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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7559, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555391

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be traditionally classified as CRSwNP [with nasal polyps (NPs)] and CRSsNP (without NPs) based on the clinical phenotypes but recently suggested to be classified by the endotypes. We have identified overexpression of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in NP tissues of Taiwanese CRSwNP patients. Therefore, in this study, we sought to investigate its protein expression/location/distribution in NP specimens and explore its roles in nasal polyposis. The COX-2 protein and mRNA expression was found higher in NPs than that in the control and CRSsNP patients' nasal tissues, mainly located at the epithelium and subepithelial stroma. Consistently, the CRS-related peptidoglycan (PGN) and bradykinin provoked COX-2 mRNA and protein upregulation in the human NP-derived fibroblasts and caused PGE2, thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and interleukin (IL-6) secretion in culture medium. Further analysis revealed that the PI3K/Akt activation and COX-2 induction were necessarily required for PGN-induced IL-6 production/secretion and the induced PGE2, but not TXA2, was speculated to affect IL-6 protein trafficking and production. Finally, the IL-6 increase observed in vitro could also be detected in NP tissues. Collectively, we demonstrated here that COX-2 protein and IL-6 are overexpressed in human NP tissues. In response to PGN challenge, the PI3K/Akt activation and COX-2-mediated PGE2 autacoid correlates with extracellular IL-6 protein trafficking/production in NP-derived fibroblasts, which can additionally contribute to the production of Th17-related cytokines such as IL-17 and TNF-α. This study also suggests COX-2 as a special biomarker for CRSwNP endotyping and may highlight the importance of COX-2 inhibitors in treating CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Humanos , Doença Crônica , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pólipos Nasais/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rinite/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1429, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365899

RESUMO

Senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to aging-related cardiovascular diseases by promoting arterial remodelling and stiffness. Ferroptosis is a novel type of regulated cell death associated with lipid oxidation. Here, we show that pro-ferroptosis signaling drives VSMCs senescence to accelerate vascular NAD+ loss, remodelling and aging. Pro-ferroptotic signaling is triggered in senescent VSMCs and arteries of aged mice. Furthermore, the activation of pro-ferroptotic signaling in VSMCs not only induces NAD+ loss and senescence but also promotes the release of a pro-senescent secretome. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of pro-ferroptosis signaling, ameliorates VSMCs senescence, reduces vascular stiffness and retards the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice. Mechanistically, we revealed that inhibition of pro-ferroptotic signaling facilitates the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of proliferator-activated receptor-γ and, thereby impeding nuclear receptor coactivator 4-ferrtin complex-centric ferritinophagy. Finally, the activated pro-ferroptotic signaling correlates with arterial stiffness in a human proof-of-concept study. These findings have significant implications for future therapeutic strategies aiming to eliminate vascular ferroptosis in senescence- or aging-associated cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Músculo Liso Vascular , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Senescência Celular/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Artérias , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo
3.
Biomedicines ; 12(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255212

RESUMO

The use of manufactured silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) has become widespread in everyday life, household products, and various industrial applications. While the harmful effects of crystalline silica on the lungs, known as silicosis or chronic pulmonary diseases, are well understood, the impact of SiNPs on the airway is not fully explored. This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of SiNPs on human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our findings revealed that SiNPs induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA/protein and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) without causing cytotoxicity. This induction was transcription-dependent, as confirmed by cell viability assays and COX-2 luciferase reporter assays. Further analysis, including Western blot with pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA interference, showed the involvement of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) EGF receptor (EGFR), non-RTK Pyk2, protein kinase Cα (PKCα), and p42/p44 MAPK in the induction process. Notably, EGFR activation initiated cellular signaling that led to NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and translocation into the cell nucleus, where it bound and stimulated COX-2 gene transcription. The resulting COX-2 protein triggered PGE2 production and secretion into the extracellular space. Our study demonstrated that SiNPs mediate COX-2 up-regulation and PGE2 secretion in HTSMCs through the sequential activation of the EGFR/Pyk2/PKCα/p42/p44MAPKs-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. Since PGE2 can have both physiological bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as pathological pro-inflammatory effects, the increased PGE2 production in the airway might act as a protective compensatory mechanism and/or a contributing factor during airway exposure to SiNPs.

