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1.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 86: 105509, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336212

RESUMO

Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) has been proven to act as a lysophospholipase (LysoPLA) and phospholipase B (PLB) in mammalian cells. In this study, we took human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells as the research object and explored the effect of NTE on phospholipid homeostasis. The results showed that phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels significantly increased (> 40%), while glycerophosphocholine (GPC) decreased (below 60%) after NTE gene was knockdown in the cells (NTE < 30% of control), which were prepared by gene silencing with dsRNA-NTE. However, in the NTE-overexpressed cells (NTE > 50% of control), which were prepared by expressing recombinant catalytic domain of NTE, LPC remarkably decreased (below 80%) and GPC enhanced (> 40%). Mipafox, a neuropathic organophosphorus compound (OP), significantly inhibited NTE-LysoPLA and NTE-PLB activities (> 95-99% inhibition at 50 µM), which was accompanied with a decreased GPC level (below 40%) although no change of the PC and LPC levels was observed; while paraoxon, a non-neuropathic OP, suppresses neither the activities of NTE-phospholipases nor the levels of PC, LPC, and GPC. Thus, we concluded that both the stable up- or down-regulated expression of NTE gene and the loss of NTE-LysoPLA/PLB activities disrupts phospholipid homeostasis in the cells although the inhibition of NTE activity only decreased GPC content without altering PC and LPC levels.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Humanos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Homeostase , Lisofosfolipase/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipase/farmacologia , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 630(Pt A): 484-493, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265349

RESUMO

Particular matter (PM), oily wastewater, and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) have caused serious environmental, health, and safety issues. However, the development of multifunctional filtration materials to address these problems remains a great challenge. Here, we present a series of gradient structured air filters by simply spray coating poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers on nylon mesh, followed by silver nanowires (AgNWs). Interestingly, it is found that the ANF-6 air filter is an anisotropic Janus membrane with asymmetric wettability and translucency. The as-prepared ANF-6 air filter exhibits excellent water vapor transmission rate (4447.92 ± 184.78 g/(m2. d)), PM filtration (96.42 ± 0.64 % for PM0.3), photothermal (79.6 °C under 1sun in 150 s), thermal insulation, antibacterial, and oil water separation. Additionally, the obtained ANF-6 air filter was impregnated with carbon black (CB) dispersion and served as flexible pressure sensors to monitor human respiration rate (17 times/min) and wrist pulse rate (80 times/min). The gradient structured PVA-co-PE nanofibers and AgNWs network provides excellent air filtration, oil water separation, and sensitivity performance for the sensors. These results provide a new scheme for designing multifunctional filtration materials and wearable pressure sensors in the application of air filtration, oil water separation, and wearable electronics for monitoring human health.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Nanofibras , Nanofios , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Prata
3.
Brain Res ; 1798: 148165, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379316

RESUMO

The development of the closed-loop deep brain stimulator (DBS) for clinical trials requires verification of its safety and effectiveness in a large animal model. Due to the financial and ethical challenges of using non-human primates, it is reasonable to use an alternative large animal model. It was reported that minipigs are suitable for the establishment of the MPTP-induced parkinsonian model. However, there is currently no evidence of whether beta oscillations, the symptom-related biomarker, exist in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the parkinsonian minipig model. This study was to verify whether the beta oscillations could be recorded in the STN of the parkinsonian minipig model. Parkinsonism was induced by injections of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Through a protocol involving up to nine subcutaneous or intramuscular injections, delivering a cumulative dose of 8-10 mg/kg MPTP, the minipigs developed notable movement disturbance. By stereotactic surgery and microelectrode recording, beta oscillations were recorded in the STN of the MPTP-injected minipigs. Immunohistochemistry of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was performed in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of each animal. Compared with the control animal injected with saline, the TH-positive cells in the SNc were significantly reduced in the MPTP-injected minipigs. This study showed that beta oscillations could be recorded in the STN of the MPTP-induced parkinsonian minipig model. This large animal model is suitable as an alternative pre-clinical model for developing closed-loop DBS in the future.


Assuntos
Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Núcleo Subtalâmico , Animais , Suínos , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/farmacologia , Porco Miniatura/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/terapia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Substância Negra/metabolismo
4.
Clin Plast Surg ; 50(1): 91-100, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396265

RESUMO

A primary concern in facial aesthetics is the rejuvenation of periorbital areas through soft tissue recontouring, skin texture improvement, and harmoniousness with souring anatomic tissues. Currently, the ease of harvesting, abundance in volume, and lack of immune rejection make autologous fat transplantation a disruptive strategy in aesthetic medicine. The evolution and improvements made by myriad surgeons have contributed to the popularity of periorbital rejuvenation and have highlighted its indispensability in Asian patients. Lin and colleagues have advocated the technique of microautologous fat transplantation since 2007 for facial recontouring and rejuvenation. This article illustrates more in-depth technical details and innovative concepts for the improvement of the periorbita.


