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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 701-708, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383065

RESUMO

In the present study we developed novel luminescent magnetic nanocomposites termed Fe3O4@polyaniline/carbon dots. First, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by the coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were then coated with polyaniline using the in situ growth method to form Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids, which were endowed with amino functional groups on the surface and avoided the aggregation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrated that the crystalline phase of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles was an inverse spinel structure and was not changed in the Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids. The saturation magnetization and the coercive force of the as-prepared Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids measured by a vibrating sample magnetizer were 63.7 emu·g-1 and zero respectively, which indicated that the Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids exhibited excellent superparamagnetism. The Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids were conjugated with carbon dots, prepared from orange juice, via the amide bond between the amino groups on the surface of the Fe3O4@polyaniline nanohybrids and the carboxyl groups on the surface of carbon dots. The obtained luminescent magnetic nanocomposites Fe3O4@polyaniline/carbon dots showed good photoluminescent properties, which hinted that the nanocomposites have potential in drug tracing and magnetic targeted drug delivery. Finally, the anticancer drug methotrexate was loaded into the Fe3O4@polyaniline/carbon dots nanocomposites, forming a novel magnetic targeted drug delivery system. The results confirmed that the novel drug delivery system exhibited excellent drug-loading capability for methotrexate of ca. 70%, and emits strong fluorescence at the wavelength of 360 nm. An in vitro release experiment of the drug delivery system indicated that the cumulative release percentage of methotrexate was 17.2% in the phosphate-buffered saline (pH = 7.4) within 36 h.

2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Comprehensive and continuous care is crucial for patients with diabetes. The diabetes pay-for-performance (P4P) program launched by the National Health Insurance (NHI) administration in Taiwan provides a financial incentive to facilitate this goal. In this study, we explored the characteristics of patients in the P4P program between 2005 and 2014. METHODS: Data of patients with diabetes enrolled in the NHI program between 2005 and 2014 were extracted from the NHI research database. Patients were classed as having diabetes if they had three or more outpatient visits within 365 calendar days with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code of 250 or hospitalization one or more times with such a diagnosis. The trends of participating in the P4P program were analyzed. RESULTS: Participation rate of the P4P program increased from 12.1% to 19% between 2005 and 2014. Participants were younger and more likely to be female than those not participating in the program. Lower risks of cancer-related mortality, annual mortality and heart failure were seen in patients participating in the P4P program than in those not participating. CONCLUSION: Older, male patients with a high disease severity may be less likely to enroll in the P4P program. Although participation rate is increasing, a broad enrollment is expected.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482912

RESUMO

The intramolecular magnetic interactions in one-electron oxidized iron(iii) porphyrin π-radical cations, [Fe(OETPP˙)Cl][SbCl6] (1), [Fe(OMTPP˙)Cl][SbCl6] (2) and [Fe(TPP˙)Cl][SbCl6] (3), have been compared by means of X-ray crystallography, SQUID magnetometry, cyclic voltammetry, UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy analysis and unrestricted DFT calculations. Unlike a generally recognized antiferromagnetic coupling dxy↑dxz↑dyz↑dz2↑dx2-y2↑P˙+(a2u)↓ (S = 2) state via a weak bonding interaction as in (3), we have disclosed that a strong bonding interaction among iron dx2-y2 and porphyrin a2u orbitals forms in (1) into a highly delocalized Ψπ = [P˙+(a2u) + FeIII(dx2-y2, dz2)] orbital that is able to accommodate two spin-paired electrons to form the Ψπ2dxy1dxz1dyz1, dz21 (S = 2) ground state. Concurrently, the spin polarization effect is exerted on the paired spins in the Ψπ orbital by magnetic induction from the remaining unpaired electrons in the iron d orbitals. The interpretation mentioned above is further verified by the diamagnetic nature of the saddled copper(ii) porphyrin π-cation radical, CuII(OETPP˙)(ClO4) (S = 0), where the strong bonding interaction leads to the Ψπ2dxy2dxz2dyz2dz22 (S = 0) ground state but no spin polarization exists. Thus, the magnetic nature of the iron(iii) porphyrin π-radical cation is tuneable by saddling the ring planarity.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e1903687, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495992