4.
Physiol Rep ; 11(24): e15887, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110300

RESUMO

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a type of MD that mainly causes muscle atrophy within the shoulder and pelvic girdles. LGMD is classified into autosomal dominant (LGMD-D) and autosomal recessive (LGMD-R) inheritance patterns. Mutations in the Dysferlin gene (DYSF) are common causes of LGMD-R. However, genetic screening of DYSF mutations is rare in Taiwan. Herein, we identified a novel c.2867_2871del ACCAG deletion and a previously reported c.937+1G>A mutation in DYSF from a Taiwanese family with LGMD. The primary symptoms of both siblings were difficulty climbing stairs, walking on the toes, and gradually worsening weakness in the proximal muscles and increased creatine kinase level. Through pedigree analysis and sequencing, two siblings from this family were found to have compound heterozygous DYSF mutations (c. 937+1G>A and c. 2867_2871del ACCAG) within the separated alleles. These mutations induced early stop codons; if translated, truncated DYSF proteins will be expressed. Or, the mRNA products of these two mutations will merit the nonsense-mediated decay, might result in no dysferlin protein expressed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a novel c.2867_2871del ACCAG deletion in DYSF. Further research is required to examine the effects of the novel DYSF mutation in Taiwanese patients with LGMD.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Humanos , Disferlina/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Atrofia Muscular , Padrões de Herança
5.
Biomedicines ; 11(10)2023 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893002

RESUMO

The risk of lung exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and related lung inflammatory injury is increasing with the wide application of SiNPs in a variety of industries. A growing body of research has revealed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated by SiNP toxicity has a role during pulmonary inflammation. The detailed mechanisms underlying SiNP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain unknown. The present study aims to dissect the molecular components involved in COX-2/PGE2 up-regulated by SiNPs in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) which are one of the major targets while SiNPs are inhaled. In the present study, we demonstrated that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release, which were inhibited by pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (edaravone) or the inhibitors of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, PF-431396), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, AG1478), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002), protein kinase B (Akt, Akt inhibitor VIII), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p38 MAPK inhibitor VIII), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 (SP600125), Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1, AS1842856), and activator protein 1 (AP-1, Tanshinone IIA). In addition, we also found that SiNPs induced ROS-dependent Pyk2, EGFR, Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 activation in these cells. These signaling pathways induced by SiNPs could further cause c-Jun and FoxO1 activation and translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. AP-1 and FoxO1 activation could increase COX-2 and PGE2 levels induced by SiNPs. Finally, the COX-2/PGE2 axis might promote the inflammatory responses in HPAEpiCs. In conclusion, we suggested that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression accompanied by PGE2 synthesis mediated via ROS/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK- and JNK1/2-dependent FoxO1 and AP-1 activation in HPAEpiCs.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(20)2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37894811

