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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has global impact, Wuhan in Hubei province is a high-risk area. And the older people in nursing homes are the most susceptible group to COVID-19. The aim of this study was to describe the practice and experience of the first-line medical team, to provide insights of coping with COVID-19 in China. METHOD: This qualitative study used a descriptive phenomenological design to describe the experience of medical staff supported the nursing homes in Wuhan fighting against COVID-19. Unstructured interviews via online video were conducted with seven medical staffs who supported the nursing homes in Wuhan. Data were analyzed using content analysis in five main themes: for nursing homes, we interviewed the difficulties faced at the most difficult time, services for the older people, and prevention and management strategies, for the medical staff, the psychological experience were interviewed, and the implications for public health emergencies were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative that effective preventive and response measures be implemented to face the outbreak of COVID-19 and meet the care needs of older people in the context of COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS: Findings will inform managers of some reasonable instructional strategies for implementing effective infection management. Nursing homes need to provide targeted services to help alleviating their bad psychology for residents.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /terapia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , /isolamento & purificação
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2343-2352, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884804

RESUMO

The visible light-driven photocatalyst Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 was synthesized by a simple in-situ precipitation method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Compared with that of single Ag3PO4 and g-C3N4, the Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 composite had a higher catalytic efficiency for levofloxacin. According to the energy band analysis and free radical capture experiment, the mechanism of the Z-type heterostructure of the Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 composite was proposed.

3.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 8812304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814982

RESUMO

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a considerable global public health threat. This study sought to investigate whether blood glucose (BG) levels or comorbid diabetes are associated with inflammatory status and disease severity in patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the clinical and biochemical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes were compared. The relationship among severity of COVID-19, inflammatory status, and diabetes or hyperglycemia was analyzed. The severity of COVID-19 in all patients was determined according to the diagnostic and treatment guidelines issued by the Chinese National Health Committee (7th edition). Results: Four hundred and sixty-one patients were enrolled in our study, and 71.58% of patients with diabetes and 13.03% of patients without diabetes had hyperglycemia. Compared with patients without diabetes (n = 366), patients with diabetes (n = 95) had a higher leucocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). There was no association between severity of COVID-19 and known diabetes adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), known hypertension, and coronary heart disease. The leucocyte count, NLR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased with increasing BG level. Hyperglycemia was an independent predictor of critical (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.72-9.30) or severe (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.47-8.58) COVID-19, and of increased inflammatory levels (high leucocyte count (OR 4.26, 95% CI 1.65-10.97), NLR (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.24-6.10), and CRP level (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.19-5.23)), after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, severity of illness, and known diabetes. Conclusion: Hyperglycemia was positively correlated with higher inflammation levels and more severe illness, and it is a risk factor for the increased severity of COVID-19. The initial measurement of plasma glucose levels after hospitalization may help identify a subset of patients who are predisposed to a worse clinical course.


Assuntos
/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 782: 146845, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848867

RESUMO

High ozone concentrations promote the formation of nitrate in the nocturnal residual layer (RL), but this phenomenon has not been confirmed by direct observation. In this study, ozone, water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and the corresponding meteorological factors in the stable boundary layer, RL and mixing layer were observed by portable instruments carried on a tethered balloon over the North China Plain. The ozone concentration significantly increased in the RL compared to that in the stable boundary layer, while particulate nitrate significantly decreased, except in the clouds. Unfavorable environmental conditions, i.e., high temperature, low relative humidity, low aerosol surface area, and weak particle acidity, are not conducive to dinitrogen pentoxide uptake and hydrolysis to form particulate nitrate in the RL, and are conducive to the volatilization of nitrate to a gaseous state. Thus, our observations differed from traditional reports and confirmed that the morning peak of particulate nitrate at ground level is not related to the downward transport of nitrate from the RL. In addition, evidence for nitrate formation in cloudy weather is provided, and the possible impact on ozone is discussed.