RESUMO

Highly responsive organic image sensors are crucial for medical imaging applications. To enhance the pixelwise photoresponse in an organic image sensor, the integration of an organic photodetector with amplifiers, or the use of a highly responsive organic photodetector without an additional amplifying component, is required. The use of vertically stacked, two-terminal organic photodetectors with photomultiplication is a promising approach for highly responsive organic image sensors owing to their simple two-terminal structure and intrinsically large responsivity. However, there are no demonstrations of an imaging sensor array using organic photomultiplication photodetectors. The main obstacle to a sensor array is the weak-light sensitivity, which is limited by a relatively large dark current. Herein, a highly responsive organic image sensor based on monolithic, vertically stacked two-terminal pixels is presented. This is achieved using pixels of a vertically stacked diode-type organic photodetector with photomultiplication. Furthermore, applying an optimized injection electrode and additionally stacked rectifying layers, this two-terminal device simultaneously demonstrates a high responsivity (>40 A W-1 ), low dark current, and high rectification under illumination. An organic image sensor based on this device with an extremely simple architecture exhibits a high pixel photoresponse, demonstrating a weak-light imaging capability even at 1 µW cm-2 .

5.
Food Funct ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497826

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, whose progression is closely related to the inflammatory environment. Urolithin A (UA), a natural metabolite of a class of compounds (ellagitannins and ellagic acid) found in pomegranates and other fruits and nuts, has been proved to exert anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of diseases. However, the exact role of UA in OA development is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the latent mechanism of UA and its protective role in the progression of OA by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, UA inhibited the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) induced over-production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner in human OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, by downregulating the expression of metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5), UA attenuated the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced by IL-1ß. Mechanistically, UA was found to suppress the activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathways. In vivo, in a surgically induced mouse OA model, UA-induced protective effects in OA development could be detected. In summary, this research suggested that UA may be adopted as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA.

6.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(3): 268-274, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the potentially pathogenic mutations in patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) and to investigate the pathogenicity of mutations by functional studies. METHODS: Eight Chinese ED patients were included in this study. Peripheral venous blood was taken from the patients and DNA was extracted. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed using DNA samples. After quality control of the sequencing data, the potentially pathogenic mutations were screened. The pathogenicity of the mutations was predicted in silico. Immunofluorescence study and dual luciferase assays were performed to investigate the pathogenicity of the mutations. RESULTS: The effective rates of all sequencing samples were above 97.5% and the error rates were less than 0.03%. The proportions of Q20 were more than 97.0%. The average sequencing depths of the target region were more than 90×. The sequencing data were acceptable for further analysis. After data screening, three missense mutations of EDA were detected, including c.959A>G, c.1073A>G and c.1001G>A. The allele frequency was low in population database for all three mutations and in silico analysis indicated all three mutations were disease-causing. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that p65 protein nuclear translocation was compromised by EDA mutations, dual luciferase assays also showed that the activation of NF-κB pathway was decreased by EDA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified EDA mutations in Chinese ED patients and further verified the pathogenicity of the mutations by functional studies, contributing to the understanding of the pathogenesis of ED.