RESUMO

In this study, we confirmed that thrombin significantly increases the production of COX-2 and PGE2 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs), leading to inflammation in the airways and lungs. These molecules are well-known contributors to various inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated in detail the involved signaling pathways using specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Our results demonstrated that inhibitors targeting proteins such as protein kinase C (PKC)δ, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), c-Src, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or activator protein-1 (AP-1) effectively reduced thrombin-induced COX-2 and PGE2 production. Additionally, transfection with siRNAs against PKCδ, Pyk2, c-Src, EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), or c-Jun mitigated these responses. Furthermore, our observations revealed that thrombin stimulated the phosphorylation of key components of the signaling cascade, including PKCδ, Pyk2, c-Src, EGFR, Akt, and c-Jun. Thrombin activated COX-2 promoter activity through AP-1 activation, a process that was disrupted by a point-mutated AP-1 site within the COX-2 promoter. Finally, resveratrol (one of the most researched natural polyphenols) was found to effectively inhibit thrombin-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release in HTSMCs through blocking the activation of Pyk2, c-Src, EGFR, Akt, and c-Jun. In summary, our findings demonstrate that thrombin-induced COX-2 and PGE2 generation involves a PKCδ/Pyk2/c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt-dependent AP-1 activation pathway. This study also suggests the potential use of resveratrol as an intervention for managing airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Fator de Transcrição AP-1 , Humanos , Proteína Tirosina Quinase CSK/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Quinase 2 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 2 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 86(11): 1008-1014, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37661303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of mature oocytes retrieved plays a significant role in determining embryo development and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, studies investigating factors predictive of the efficacy of mature oocyte production (EMOP) after dual-trigger controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) are rare. This study aims to identify key predictors of EMOP during dual-trigger COS with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol for IVF. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 359 first-time IVF patients undergoing dual-trigger COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol. EMOP was defined as the ratio of metaphase II (MII) oocyte count to antral follicle count (AFC). Based on EMOP results, patients were divided into two groups: group A (EMOP <70%; n = 232) and group B (EMOP ≥70%; n = 127). RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that day-2 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), stimulation duration, and total oocyte count were the most significant predictors of EMOP ( p < 0.05; odds ratios: 1.637, 3.400, and 1.530, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that total oocyte count <9.5 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.782; sensitivity, 76.2%; specificity, 69.2%; p < 0.001) and stimulation duration <9.5 days (AUC, 0.725; sensitivity, 63.5%; specificity, 66.7%; p < 0.001) significantly predicted EMOP <70%. Stimulation duration combined with total oocyte count exhibited the highest power in predicting EMOP <70% (AUC, 0.767; sensitivity, 92.3%; specificity, 42.4%). CONCLUSION: Stimulation duration combined with total oocyte count was identified as the most important factor associated with the EMOP during dual-trigger COS in IVF using a GnRH antagonist protocol.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Oócitos , Taxa de Gravidez
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1173079, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37635970

RESUMO

Background: Angiogenesis in folliculogenesis contributes to oocyte developmental competence in natural and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Therefore, the identification of key angiogenic factors in follicular fluid (FF) during folliculogenesis is clinically significant and important for in vitro fertilization. This study aims to identify the key angiogenic factors in FF for predicting oocyte maturity during in vitro fertilization. Materials and methods: Forty participants who received ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol in their first in vitro fertilization treatment were recruited. From each patient, two follicular samples (one preovulatory follicle, > 18 mm; one mid-antral follicle, < 14 mm) were collected without flushing during oocyte retrieval. In total, 80 FF samples were collected from 40 patients. The expression profiles of angiogenesis-related proteins in FF were analyzed via Luminex high-performance assays. Recorded patient data included antral follicle count, anti-müllerian hormone, age, and BMI. Serum samples were collected on menstrual cycle day 2, the trigger day, and the day of oocyte retrieval. Hormone concentrations including day 2 FSH/LH/E2/P4, trigger day E2/LH/P4, and retrieval day E2/LH/P4 were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: Ten angiogenic factors were highly expressed in FF: eotaxin, Gro-α, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, PAI-1 (Serpin), VEGF-A, CXCL-6, and HGF. The concentrations of eotaxin, IL-8, MCP1, PAI-1, and VEGF-A were significantly higher in preovulatory follicles than those in mid-antral follicles, while the Gro-α and CXCL-6 expressional levels were lower in preovulatory than in mid-antral follicles (p < 0.05). Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that VEGF-A, eotaxin, and CXCL-6 were the three strongest predictors of oocyte maturity. The combination of VEGF-A and CXCL-6 predicted oocyte maturity with a higher sensitivity (91.7%) and specificity (72.7%) than other combinations. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that VEGF-A, eotaxin, and CXCL-6 concentrations in FF strongly correlate with oocyte maturity from the mid-antral to preovulatory stage. The combination of VEGF-A and CXCL-6 exhibits a relatively good prediction rate of oocyte maturity during in vitro fertilization.