Assuntos
Face , Rejuvenescimento , Humanos , Face/cirurgia , Estética , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Asiáticos
5.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 947-954, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254973

RESUMO

Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system. During the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, stimulatory factors continuously act on the microglia causing abnormal activation and unbalanced phenotypic changes; these events have become a significant and promising area of research. In this review, we summarize the effects of microglial polarization and crosstalk with other cells in the central nervous system in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Our literature search found that phenotypic changes occur continuously in Alzheimer's disease and that microglia exhibit extensive crosstalk with astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and penetrated peripheral innate immune cells via specific signaling pathways and cytokines. Collectively, unlike previous efforts to modulate microglial phenotypes at a single level, targeting the phenotypes of microglia and the crosstalk with other cells in the central nervous system may be more effective in reducing inflammation in the central nervous system in Alzheimer's disease. This would establish a theoretical basis for reducing neuronal death from central nervous system inflammation and provide an appropriate environment to promote neuronal regeneration in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115832, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283636

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used to treat central nervous system-related diseases, including headaches, dizziness, epilepsy, numbness of the limbs and depression. AIM OF THE STUDY: Microbial-based fermentation has been successfully used to increase the extract efficiency of medicinal herbs in recent years. However, no study has hitherto explored the anti-depressant-like effect of GE processed by microorganisms. Herein, this subject aimed to clarify the anti-depressant-like effect of fermented Gastrodia elata Bl. (FGE) and its active chemical constituents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model, a well-established animal model of depression, was induced in Kunming (KM) mice. The mice were administrated with FGE for 3 weeks. The sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT) and tail suspension test (TST) were conducted. Moreover, the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in brain tissue homogenates, the concentration of Ca2+ and the activity of MAO in serum, H&E and Nissl staining in the hippocampus, and the hippocampus protein expressions of BDNF, NMDAR1, NMDAR2A and NMDAR2B relevant to depression were detected. Furthermore, chemical constituents of FGE were further isolated, and the protective activity of the obtained compounds against NMDA-induced PC-12 cell damage was assessed. RESULTS: FGE could alleviate the depression state in CUMS-induced mice and reduce apoptosis of neuronal cells in the hippocampus. Furthermore, FGE could improve the contents of 5-HT, DA and decrease the concentration of Ca2+ and MAO activity in brain tissue and serum compared with the control group. It could reverse the decreased expression of BDNF, NMDAR2A and NMDAR2B and increase NMDAR1 protein expression. Investigation of the active constituents from FGE yielded two new compounds, (4-(((4-ethoxybenzyl) oxy)methyl)-phenol 1 and 3-((4-hydroxy benzyl)oxy)propane-1,2-diol) 2, with twelve known compounds (3-14). The compounds (3-((4-hydroxybenzyl)oxy)propane-1,2-diol 2, 4, 4'-dihydroxyd iphenyl methane 3, and bungein A 4) protected against NMDA-induced PC-12 cells damage. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that FGE could improve the depressive behavior of CUMS-induced mice and exert a protective effect on nerve cells in the brain. Importantly, compounds 2-4 are the active components of FGE. Overall, the above findings suggest that FGE has huge prospects for application in treating depression-related diseases.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Animais , Camundongos , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Gastrodia/química , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , N-Metilaspartato , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Propano/farmacologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
7.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114411, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154859

RESUMO

SF6 gas is widely used on many occasions especially in the power equipment, but it has been restricted since Kyoto Protocol as the strongest greenhouse gas. To reduce the SF6 emission, several methods are now used such the recycling & purification and the SF6 degradation. Considering the huge market of SF6 and the recent demand in the field of power equipment, it is necessary to explore new ways to thoroughly destroy SF6. This work brought out the idea to degrade retired SF6 by thermal plasma. A simplified kinetic model was established to predict the feasibility of this idea as well as the degradation products of SF6, and then the prototype of SF6 degradation by thermal plasma was built and tested. In thermal plasma, SF6 gradually decomposed into atoms, and then H2 was added to capture the released F atoms to generate HF and also prevent the association reactions of SF6. In order to achieve the desired degradation effect, the reaction temperature and the mixing ratio of H2 should be sufficiently high. However, excessive H2 could generate the H2S, and excessive discharge power could decrease the energy yield. When the flow rate of SF6/H2 was set as 8/30 L/min and the discharge current was set as 100A, the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of SF6 was 99.0% and the energy yield was 206 g/kWh. This work also discusses how to further treat the by-products such as HF and S from this prototype effectively.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1041671, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457713