7.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500396

RESUMO

The generation of reducing equivalent NADPH via glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is critical for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and reductive biosynthesis in cells. NADPH also plays key roles in cellular processes mediated by redox signaling. Insufficient G6PD activity predisposes cells to growth retardation and demise. Severely lacking G6PD impairs embryonic development and delays organismal growth. Altered G6PD activity is associated with pathophysiology, such as autophagy, insulin resistance, infection, inflammation, as well as diabetes and hypertension. Aberrant activation of G6PD leads to enhanced cell proliferation and adaptation in many types of cancers. The present review aims to update the existing knowledge concerning G6PD and emphasizes how G6PD modulates redox signaling and affects cell survival and demise, particularly in diseases such as cancer. Exploiting G6PD as a potential drug target against cancer is also discussed.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Asian countries, many patients with type 2 diabetes fail to achieve controlled glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels while taking several classes of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). Traditional Chinese medicine could be an alternative therapeutic option for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. YH1 is a concentrated Chinese herbal extract formula that combines Rhizoma Coptidis and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluated YH1 as an add-on medication for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-six patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned 1:1 to the YH1 or placebo group. Before the trial, all subjects had received three or more classes of OHAs with HbA1c > 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and a body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2. During the 12-week trial, participants continued to take OHAs without any dose or medication changes. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in HbA1c level. Per-protocol analysis was applied to the final evaluation. RESULTS: At week 12, there was an 11.1% reduction in HbA1c from baseline and a 68.9% increase in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of ß cell function in the YH1 group, which also exhibited significant reductions in two-hour postprandial glucose (-26.2%), triglycerides (-29.5%), total cholesterol (-21.6%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-17.4%), body weight (-0.5%), and waist circumference (-1.1%). The changes in fasting plasma glucose, HOMA insulin resistance and symptom scores were not significantly different between the YH1 and placebo groups. No serious adverse events occurred during this clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that YH1 together with OHAs can improve hypoglycemic action and ß-cell function in overweight/obese patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. YH1 is a safe add-on medication for OHAs and has beneficial effects on weight control and lipid metabolism. A larger study population with longer treatment and follow-up periods is required for further verification.

9.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 285-295, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that prevent and promote uptake of medication-related computerized decision support systems (CDSS) in hospitals, based on the perceptions of prescribers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Databases Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO and the top five medical informatics journals were searched. English papers published after 2002, which used a qualitative approach to examine prescriber views of CDSS in hospitals were included. Qualitative data were extracted and mapped to the three domains of the HOT-fit framework (human, organization, and technology). RESULTS: Factors preventing CDSS uptake were perceived threats to autonomy, CDSS conflicting with personal prescribing preferences, and mistrust of CDSS information. Factors promoting CDSS uptake were perceptions that CDSS improves safety and efficiency, and is easy to use. With respect to medication alerts, large numbers of irrelevant alerts reportedly led to alerts being ignored. When using order sentences/order sets, long lists of options led to excessive scrolling or clicks, and resulted in users opting for free text ordering. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: To promote medication-related CDSS uptake, it is recommended that prescribers' perspectives on CDSS usability and integration into workflow be sought during the design phase, that evidence on CDSS' effectiveness to improve safety be provided to prescribers, and that system information be kept up to date. To improve alert uptake, organizations should ensure that alerts and minimal and relevant. To improve uptake of order sentences/order sets, organizations should minimise the number of options available to prescribers. Future work should focus on exploring prescriber perceptions of other types of CDSS.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026034, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts in hospital electronic medication management (EMM) systems are generated at the point of prescribing to warn doctors about potential interactions in their patients' medication orders. This project aims to determine the impact of DDI alerts on DDI rates and on patient harm in the inpatient setting. It also aims to identify barriers and facilitators to optimal use of alerts, quantify the alert burden posed to prescribers with implementation of DDI alerts and to develop algorithms to improve the specificity of DDI alerting systems. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A controlled pre-post design will be used. Study sites include six major referral hospitals in two Australian states, New South Wales and Queensland. Three hospitals will act as control sites and will implement an EMM system without DDI alerts, and three as intervention sites with DDI alerts. The medical records of 280 patients admitted in the 6 months prior to and 6 months following implementation of the EMM system at each site (total 3360 patients) will be retrospectively reviewed by study pharmacists to identify potential DDIs, clinically relevant DDIs and associated patient harm. To identify barriers and facilitators to optimal use of alerts, 10-15 doctors working at each intervention hospital will take part in observations and interviews. Non-identifiable DDI alert data will be extracted from EMM systems 6-12 months after system implementation in order to quantify alert burden on prescribers. Finally, data collected from chart review and EMM systems will be linked with clinically relevant DDIs to inform the development of algorithms to trigger only clinically relevant DDI alerts in EMM systems. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee (18/02/21/4.07). Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local and international conferences and workshops.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434227