Assuntos
Líquido Folicular , Interleucina-8 , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Biomarcadores , Oócitos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(30): e34426, 2023 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37505159

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the nasopharynx. Despite improvements in the clinical treatment strategies for NPC, NPC patients usually have poor survival rates because of late diagnosis, tumor metastasis, and recurrence. Therefore, the identification of potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for NPC is imperative. We investigated the differential expression of cell adhesion-related genes (gene ontology:0003779) and tumorigenesis-related genes (GSE12452) in patients with NPC. The correlations between synaptopodin-2 (SYNPO2) immune expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. SYNPO2 expression was significantly higher in NPC tumor tissues than in nontumor tissues. High SYNPO2 expression was significantly associated with the advanced disease stage (P = .006). Univariate analysis showed that high expression of SYNPO2 was associated with poor disease-specific survival, distal metastasis-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival in patients with NPC. Notably, our multivariate analysis demonstrated that high SYNPO2 expression was substantially correlated with inferior disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 1.968, P = .012) and local recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 3.386, P = .001). Overall, our findings reveal that SYNPO2 may aid in the development of potential prognostic biomarkers for NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética
10.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 39(7-9): 512-530, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36851903

RESUMO

Significance: Pyroptosis is a discovered programmed cell death that is mainly executed by the gasdermin protein family. Cell swelling and membrane perforation are observed when pyroptosis occurs, and is accompanied by the liberation of cell contents. Recent Advances: As the study of pyroptosis continues to progress, there is increasing evidence that pyroptosis influences the development of tumors. In addition, the relationship between pyroptosis and tumor is diverse for different tissues and cells. Critical Issues: In this review, we first introduce the research history and molecular mechanisms of pyroptosis. Then we specifically discuss the link between pyroptosis and metabolic and oxidation in tumorigenesis. In the subsequent sections, we focus on the induction of pyroptosis in cancer and its potential role as a promising target for cancer therapy, and discuss the implications of pyroptosis in tumor treatment. In addition, we further summarize the therapeutic value of pyroptosis in tumor treatment. Future Directions: A detailed understanding of the role played by pyroptosis in tumors will help us to further explore tumor formation and progression and provide ideas for the development of new pyroptosis-based therapeutic approaches for patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 39, 512-530.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Piroptose , Humanos , Piroptose/fisiologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Oxirredução
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(2)2023 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597783

RESUMO

Acinetobacter baumannii is a strictly aerobic, nonmotile, nonfermenting, gram-negative bacillus. It is a highly infectious and invasive pathogen with high mortality and morbidity rates among immunodeficient patients. Due to increasing levels of drug resistance and the inefficiency of existing antimicrobial treatments, it is crucial to develop novel agents to control this pathogen. Several recent studies have investigated virulence factors that are associated with the pathogenesis of A. baumannii, and could thus serve as novel therapeutic targets. The present review comprehensively summarizes the current understanding of these virulence factors and their mechanisms in A. baumannii. We also highlight factors that could be potential therapeutic targets, as well as list candidate virulence factors for future researchers and clinical practitioners.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Infecciosos , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Virulência , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla
12.
Cell Death Differ ; 30(2): 457-474, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477078

RESUMO

Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switch from a quiescent 'contractile' phenotype to a dedifferentiated and proliferative state underlies the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, our understanding of the mechanism is still incomplete. In the present study, we explored the potential role of ferroptosis, a novel nonapoptotic form of cell death, in SMC phenotypic switch and related neointimal formation. We found that ferroptotic stress was triggered in cultured dedifferentiated SMCs and arterial neointimal tissue of wire-injured mice. Moreover, pro-ferroptosis stress was activated in arterial neointimal tissue of clinical patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. Blockade of ferroptotic stress via administration of a pharmacological inhibitor or by global genetic overexpression of glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), a well-established anti-ferroptosis molecule, delayed SMC phenotype switch and arterial remodelling. Conditional SMC-specific gene delivery of GPX4 using adreno-associated virus in the carotid artery inhibited ferroptosis and prevented neointimal formation. Conversely, ferroptosis stress directly triggered dedifferentiation of SMCs. Transcriptomics analysis demonstrated that inhibition of ferroptotic stress mainly targets the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Mechanistically, ferroptosis inhibition corrected the disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis in dedifferentiated SMCs, including enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial hyperpolarization, and ultimately inhibited SMC phenotypic switch and growth. Copper-diacetyl-bisN4-methylthiosemicarbazone (CuATSM), an agent used for clinical molecular imaging and that potently inhibits ferroptosis, prevented SMC phenotypic switch, neointimal formation and arterial inflammation in mice. These results indicate that pro-ferroptosis stress is likely to promote SMC phenotypic switch during neointimal formation and imply that inhibition of ferroptotic stress may be a promising translational approach to treat CVDs with SMC phenotype switch.


