quality and quantity of the physiological signals and have great potential for health-care and telemedicine in the future.

16.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 95, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500658

RESUMO

Adipocytes are one of the primary stromal cells in many tissues, and they are considered to play an active role in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) are not only found adjacent to cancer cells, but also communicate with cancer cells through releasing various factors that can mediate local and systemic effects. The adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk leads to phenotypical and functional changes of both cell types, which can further enhance tumor progression. Indeed, obesity, which is associated with an increase in adipose mass and an alteration of adipose tissue, is becoming pandemic in some countries and it is now considered to be an independent risk factor for cancer progression. In this review, we focus on the potential mechanisms involved with special attention to the adipocyte-cancer cell circle in breast cancer. We envisage that besides having a direct impact on tumor cells, CAAs systemically preconditions the tumor microenvironment by favoring anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of cancer-associated adipocytes and the key molecular events in the adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk will provide insights into tumor biology and permit the optimization of therapeutic strategies.

17.
Langmuir ; 35(39): 12636-12646, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490693

RESUMO

A cellulose-based solid amine adsorbent (MCC/TEPAA) with high amino density for the detection and removal of Cr(VI) was designed and prepared through using epichlorohydrin cross-linking with MCC (microcrystalline cellulose) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The structure and amino density of the cellulose-based solid amine adsorbents could be tailored by adjusting the structure of the amines (triethylenetetramine or diethylenetriamine). The as-prepared cellulose-based solid amine adsorbents could detect and completely remove Cr(VI) from water, and the concentration of Cr(VI) solution after adsorption met the standard concentration of Cr(VI) solution for drinking water (0.05 mg/L). In particular, the MCC/TEPAA, supported by MCC with porosity as a framework, promoted the adsorption rate (adsorption equilibrium within only 10 min), removal rate (100%) of Cr(VI), and adsorption capacity (327.72 mg/g). In addition, the limit of colorimetric detection of Cr(VI) by MCC/TEPAA was 0.5 mg/L at 20 min when other interfering heavy metal ions exist. The adsorption and colorimetric detection mechanism of Cr(VI) on MCC/TEPAA was proposed to include electrostatic interactions, chelating reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions, all of which contributed to the excellent adsorption and detection performance.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 397-408, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381907

RESUMO

In order to assess variation and conservation among Ganoderma species and reconstruct the phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex, complete mitogenomes of five Ganoderma species were sequenced and successfully assembled. The five Ganoderma mitogenomes were all composed of circular DNA molecules, with lengths ranging from 57,232 bp to 124,588 bp. Mitogenomic synteny analysis revealed several gene rearrangements among Ganoderma mitogenomes. Across the 14 core protein-coding genes (PCGs) tested, atp8 and atp9 had the least genetic distance among the Ganoderma species we investigated, indicating that the two genes were highly conserved. In addition, the Ka/Ks values for all 14 core PCGs were <1, suggesting that these genes were subject to purifying selection. Comparative mitogenomic analysis indicated that the increase in intron number contributed to expansion of the mitogenome in Polyporales. Phylogenetic analyses based on two combined mitochondrial gene datasets yielded an identical and well-supported (BPP ≥ 0.95) topology that divided the nine Ganoderma species into three groups. This study is the first to reveal large-scale gene rearrangements in Ganoderma mitogenomes. The results presented herein will further promote investigations of the genetics, evolution and phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 48(34): 12832-12838, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418005

RESUMO

MoO3-x nanobelts with different concentrations of oxygen vacancies were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process. XPS test results show that oxygen vacancies are distributed from the exterior to the interior of the MoO3-x nanobelts. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, MoO3-x-10 releases excellent rate capacitance. It can maintain a high specific capacitance of about 500 mA h·g-1 at a high current density of 1000 mA·g-1. In the aspect of cycling stability, MoO3-x-10 can retain a high specific capacity of 641 mA h·g-1 after cycling for 50 times at 100 mA·g-1 and 420 mA h·g-1 after cycling for 100 times at 500 mA·g-1. The coexistence of oxygen vacancies and low-valence Mo ions is conducive to the intercalation/de-intercalation of Li ions and to promoting redox reactions. It has been proved to be a significantly effective way in which oxygen vacancies can improve the integrated performance of MoO3-x nanobelts as anode materials.

20.
Viruses ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461875

RESUMO

The identification of a new circovirus (Porcine Circovirus 3, PCV3) has raised concern because its impact on swine health is not fully known. In Fujian Province in eastern China, even its circulating status and genetic characteristics are unclear. Here, we tested 127 tissue samples from swine from Fujian Province that presented respiratory symptoms. All of the PCV3 positive samples were negative for many other pathogens involved in respiratory diseases like PCV2, PRRSV, and CSFV, suggesting that PCV3 is potentially pathogenic. From phylogenetic analysis, PCV3 strains are divided into two main clades and five sub-clades; PCV3a-1, PCV3a-2, PCV3a-3, PCV3b-1, and PCV3b-2. Our identified strains belong to genotypes PCV3a-1, PCV3a-2, PCV3a-3, and PCV3b-2, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity of PCV3 in Fujian province until 2019. Interestingly, we found the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of PCV3 was dated to the 1950s, and PCV3 has a similar evolutionary rate as PCV2 (the main epidemic genotypes PCV2b and PCV2d). In addition, positive selection sites N56D/S and S77T/N on the capsid gene are located on the PCV3 antigen epitope, indicating that PCV3 is gradually adaptive in swine. In summary, our results provide important insights into the epidemiology of PCV3.

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