5.
IET Syst Biol ; 15(3): 93-100, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880887

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. However, the specific mechanism of gene interplay and the biological function in IS are not clear. Therefore, more research into IS is necessary. Dataset GSE110993 including 20 ischemic stroke (IS) and 20 control specimens are used to establish both groups and the raw RNA-seq data were analysed. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to screen the key micro-RNA modules. The centrality of key genes were determined by module membership (mm) and gene significance (GS). The key pathways were identified by enrichment analysis with Kyoto Protocol Gene and Genome Encyclopedia (KEGG), and the key genes were validated by protein-protein interactions network. Result: Upon investigation, 1185 up- and down-regulated genes were gathered and distributed into three modules in response to their degree of correlation to clinical traits of IS, among which the turquoise module show a trait-correlation of 0.77. The top 140 genes were further identified by GS and MM. KEGG analysis showed two pathways may evolve in the progress of IS. Discussion: CXCL12 and EIF2a may be important biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis and treatment in IS.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition plays an important role in maintaining the overall health of older people. Inadequate intake may lead to impaired body function, higher morbidity, and mortality. Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) showed positive effect on the nutritional status of the elderly; however, systematic evidence is currently lacking on the effect of ONS on the elderly with anorexia. AIMS: The current systematic review and meta-analysis included randomized controlled trial (RCT) articles to investigate the effectiveness of ONS on the main aspects of anorexia of aging (AA). METHODS: By using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, researchers independently searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and other gray literature resources for publications that met the inclusion criteria by October 2020. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools were used for quality assessment. The inverse-variance method was used for the fixed model (FM) while the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for the random model (RM). Respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) was used for indices in terms of effect size (ES). RESULTS: 2497 records were found through the systematic search, while 17 RCTs (n = 1204) were included, with a mean age of 81.9 years (range: 74-87 years). Supplementation occurred in the morning, mid-day, and evening, while the times varied from one to three times a day. The results of meta-analysis showed that, generally, ONS had a positive effect on the overall appetite, MD = 0.18, 95% CI (0.03, 0.33), p = 0.02, and consumption, MD = 1.43, 95% CI (0.01, 2.86), p = 0.05; but not significant in terms of other aspects of appetite: hunger, p = 0.73; fullness, p = 0.60; desire to eat, p = 0.80; preoccupation, p = 0.15. Additionally, it showed an increase in the overall energy intake, SMD = 0.46, 95% CI (0.29, 0.63), p < 0.001, in protein intake, SMD = 0.59, 95% CI (0.16, 1.02), p = 0.007, and in fat intake, MD = 3.47, 95% CI (1.98, 4.97), p < 0.001, while no positive effect was found on carbohydrates intake, p = 0.06. Significance differences were also found in the body weight, SMD = 0.53, 95% CI (0.41, 0.65), p < 0.001, and body mass index (BMI), MD = 0.53, 95% CI (0.12, 0.95), p = 0.01. Moreover, subgroup analyses were conducted according to the nutrient density with no positive results showed except for the low-density ONS on overall energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that ONS had beneficial effects on overall appetite, energy intake, body weight and BMI.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920575

RESUMO

The development of skeletal muscle is a highly ordered and complex biological process. Increasing evidence has shown that noncoding RNAs, especially long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs, play a vital role in the development of myogenic processes. In this study, we observed that lncMyoD regulates myogenesis and changes myofiber-type composition. miR-370-3p, which is directly targeted by lncMyoD, promoted myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation in the C2C12 cell line, which serves as a valuable model for studying muscle development. In addition, the inhibition of miR-370-3p promoted fast-twitch fiber transition. Further analysis indicated that acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, short/branched chain (ACADSB) is a target gene of miR-370-3p, which is also involved in myoblast differentiation and fiber-type transition. Furthermore, our data suggested that miR-370-3p was sponged by lncMyoD. In contrast with miR-370-3p, lncMyoD promoted fast-twitch fiber transition. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-370-3p regulates myoblast differentiation and muscle fiber transition and is sponged by lncMyoD.

8.
Nanomedicine ; : 102398, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901646

RESUMO

Bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) are particles secreted by bacteria with diameter of 20-400nm. The pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) presented on the surface of MVs are capable of activating human immune system, leading to non-specific immune response and specific immune response. Due to the immunostimulatory properties and proteoliposome nanostructures, MVs have been increasingly explored as vaccines or delivery systems for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. Herein, the recent progresses of MVs for antibacterial applications are reviewed to provide an overview of MVs vaccines and MVs-related delivery systems. In addition, the safety issues of bacterial MVs are discussed to demonstrate their potential for clinical translation. In the end of this review, the challenges of bacterial MVs as vaccines and delivery systems for clinical applications are highlighted with the purpose of predicting future research directions in this field.