Assuntos
Desdiferenciação Celular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Camundongos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Homeostase , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso , Proliferação de Células
13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290622

RESUMO

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complicated inflammatory disease, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. While some reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-related gene products are reported to participate in CRSwNP, a systemic and full analysis of oxidative-stress-associated genes in CRSwNP has not been extensively studied. Therefore, this study sought to catalog the gene-expression patterns related to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in control and CRSwNP patients. In total, 25 control and 25 CRSwNP patients were recruited. The distribution and expression of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine as markers of oxidative stress-which is represented by lipid peroxidation and the protein nitration of tyrosine residues in CRSwNP nasal polyps (NPs)-were more apparently increased than those found in the control nasal mucosae, as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of 84 oxidative-stress-related genes in nasal mucosae and NP tissues was analyzed via real-time PCR, which showed that 19 genes and 4 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively; among them, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) were notably upregulated, whereas lactoperoxidase (LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) were highly downregulated. Changes in the mRNA and protein levels of these redox proteins were confirmed with a customized, real-time PCR array and RT-PCR analysis, as well as Western blotting and IHC assays. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis further suggested that LPO, MPO, SOD3, HO-1, and iNOS are possible endotype predictors of CRSwNP development. Collectively, we present an oxidative-stress-related gene profile of CRSwNP NP tissues, providing evidence that the systemic changes in oxidative stress and the antioxidative defense system, including novel iNOS, heme peroxidases, and other genes, are closely linked to CRSwNP pathology, development, and progression.

14.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 5401-5409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119640

RESUMO

Purpose: Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common microorganism in sputum cultures from long-term hospitalized patients and is often the cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which is usually associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between A. baumannii infection and colonization. This study aimed to evaluate factors that differentiate infection from colonization and predict mortality in patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by A. baumannii. Patients and Methods: The data used in this study were collected in our hospital between January 2018 and December 2020 from patients whose sputum cultures were positive for A. baumannii. Results: A total of 714 patients were included, with 571 in the infection group and 143 in the colonization group. The in-hospital mortality rate in the infection group was 20.5%. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age, total number of inpatient departments, absolute neutrophil count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level helped distinguish between infection and colonization. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the identification model was 0.694. In the infection group, age, Charlson comorbidity score, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, blood urea nitrogen/albumin ratio, CRP level, presence of multidrug resistance, and clinical pulmonary infection score (≥6) ratio were associated with in-hospital mortality. The area under the ROC curve for the prediction model was 0.828. The top three drug resistance rates in the infection group were 100% (cefazolin), 98.77% (ceftriaxone), and 71.8% (cefuroxime). Conclusion: The combination of common parameters helps identify A. baumannii respiratory tract infection or colonization. Several novel predictors can be used to predict the risk of death from A. baumannii pneumonia to reduce mortality. The drug resistance of A. baumannii remains high.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 43(43): 4579-4595, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929617

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise confers protection against cardiovascular ageing, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study sought to investigate the role of fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin, an exercise-associated hormone, in vascular ageing. Moreover, the existence of FNDC5/irisin in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their biological functions was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: FNDC5/irisin was reduced in natural ageing, senescence, and angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated conditions. The deletion of FNDC5 shortened lifespan in mice. Additionally, FNDC5 deficiency aggravated vascular stiffness, senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in 24-month-old naturally aged and Ang II-treated mice. Conversely, treatment of recombinant irisin alleviated Ang II-induced vascular stiffness and senescence in mice and vascular smooth muscle cells. FNDC5 was triggered by exercise, while FNDC5 knockout abrogated exercise-induced protection against Ang II-induced vascular stiffness and senescence. Intriguingly, FNDC5 was detected in human and mouse blood-derived EVs, and exercise-induced FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs showed potent anti-stiffness and anti-senescence effects in vivo and in vitro. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of FNDC5 specifically in muscle but not liver in FNDC5 knockout mice, promoted the release of FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs into circulation in response to exercise, which ameliorated vascular stiffness, senescence, and inflammation. Mechanistically, irisin activated DnaJb3/Hsp40 chaperone system to stabilize SIRT6 protein in an Hsp70-dependent manner. Finally, plasma irisin concentrations were positively associated with exercise time but negatively associated with arterial stiffness in a proof-of-concept human study. CONCLUSION: FNDC5/irisin-enriched EVs contribute to exercise-induced protection against vascular ageing. These findings indicate that the exerkine FNDC5/irisin may be a potential target for ageing-related vascular comorbidities.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Sirtuínas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Envelhecimento , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0232721, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863024