RESUMO

Astaxanthin (Asta) has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and free radical-clearing activities. However, the poor stability and low water solubility of Asta hamper its bioavailability. The objectives of this study were to fabricate Asta-loaded liposomes (Asta-lipo) and investigate the therapeutic effects of Asta-lipo on alcoholic liver fibrosis in mice. The mice were administered with Asta-lipo or liposomes alone prior to a 3-week dose containing 30% alcohol with or without feeding with a second dose of 30% alcohol. The prepared Asta-lipo of 225.0 ± 58.3 nm in diameter, had an encapsulation efficiency of 98%. A slow release profile of 16.2% Asta from Asta-lipo was observed after a 24-h incubation. Restorative actions against alcoholic liver fibrosis were observed after oral administration of Asta-lipo for 4 weeks. Hepatic repair, followed by a second dose of 30% alcohol, suggested that Asta-lipo exerted protective and reparative effects against liver injuries induced by repeated consumption of alcohol. The changes of serum ALT and AST values were principally in consistence with the histopathologic findings. Asta-lipo exerted rapid and direct effects against repeated alcohol-induced liver disease, whereas Asta-lipo given orally could boost recovery from liver injuries obtained due to previous long-term alcohol use. These data demonstrate that Asta-lipo has applicable protective and therapeutic potential to treat alcohol-induced liver diseases.

12.
J Surg Res ; 245: 441-452, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whitmania pigra Whitman (W pigra), a traditional Chinese medicine, has functions of breaking stagnant and eliminating blood stasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of W pigra against deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: A rat model of DVT induced by inferior vena cava stenosis was successfully established. Rats were administered vehicle (saline solution, p.o.), three doses of W pigra aqueous extract (34.7, 104.2, or 312.5 mg crude W pigra/kg, p.o.), heparin (200 U/kg, i.v.), or clopidogrel (25 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 2 d. Thrombus weight and histopathological changes were examined. Blood samples were collected to determine blood cell counts, blood viscosity, blood coagulation, blood fibrinolysis, serum levels of interleukin-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Protein expressions of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), acetylated p65 (Ace-p65), and phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) were determined by Western blot. Furthermore, SIRT1-specific inhibitor EX527 was applied to confirm the role of SIRT1 in the antithrombotic effect of W pigra. RESULTS: W pigra significantly decreased thrombus weight. W pigra had no effects on blood cell counts, whole blood viscosity, blood coagulation, blood fibrinolysis. However, it reduced tissue factor protein expression in the vein wall and thrombus. Moreover, it sharply increased SIRT1 protein expression and decreased leukocytes recruitment in the thrombus and vein wall, serum levels of interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α, and protein expressions of Ace-p65 and p-p65. Furthermore, the antithrombotic effect of W pigra was significantly abolished by EX527. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous extract of W pigra effectively reduced DVT burden by inhibiting inflammation via SIRT1/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 151(4): 044501, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370542

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) converts a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in two or more electronically coupled organic chromophores, which may then be used to increase solar cell efficiency. Many known SF chromophores are unsuitable for device applications due to chemical instability or low triplet state energies. The results described here show that efficient SF occurs in derivatives of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA), which is a highly robust and tunable chromophore. Fluoro and methoxy substituents at the 4- and 4'-positions of the BPEA phenyl groups control the intermolecular packing in the crystal structure, which alters the interchromophore electronic coupling, while also changing the SF energetics. The lowest excited singlet state (S1) energy of 4,4'-difluoro-BPEA is higher than that of BPEA so that the increased thermodynamic favorability of SF results in a (16 ± 2 ps)-1 SF rate and a 180% ± 16% triplet yield, which is about an order of magnitude faster than BPEA with a comparable triplet yield. By contrast, 4-fluoro-4'-methoxy-BPEA and 4,4'-dimethoxy-BPEA have slower SF rates, (90 ± 20 ps)-1 and (120 ± 10 ps)-1, and lower triplet yields, (110 ± 4)% and (168 ± 7)%, respectively, than 4,4'-difluoro-BPEA. These differences are attributed to changes in the crystal structure controlling interchromophore electronic coupling as well as SF energetics in these polycrystalline solids.