9.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928988, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a method for producing regular contractions of muscles that have been paralyzed. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of synchronized NMES on the submental muscles during ingestion of a specified volume of soft food in patients with mild-to-moderate dysphagia following stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-three patients with mild-to-moderate dysphagia following stroke were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups: conventional training (CT) (n=28), eating training (ET) (n=28), and intensive swallowing training (IST) (n=27). The CT group received conventional swallow training, the ET group was given additional individual feedings with a specified volume of soft food, and the IST group received intensive swallowing training with synchronized NEMS. All of the patients were evaluated before and after the treatment with a modified barium swallow, and the Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (DOSS); the numbers of patients with Stroke-Associated Pneumonia (SAP) and wet voice also were assessed. RESULTS After 6 weeks, DOSS scores improved in patients in all 3 groups, and there were significant differences among the groups in their scores (P<0.001 for both measures). In the CT and ET groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients with SAP before and after treatment (P=0.010 and P<0.001, respectively). There also were fewer cases in the IST group than in the CT (P=0.042) and ET groups (P=0.011). After completion of treatment, compared with the first treatment, there were significantly fewer patients with wet voices in the CT (P<0.001) and IST groups (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Feeding a specified volume of soft food plus synchronized NMES of the submental muscles can improve the swallowing function of patients with mild-to-moderate dysphagia following stroke and it reduces their risk of food aspiration.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24910, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725849

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ocular metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare, and mainly located on the choroid. We report a choroidal metastasis from RCC, which was recorded by a smartphone with an interface eyepiece adapter mounted on a slit lamp. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 45-year-old female presented with 1-month history of painless occlusion of the vision field on the left eye, who had undergone right nephrectomy for RCC 19 months ago. DIAGNOSES: A smooth, hemispherical and brown protrusion was found behind the pupil nasally. An enhanced computed tomography scan of the orbit showed a slightly high-density hemispherical nodule involving the nasal portions of the left eyeball, the enhancement of the lesion was obvious and homogeneous. A metastatic choroidal space-occupying lesion from RCC was highly suspected according to the clinical and radiological findings. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was advised to undergo further treatment, such as radiotherapy. OUTCOMES: The images of choroid metastasis were recorded by the smartphone with the interface eyepiece adapter mounted on the slit lamp handily. CONCLUSIONS: The smartphone with an interface eyepiece adapter mounted on the slit lamp can be widely used to record the precious images in the clinic in a timely manner.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico , Plexo Corióideo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Smartphone , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Neoplasias da Coroide/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia , Lâmpada de Fenda , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24905, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection is the most common complication to develop after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Antibiotics have certain limitations when used to treat pulmonary infection, while Tanreqing injection (TRQI) is extensively used to treat pulmonary infection as an adjuvant to antibiotics. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQI for the treatment of lung infection secondary to ICH. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the combination of TRQI and antibiotics compared to antibiotics alone for pulmonary infection after ICH were comprehensively searched for in 7 electronic databases from their establishment to August 2020. Two independent researchers conducted the literature retrieval, screening, and data extraction. The assessment tool of Cochrane risk of bias and Review Manager 5.3 software were applied to assess the methodological quality and analyze the data, respectively. RESULTS: Seventeen RCTs involving 1122 patients with pulmonary infection after ICH were included. Compared to antibiotics alone, the combination treatment enhanced the clinical effective rate, shortened the hospital stay, reduced the white blood cell, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels, ameliorated the times to the resolution of fever, cough, and lung rales, and increased the oxygenation index. The evidence indicated that TRQI combined with antibiotics caused no adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the combination of TRQI and antibiotics was effective for treating pulmonary infection after ICH. However, high-quality multicenter RCTs are needed to further verify the clinical efficacy of TRQI due to the publication bias and the low methodological quality of the included RCTs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 132, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated structural injury patterns in the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (p-RNFL) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) caused by ethambutol treatment. METHODS: Sixty-four patients undergoing ethambutol treatment at Zhejiang Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine Integrated Hospital were recruited. Fourteen (14) exhibited visual dysfunction (abnormal group), and the remaining 50 had no visual dysfunction (subclinical group). The thickness of the p-RNFL, total macular retina layer and GCIPL were measured using Cirrus-HD Optical coherence tomography (Cirrus-HD OCT, Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography), and compared with 60 healthy, age-matched controls. RESULTS: The p-RNFL thickness was similar in both subclinical and control groups. When compared with the control group, p-RNFL thickness in the abnormal group was significantly increased in the inferior and superior quadrants (GEE, P = 0.040, P = 0.010 respectively). In contrast with the subclinical group, p-RNFL thickness in the inferior quadrant was increased in the abnormal group (GEE, P = 0.047). The GCIPL thickness in the inferonasal and inferior sectors was significantly deceased in the subclinical group when compared with controls (GEE, P = 0.028, P = 0.047, respectively). The average and minimum value of GCIPL thickness, and thickness in the superonasal, inferior, inferotemporal, superotemporal and superior sectors were significantly decreased in the abnormal group when compared with controls (GEE, P = 0.016, P = 0.001, P = 0.028, P = 0.010, P = 0.012, P = 0.015, P = 0.010, respectively). The cube average macular thickness (CAMT) in the abnormal group was significantly thinner than controls (GEE, P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: GCIPL measurements using Cirrus-HD OCT detected retinal ganglion cell layer loss following ethambutol treatment, before visual dysfunction occurred.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716151