RESUMO

Hepatitis is a complex multifactorial pathological disorder, which can eventually lead to liver failure and even potentially be life threatening. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) has proven to have critical anti-inflammatory effects in arthritis. However, the effects of CP-25 in the pathogenesis of hepatitis remains unclear. In this experiment, mice were intragastrically administered with CP-25 (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), and then ConA (25 mg/kg) was intravenous injected to establish hepatitis model in vivo. CP-25 administration attenuated liver damage and decreased ALT and AST activities in mice with hepatitis. Besides, CP-25 modulated immune responses including down-regulated the proportions of activated CD4+, activated CD8+ T cells, and ratio of Th1/Th2 in ConA-injected mice. Furthermore, ConA-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, activation of MAPK pathways and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were significantly decreased in CP-25 administrated mice. In ConA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, CP-25 suppressed inflammatory cytokines secretion and reduced ROS level, which were consistent with animal experiments. Otherwise, the data showed that CP-25 restrained phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways influenced by ROS, accompanied with inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. In conclusion, our findings indicated that CP-25 protected against ConA-induced hepatitis may through modulating immune responses and attenuating ROS-mediated inflammation via the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

9.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2200814, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459585

RESUMO

Excessive exudate secreted from diabetic wounds often results in skin overhydration, severe infections and secondary damage upon dressing changes. However, conventional wound dressings are difficult to synchronously realize the non-maceration of wound sites and rapid exudate transport due to their random porous structure. Herein, a self-pumping Janus hydrogel with aligned channels (JHA) composed of hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel layer and hydrophobic polyurethane (PU)/graphene oxide (GO)/ polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) layer is designed to rapidly export exudate and accelerate diabetic wound healing. In the design, the ice-templating process endows the hydrophilic hydrogel layer with superior liquid transport ability and mechanical strength due to the formation of aligned channel structure. The hydrophobic layer with controlled thickness functions as an effective barrier to prevent exudate from wetting the skin surface. Experiments in diabetic rat model show that JHA can significantly promote re-epithelialization and collagen deposition, shorten the inflammation phase and accelerate wound healing. This unique JHA dressing may have great potential for real-life usage in clinical patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7414, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460681

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise in regenerative medicine and developmental biology studies. Mitochondrial metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, have been reported to play critical roles in pluripotency. Here we show that TCA cycle enzymes including Pdha1, Pcb, Aco2, Cs, Idh3a, Ogdh, Sdha and Mdh2 are translocated to the nucleus during somatic cell reprogramming, primed-to-naive transition and totipotency acquisition. The nuclear-localized TCA cycle enzymes Pdha1, Pcb, Aco2, Cs, Idh3a promote somatic cell reprogramming and primed-to-naive transition. In addition, nuclear-localized TCA cycle enzymes, particularly nuclear-targeted Pdha1, facilitate the 2-cell program in pluripotent stem cells. Mechanistically, nuclear Pdha1 increases the acetyl-CoA and metabolite pool in the nucleus, leading to chromatin remodeling at pluripotency genes by enhancing histone H3 acetylation. Our results reveal an important role of mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes in the epigenetic regulation of pluripotency that constitutes a mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling mode in different states of pluripotent acquisition.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Histonas , Acetilação , Núcleo Celular , Mitocôndrias
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 175444, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462734

RESUMO

Temozolomide (TMZ) is the recommended drug for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment, but its clinical effect is restricted due to drug resistance. This research studies the effects of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) ZBED3-AS1 and its related molecules on acquired TMZ resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). ZBED3-AS1 was identified to be downregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells by analyzing GSE113510 and GSE100736 datasets. ZBED3-AS1 downregulation was detected in TMZ-resistant GBM tissues and cell lines (U251/TMZ and U87/TMZ). ZBED3-AS1 knockdown promoted, whereas its overexpression suppressed TMZ resistance, viability and mobility, and glycolytic activity of TMZ-resistant cells. ZBED3-AS1 bound to Spi-1 proto-oncogene (SPI1) but did not affect its expression. Instead, it blocked SPI1-mediated transcriptional activation of thrombomodulin (THBD). SPI1 and THBD increased TMZ resistance and glycolysis in TMZ-resistant cells. Either ZBED3-AS1 overexpression or SPI1 knockdown in U87/TMZ cells blocked the growth of orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ZBED3-AS1 downregulation and THBD activation is linked to increased TMZ resistance and glycolysis in GBM cells.