14.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 49-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To synthesize recent empirical evidence on yoga-based interventions for patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. METHODS: We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE databases for studies published between October 2007 and September 2018 in any language. Risk of bias and methodological quality were evaluated using the PRISMA statement and checklist and the Cochrane Collaboration tool. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in lymphedema status, range of shoulder motion and spinal mobility after an 8-week yoga intervention, whereas there was no consistency in quality of life following yoga intervention. Additionally, there was no difference in lymphedema status, extracellular fluid and tissue resistance outcomes in the affected arm following a long-term yoga practice. CONCLUSION: The current findings could not be clearly demonstrated that yoga programme intervention as an addition to usual care is superior to along usual care, and keep yoga exercise does not provide significant added benefits.

15.
Biosci Rep ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409725

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the regulation of chemoresistance in a variety of cancers including glioma. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the development of chemoresistance in glioma is not well-understood. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miRNAs in the chemosensitivity of glioma cells and the underlying mechanism. By microarray and qRT-PCR, we observed significant downregulation of microRNA-302c (miR-302c) in the TMZ-resistant human glioma tissues/cells. The low expression of miR-302c was closely associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistant in patients. miR-302c up-regulation re-sensitized U251MG-TMZ cells and LN229-TMZ cells to TMZ treatment, as evidenced by inhibition of the cell viability, cell migration and invasion capacity, and promotion of the apoptosis after TMZ treatment. Furthermore, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was identified as a functional target of miR-302c and this was validated using a luciferase reporter assay. In addition, P-gp was found to be highly expressed in U251MG-TMZ cells and there was an inverse correlation between P-gp and miR-302c expression levels in clinical glioma specimens. Most importantly, we further confirmed that overexpression of P-gp reversed the enhanced TMZ-sensitivity induced by miR-302c overexpression in U251MG-TMZ and LN229-TMZ cells. Our finding showed that upregulation of miR-302c enhanced TMZ-sensitivity by targeting P-gp in TMZ-resistant human glioma cells, which suggests that miR-302c would be potential therapeutic targets for chemotherapy-resistant glioma patients.

16.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osimertinib yields significant tumor responses and durations of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with acquired T790M mutations. However, the evidence supporting liquid biopsy-guided treatment is still limited. This study examined the real-world benefits of osimertinib in patients with tissue or plasma T790M mutations. METHODS: From January 2016 to June 2018, a total of 183 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were enrolled. The presence of the T790M mutation was assessed by either tissue or plasma. The PFS, overall survival, and tumor response rates of the patients were calculated and compared with those of previous clinical trials. RESULTS: T790M mutations were detected in 51.5% of the patients, including 64 of 140 (45.7%) who underwent liquid biopsies and 23 of 29 (79.3%) who underwent tumor biopsies. After excluding those in clinical trials, 46 patients received osimertinib, including 33 with positive plasma and 13 with positive tissue results for T790M mutations. The median PFS was 11.3 months (interquartile range: 5.2-NR) in all the T790M-positive patients and 10.1 months (interquartile range: 5.9-NR) in the plasma T790M-positive patients. The overall survival, meanwhile, was not reached, whereas the one-year survival rate was 66.1% in all the patients and 61.4% in those who were plasma T790M-positive. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 37.8% and 91.9% in all the patients and 34.6% and 92.3% in the plasma T790M-positive group, respectively. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression, we determined that male gender was a poor prognostic factor for PFS. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective real-world analysis, it was determined that both tissue and plasma T790M mutations can be used to guide treatment with osimertinib. Similar disease control rates and survival durations were observed in comparison to those of phase 3 clinical trials.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 342-351, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377292