RESUMO

Although DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is recognized as an important epigenetic mark in cancer; its precise role in lymph node metastasis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated how 5hmC associates with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Accompanying with high expression of TET1 and TET2 proteins, large numbers of genes in the metastasis-positive primary tumors (MT) exhibit higher 5hmC levels than those in the non-metastatic primary tumors (PT). In contrast, the TETs protein expression and DNA 5hmC decrease significantly within the metastatic lesions in the lymph nodes (MLN) compared to those in their matched primary tumors. Through genome-wide analysis of 8 sets of primary tumors, we identified 100 high-confidence metastasis-associated 5hmC signatures, and it is found that increased levels of DNA 5hmC and gene expression of MAP7D1 associate with high risk of lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP7D1, regulated by TET1, promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In conclusion, the dynamic 5hmC profiles during lymph node metastasis suggest a link between DNA 5hmC and lymph node metastasis. Meanwhile, the role of MAP7D1 in breast cancer progression suggests that the metastasis-associated 5hmC signatures are potential biomarkers to predict the risk for lymph node metastasis, which may serve as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for metastatic breast cancer.

14.
Angiology ; : 33197211000495, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719617

RESUMO

We performed a retrospective analysis involving 1269 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) to evaluate the predictive value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on long-term outcomes. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and combined end point events (CEEs). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis were performed. During a median follow-up of 3.32 years, 285 deaths and 376 CEEs occurred. With the elevation of the NLR, the incidence of all-cause mortality (2.77, 4.14, 6.12, and 12.18/100 person-years) and CEEs (4.19, 7.40, 8.03, and 15.22/100 person-years) significantly increased. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that the highest NLR quartile was independently associated with the incidence of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.19-2.65) and CEEs (HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.33). When the NLR was analyzed as a continuous variable, a 1-unit increment in log NLR was related to 134% increased risk of all-cause mortality and 119% increased risk of CEEs. Net reclassification improvement analysis revealed that NLR significantly improved risk stratification for all-cause death and CEEs by 15.0% and 9.6%, respectively. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio could be an independent predictor of long-term outcomes in patients with AF.

15.
Cell Rep ; 34(7): 108761, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567255

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global health threat caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 elicits a dysregulated immune response and a delayed interferon (IFN) expression in patients, which contribute largely to the viral pathogenesis and development of COVID-19. However, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the activation and repression of the innate immune response by SARS-CoV-2. We show that SARS-CoV-2 RNA activates the RIG-I-MAVS-dependent IFN signaling pathway. We further uncover that ORF9b immediately accumulates and antagonizes the antiviral type I IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection on primary human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. ORF9b targets the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator NEMO and interrupts its K63-linked polyubiquitination upon viral stimulation, thereby inhibiting the canonical IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)/ß/γ-NF-κB signaling and subsequent IFN production. Our findings thus unveil the innate immunosuppression by ORF9b and provide insights into the host-virus interplay during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/virologia , /metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , /imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4713-4730, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582654

RESUMO

The peculiar features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are challenging the current biological knowledge. Early in Feb, 2020, we suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may possess neuroinvasive potential similar to that of many other coronaviruses. Since then, a variety of neurological manifestations have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was supported in some patients with neuroimaging and/or cerebrospinal fluid tests. To date, at least 27 autopsy studies on the brains of COVID-19 patients can be retrieved through PubMed/MEDLINE, among which neuropathological alterations were observed in the brainstem in 78 of 134 examined patients, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and viral proteins were detected in the brainstem in 16/49 (32.7%) and 18/71 (25.3%) cases, respectively. To shed some light on the peculiar respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 patients, this review assessed the existing evidence about the neurogenic mechanism underlying the respiratory failure induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acknowledging the neurological involvement has important guiding significance for the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , /diagnóstico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , /patogenicidade
17.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5081, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522621