RESUMO

Cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF)-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a big challenge in the use of SCF to treat infection caused by the pathogen. We have recently shown exogenous nitrite-enabled killing of naturally and artificially evolved Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO, respectively) by SCF. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, reprogramming metabolomics was adopted to investigate how nitrite enhanced the SCF-mediated killing efficacy. Nitrite-reprogrammed metabolome displayed an activated pyruvate cycle (P cycle), which was confirmed by elevated activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase. The activated P cycle provided NADH for the electron transport chain and thereby increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), which potentiated SCF to kill AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO. The nitrite-enabled killing of AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO by SCF was inhibited by PDH inhibitor furfural and ROS scavenger N-Acetyl-L-cysteine but promoted by ROS promoter Fe3+. SCF alone could not induce ROS, but SCF-mediated killing efficacy was enhanced by ROS. In addition, the present study demonstrated that nitrite repressed antioxidants, which were partly responsible for the elevated ROS. These results reveal a nitrite-reprogrammed metabolome mechanism by which AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO sensitivity to SCF is elevated. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a real concern in hospital-acquired infections, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Understanding antibiotic resistance mechanisms and developing novel control measures are highly appreciated. We have recently shown that a reduced nitrite-dependent NO biosynthesis contributes to cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF) resistance, which is reverted by exogenous nitrite, in both naturally and artificially evolved P. aeruginosa strains (AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO, respectively). However, the mechanism is unknown. The present study reports that the nitrite-enabled killing of AP-RCLIN-EVO and AP-RLAB-EVO by SCF is attributed to the promoted production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitrite activates the pyruvate cycle to generate NADH for the electron transport chain, which in turn promotes ROS generation. Nitrite-potentiated SCF-mediated killing is decreased by pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibitor furfural and ROS scavenger N-Acetyl-L-cysteine but increased by ROS promoter Fe3+. Furthermore, SCF-mediated killing is promoted by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the combination of nitrite and H2O2 greatly enhances SCF-mediated killing. These results not only disclose a nitrite-ROS-potentiated SCF-mediated killing, but also show SCF-mediated killing is dependent upon ROS.


Assuntos
Cefoperazona , Sulbactam , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefoperazona/farmacologia , Furaldeído , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , NAD , Nitritos/farmacologia , Oxirredutases , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Piruvatos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sulbactam/farmacologia
17.
J Reprod Immunol ; 152: 103650, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696841

RESUMO

In humans, successful implantation requires a finely tuned synchrony between an appropriately developing embryo and the receptive endometrium, involving apposition, adhesion, and invasion. Therefore, this study was sought to establish a coculture cell model to investigate trophoblast-mediated blastocyst apposition and adhesion to endometrial epithelium events during embryo implantation. The direct contact and indirect noncontact coculture models were successfully established by using human BeWo trophoblasts and HEC-1A endometrial epithelial cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA expression was observed in both coculture systems when challenged with follicle-stimulating factor (FSH). In accordance with these observations, trophoblast-conditioned medium (CM) could also enhance epithelial ICAM-1 production, suggesting involvement of trophoblast-secreting factor(s) in crosstalk between two cells. Indeed, FSH stimulation enhanced TNF-α expression in the trophoblasts and epithelial ICAM-1 induction were abolished by a TNF-α blocking/neutralizing antibody (TNF-α B/N Ab). Meanwhile, the intracellular calcium, PKA/CREB, and transcription/translation signaling pathways in epithelial cells participated in the ICAM-1 induction. Finally, the trophoblast cells were more susceptible to adhesion to CM-primed epithelial cell monolayer, where the adhesion could be abolished by TNF-α B/N Ab. Therefore, we present here novel findings that coculture of trophoblast with endometrial epithelial cells in the presence of FSH leads to an increase in epithelial ICAM-1 expression and trophoblast adhesion to epithelial monolayer through stimulating trophoblast's TNF-α cytokine production. This study also addresses an important issue that a possible role of microenvironmental and exogenously-added FSH in enhancing blastocyst interaction with endometrium during embryo implantation of natural or in-vitro fertilization cycle.