RESUMO

Oligosaccharides from green algae Ulva lactuca (ULO) and Enteromorpha prolifera (EPO) were used for investigation of anti-ageing effects and the underlying mechanism in SAMP8 mice. The structural properties of ULO and EPO were analyzed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and agarose gel electrophoresis. These oligosaccharides enhanced the glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and telomerase levels and total antioxidant capicity, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and advanced glycation end products. After ULO and EPO treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, decreased; the BDNF and ChAT levels increased; and hippocampal neurons were protected. Downregulation of the p53 and FOXO1 genes and upregulation of the Sirt1 gene indicated that ULO and EPO have potential therapeutic effects in the prevention of ageing in SAMP8 mice. By 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, the abundance of Desulfovibrio was discovered to be markedly different in mice treated with ULO and EPO. The abundances of Verrucomicrobiaceae, Odoribacteraceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Planococcaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were positively correlated with age-related indicators. These results demonstrated that oligosaccharides from U. lactuca and E. prolifera are ideal candidate compounds that can be used in functional foods and pharmaceuticals to prevent ageing.

18.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a very harmful and epidemic disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Although an effective anti-HBV vaccine is available, chronic infection poses still a huge health burden in the whole world. The present anti-HBV drugs including nucleoside analogues and interferonalpha have their limitations without exception. There is no effective drug and therapeutic method that can really and truly cure hepatitis B so far. The variability of HBV genome results in that a significant number of patients develop drug resistance during the long-term use of anti-HBV drugs. Hence, it is urgently needed to discover novel targets and develop new drugs against hepatitis B. OBJECTIVE: The review aims to provide the theory support for designing of the anti-HBV innovative drugs by offering a summary of the current situation of antiviral potential targets. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Since HBV is obligate intracellular parasite, and as such it depends on host cellular components and functions to replicate itself. The targeting both virus and host might be a novel therapeutic option for hepatitis B. Accordingly, we analyse the advances in the study of the potential drug targets for anti-HBV infection, focusing on targeting virus genome, on targeting host cellular functions and on targeting virus-host proteins interactions, respectively. Meanwhile, the immune targets against chronic hepatitis B are also emphasized. In short, the review provides a summary of antiviral therapeutic strategies to target virus factors, host factors and immune factors for future designing of the anti-HBV innovative drug.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 19513-19520, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463507

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, owing to their unique properties, have shown great potential for energy storage. In this work, we predict two types of new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, namely, tetragonal V2C2 and V2N2 (tetr-V2C2 and tetr-V2N2) monolayer sheets. Comprehensive first-principle calculations show that these two 2D systems exhibit dynamic (thermal) stabilities and intrinsic metallic nature. Compared with the commercialized graphite anode material, tetr-V2C2 and tetr-V2N2 monolayer sheets exhibit lower Li diffusion barrier of 89 and 94 meV, higher theoretical capacity of 412 and 425 mA h g-1 and lower average open circuit of 0.468 and 0.583 V, respectively. Combining those advanced features, our proposed tetr-V2C2 and tetr-V2N2 monolayer sheets are both promising candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in the future.

20.
Future Oncol ; 15(23): 2769-2777, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401844

RESUMO

Dacomitinib is a second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that irreversibly binds to and inhibits EGFR/Her1, Her2 and Her4 subtypes with an efficacy comparable to other TKIs. In the ARCHER 1050 trial, progression-free survival was improved by dacomitinib compared with gefitinib, supporting dacomitinib as a first-line treatment option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with sensitive EGFR mutation. Regarding to the higher adverse events rate, dose reductions did not reduce the efficacy of dacomitinib and could effectively decreased the incidence and severity of adverse events. Considering the evolving landscape of EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer, future head to head comparison between dacomitinib and osimertinib could provide key information to determine the optimal TKI treatment schedule.

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