RESUMO

Tofacitinib is an orally available Janus kinase inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of tofacitinib in mouse, rat, monkey, and human liver microsomes fortified with ß-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate tetrasodium salt and uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. The biotransformation was executed at a temperature of 37°C for 60 min, and the samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) operated in positive electrospray ionization mode. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated according to their retention times, accurate masses, and MS/MS spectra. Under the current conditions, a total of 13 metabolites, including 1 glucuronide conjugate, were detected and structurally proposed. Oxygenation of the pyrrolopyrimidine ring, oxygenation of piperidine ring, N-demethylation, oxygenation of piperidine ring side chain, and glucuronidation were the primary metabolic pathways of tofacitinib. Among the tested species, tofacitinib showed significant species difference. Compared with other species, rat showed similar metabolic profiles to those of humans. The present study provides some new information regarding the metabolism of tofacitinib in animals and humans, which would bring us considerable benefits for the subsequent studies focusing on the pharmacological effect and toxicity of this drug.

18.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1652-1665, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599750

RESUMO

The stem cell niche (SCN) is critical in maintaining continuous postembryonic growth of the plant root. During their growth in soil, plant roots are often challenged by various biotic or abiotic stresses, resulting in damage to the SCN. This can be repaired by the reconstruction of a functional SCN. Previous studies examining the SCN's reconstruction often introduce physical damage including laser ablation or surgical excision. In this study, we performed a time-course observation of the SCN reconstruction in pWOX5:icals3m roots, an inducible system that causes non-invasive SCN differentiation upon induction of estradiol on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root. We found a stage-dependent reconstruction of SCN in pWOX5:icals3m roots, with division-driven anatomic reorganization in the early stage of the SCN recovery, and cell fate specification of new SCN in later stages. During the recovery of the SCN, the local accumulation of auxin was coincident with the cell division pattern, exhibiting a spatial shift in the root tip. In the early stage, division mostly occurred in the neighboring stele to the SCN position, while division in endodermal layers seemed to contribute more in the later stages, when the SCN was specified. The precise re-positioning of SCN seemed to be determined by mutual antagonism between auxin and cytokinin, a conserved mechanism that also regulates damage-induced root regeneration. Our results thus provide time-course information about the reconstruction of SCN in intact Arabidopsis roots, which highlights the stage-dependent re-patterning in response to differentiated quiescent center.

19.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615703

RESUMO

Medicago ruthenica has been recently cultivated as a new forage crop and has been recognized as a source of genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance in cultivated alfalfa because of its remarkable tolerance to drought, salinity-alkalinity, and cold and snowy winters. Here, we reveal a chromosome-scale genome sequence of M. ruthenica based on Illumina, PacBio, and Hi-C data. The assembled genome consists of 903.56 Mb with 50,268 annotated protein-coding genes, which is larger and contains relatively more genes than Medicago truncatula (420 Mb and 44,623 genes) and Medicago sativa spp. caerulea (793 Mb and 47,202 genes). All three species shared the ancestral Papilionoideae whole-genome duplication event before their divergence. The more recent expansion of repetitive elements compared to that in the other two species was determined to have contributed greatly to the larger genome size of M. ruthenica. We further found that multiple gene and transcription factor families (e.g., SOS homologous genes, NAC, C2H2, and CAMTA) have expanded in M. ruthenica, which might have led to its enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, M. ruthenica harbors more genes involved in the lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathways than the other two species. Finally, population genomic analyses revealed two genetic lineages, reflecting the west and east of its geographical distribution, respectively. The two lineages probably diverged during the last glaciation and survived in multiple refugia at the last glacial maximum, followed by recent expansion. Our genomic data provide a genetic basis for further molecular breeding research on M. ruthenica and alfalfa.

20.
Nat Mater ; 20(4): 488-494, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589799

RESUMO

Magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene exhibits intriguing quantum phase transitions triggered by enhanced electron-electron interactions when its flat bands are partially filled. However, the phases themselves and their connection to the putative non-trivial topology of the flat bands are largely unexplored. Here we report transport measurements revealing a succession of doping-induced Lifshitz transitions that are accompanied by van Hove singularities, which facilitate the emergence of correlation-induced gaps and topologically non-trivial subbands. In the presence of a magnetic field, well-quantized Hall plateaus at a filling of 1,2,3 carriers per moiré cell reveal the subband topology and signal the emergence of Chern insulators with Chern numbers, C = 3,2,1, respectively. Surprisingly, for magnetic fields exceeding 5 T we observe a van Hove singularity at a filling of 3.5, suggesting the possibility of a fractional Chern insulator. This van Hove singularity is accompanied by a crossover from low-temperature metallic, to high-temperature insulating behaviour, characteristic of entropically driven Pomeranchuk-like transitions.

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