Assuntos
Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Trofoblastos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 112955, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429745

RESUMO

Several studies have documented the effects of hypoxia and ceramides on lipid and glucose metabolism, resulting in insulin resistance. However, the roles of ceramide in hepatic hypoxia and hepatic insulin resistance remain to be clarified. This study aimed to explore the relationship between hypoxia, ceramide synthesis, and hepatic insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Given the interaction of hypoxia-inducible factors 2α(HIF-2α) and berberine determined using molecular docking, this study also assessed the pharmacological effects of berberine on the HIF-2α-ceramide-insulin resistance pathway. In the preliminary phase of the study, gradually aggravated hepatic hypoxia and varying levels of ceramides were observed with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to increasing HIF-2α accumulation. Lipidomic analyses of animal and cell models revealed that berberine reduced hypoxia-induced ceramide production and attenuated ceramide-induced insulin resistance. This research provides timely and necessary evidence for the role of ceramide in hypoxia and insulin resistance in the liver. It also contributes to a better understanding of the pharmacological effects of berberine on ameliorating hypoxia and insulin resistance in T2DM therapy.


Assuntos
Berberina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Berberina/metabolismo , Berberina/farmacologia , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Fígado , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
19.
Adv Mater ; 34(17): e2200626, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231130

RESUMO

Half metals, in which one spin channel is conducting while the other is insulating with an energy gap, are theoretically considered to comprise 100% spin-polarized conducting electrons, and thus have promising applications in high-efficiency magnetic sensors, computer memory, magnetic recording, and so on. However, for practical applications, a high Curie temperature combined with a wide spin energy gap and large magnetization is required. Realizing such a high-performance combination is a key challenge. Herein, a novel A- and B-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxide LaCu3 Fe2 Re2 O12 with the charge format of Cu2+ /Fe3+ /Re4.5+ is reported. The strong Cu2+ (↑)Fe3+ (↑)Re4.5+ (↓) spin interactions lead to a ferrimagnetic Curie temperature as high as 710 K, which is the reported record in perovskite-type half metals thus far. The saturated magnetic moment determined at 300 K is 7.0 µB f.u.-1 and further increases to 8.0 µB f.u.-1 at 2 K. First-principles calculations reveal a half-metallic nature with a spin-down conducting band while a spin-up insulating band with a large energy gap up to 2.27 eV. The currently unprecedented realization of record Curie temperature coupling with the wide energy gap and large moment in LaCu3 Fe2 Re2 O12 opens a way for potential applications in advanced spintronic devices at/above room temperature.

20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 728, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132099

RESUMO

Postsynaptic NMDARs at spinal synapses are required for postsynaptic long-term potentiation and chronic pain. However, how presynaptic NMDARs (PreNMDARs) in spinal nociceptor terminals control presynaptic plasticity and pain hypersensitivity has remained unclear. Here we report that PreNMDARs in spinal nociceptor terminals modulate synaptic transmission in a nociceptive tone-dependent manner. PreNMDARs depresses presynaptic transmission in basal state, while paradoxically causing presynaptic potentiation upon injury. This state-dependent modulation is dependent on Ca2+ influx via PreNMDARs. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels are responsible for PreNMDARs-mediated synaptic depression. Rather, tissue inflammation induces PreNMDARs-PKG-I-dependent BDNF secretion from spinal nociceptor terminals, leading to SK channels downregulation, which in turn converts presynaptic depression to potentiation. Our findings shed light on the state-dependent characteristics of PreNMDARs in spinal nociceptor terminals on modulating nociceptive transmission and revealed a mechanism underlying state-dependent transition. Moreover, we identify PreNMDARs in spinal nociceptor terminals as key constituents of activity-dependent pain sensitization.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/genética , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo I/genética , Proteína Quinase Dependente de GMP Cíclico Tipo I/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Inflamação , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/citologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados/genética , Canais de Potássio Cálcio-Ativados/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Transmissão Sináptica
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