13.
Vet Microbiol ; 275: 109600, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395693

RESUMO

To define the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharides (CIPS) and phosphorylated Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharides (pCIPS) in duck viral hepatitis (DVH), we evaluated the protective effects of the CIPS and pCIPS against DVH in terms of antioxidation and mitochondrial function. Fluorescence probes and several assay kits were used to determine the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and vivo. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the changes of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the liver tissue. Our results indicate that the CIPS and pCIPS significantly enhanced the survival of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) infected ducklings. Moreover, the CIPS and pCIPS suppressed oxidative stress and preserved mitochondrial function, such as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, increased ATP production, and stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Meanwhile, the results of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and serum biochemical examination demonstrated that treatment with the CIPS and pCIPS could decrease focal necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells, which in turn reducing liver injury. Furthermore, the CIPS and pCIPS were able to preserve liver mitochondrial membrane integrity in DHAV-1 challenged ducklings. Notably, the pCIPS was significantly outperformed the CIPS on all measures of liver and mitochondrial function. These results suggested that mitochondrial homeostasis plays an important role in alleviating oxidative damage in the livers, and the hepatocyte protective effects of the CIPS were enhanced after phosphorylation modification.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chrysanthemum , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Humana , Animais , Patos , Mitocôndrias , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Antioxidantes
14.
Soc Work Health Care ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448628

RESUMO

COVID-19 struck the world violently and cause negative psychological consequences on health professionals. The preparedness of social workers for the pandemic is critical while facing these challenges and pressures. The study aimed to explore what are the roles of demographic, employment, and proximity to Covid-19 in predicting preparedness for the next wave of COVID among social workers in Taiwan. A total of 158 participants were conveniently sampled and multiple regression, univariate analysis, and two-way ANOVA were conducted. The results demonstrated that the demographic and employment variables significantly predicted preparedness, and there were significant differences among demographics on preparedness and an interaction effect between seniority and age. Consequently, middle-aged social workers with junior seniority years may have more difficulties in their preparation for the current situation. The implication of our findings is also discussed.

15.
Prog Lipid Res ; 88: 101196, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341839

RESUMO

The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in primary and secondary prevention on major cardiovascular events (MCE) is inconclusive due to the potential heterogeneity in study designs of formulas, dosages, and ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the findings of previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Here we conducted a comprehensive narrative review of pre-clinical studies and updated a network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine the comparative efficacy against MCE with different EPA/DHA dosages and formulas. We found that pure EPA was ranked the best option in the secondary prevention (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 0.81) from the NMA of 39 RCTs with 88,359 participants. There was no evidence of omega-3 PUFAs' efficacy in primary prevention. The mechanisms of omega-3 PUFAs' cardiovascular protection might link to the effects of anti-inflammation and stabilization of endothelial function from PUFA's derivatives including eicosanoids and the special pre-resolving mediators (SPMs).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
16.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(12): 1367-1381, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331497

RESUMO

Migalastat is approved for the treatment of Fabry disease (FD) with amenable variants. Objectives were to characterize effects of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on oral clearance (CL), predict doses in mild to moderate renal impairment and in pediatric patients with FD, and to improve designs of FD studies. A 2-compartment model was fit to data from 260 subjects with/without FD and iteratively refined with evolving data. FD, eGFR, and weight affected CL, while weight and FD affected volume. Optimal sampling theory was used to choose pharmacokinetic sampling times for pediatric studies. Doses in patients with renal impairment and in pediatrics were determined by targeting exposure in adults receiving migalastat 123 mg every other day. A clinical study was conducted in 20 adolescent patients with FD ≥45 kg. eGFR had the largest effect on CL. Simulations showed that exposures in moderate renal impairment were within phase 2-3 exposures; patients aged 2-17 years require weight-based dosing; and predicted exposures in adolescent patients ≥45 kg receiving migalastat 123 mg every other day were similar to adults (data confirmed in a clinical study). Model-informed drug development optimized dosing and design of clinical studies and supported that no dose adjustments were needed in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment or in adolescent patients ≥45 kg.


Assuntos
Doença de Fabry , Insuficiência Renal , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/efeitos adversos , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Psych J ; 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336336

RESUMO

Recognizing facial expressions is crucial for adaptive social interaction. Prior empirical research on facial expression processing has primarily focused on isolated faces; however, facial expressions appear embedded in surrounding scenes in everyday life. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate how the online car-hailing scene affects the processing of facial expression. This study examined the processing of drivers' facial expressions in scenes by recording event-related potentials, in which neutral or happy faces embedded in online car-hailing orders were constructed (with type of vehicle, driver rating, driver surname, and level of reputation controlled). A total of 35 female volunteers participated in this experiment and were asked to judge which facial expressions that emerged in scenes of online car-hailing were more trustworthy. The results revealed an interaction between facial expression scenes, brain areas, and electrode sites in the late positive potential, which indicated that happy faces elicited larger amplitudes than did neutral ones in the parietal areas and that scenes with happy facial expressions had shorter latencies than did those with neutral ones. As expected, the late positive potential evoked by happy facial expressions in a scene was larger than that evoked by neutral ones, which reflected motivated attention and motivational response processes. This study highlights the importance of scenes as context in the study of facial expression processing.

18.
Water Res ; 227: 119344, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402098

RESUMO

Surface complexation between arsenite (As(III)) and colloidal metal hydroxides plays an important role not only in the immobilization and oxidation of As(III) but also in the cycle of the metal and the fate of their ligands. However, the photochemical processes between Cu(II) and As(III) are not sufficiently understood. In this work, the photooxidation of As(III) in the presence of Cu(II) under neutral pH conditions was investigated in water containing 200 µM Cu(II) and 5 µM As(III) under simulated solar irradiation consisting of UVB light. The results confirmed the complexation between As(III) and Cu(II) hydroxides, and the photooxidation of As(III) is attributed to the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) process and Cu(III) oxidation. The light-induced LMCT process results in simultaneous As(III) oxidation and Cu(II) reduction, then produced Cu(I) undergoes autooxidation with O2 to produce O2•⁻ and H2O2, and further the Cu(I)-Fenton reaction produces Cu(III) that can oxidize As(III) efficiently (kCu(III)+As(III) = 1.02 × 109 M-1 s-1). The contributions from each pathway (ρrCu(II)-As(III)+hv = 0.62, ρrCu(III)+As(III) = 0.38) were obtained using kinetic analysis and simulation. Sunlight experiments showed that the pH range of As(III) oxidation could be extended to weak acidic conditions in downstream water from acid mine drainage (AMD). This work helps to understand the environmental chemistry of Cu(II) and As(III) regarding their interaction and photo-induced redox reactions.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais , Cinética , Oxirredução , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Água
19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2200429, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433679

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study investigated the impacts of lard and related fatty acids intake on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models. METHOD AND RESULTS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) were induced in SD rats and C57 BL/6 mice respectively, which were fed by lard-rich diet (LRD) for 42 days with intake restriction or not. AIA SD rats were treated by representative fatty acids for 30 days. Body weight, arthritis score and metabolic profile were periodically recorded. Monocyte distribution, cytokine/metabolites levels, gene expression and tissue damages were investigated by flow cytometry, ELISA, colorimetry, PCR and histological methods. After being treated by fatty acids in vitro, THP-1 monocytes and the corresponding medium were collected for ELISA, PCR, immunoblotting and reporter gene assays. Irrespective of intake amounts, LRD decreased inflammatory cytokines and inhibited glycolysis in all rheumatic rodents. Furthermore, it altered monocyte distribution and promoted PPAR-γ expression in AIA mice. Overall evidences show that both saturated (SF) and unsaturated fatty acids (USF) from lard can attenuate inflammation by activating PPAR-γ. Silencing PPAR-γ abrogated their anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Besides, SF can stimulate TLR4/NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION: Lard consumption is beneficial for active inflammatory arthritis recovery. Even SF can activate PPAR-γ and consequently attenuate inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Front Psychol ; 13: 977808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438385

RESUMO

The Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is a well-known and extensively used behavioral measure of reflection-impulsivity. However, the instrument has several deficiencies, including images designed for school-age children in the United States during the 1960s. Most importantly, an adult version of the instrument is currently unavailable and the lack of a single repository for the images raises questions regarding the MFFT's validity and reliability. We developed a 21st century version of the MFFT using images that are familiar to adults and reside in a freely accessible repository. We conducted two studies examining validity and reliability issues. In Study 1, participants interacting with the MFFT-2021, versus those interacting with the original MFFT20, spent more time on the task, took more time in making their first response, and were more likely to complete the task without errors, even though the average number of errors was higher than the comparison group. The coherence of these results is evidence of convergent validity. Regarding predictive validity, the MFFT-2021 remained a reliable predictor of rational thinking, such that participants who demonstrated more reflection (less impulsivity) tended to avoid rational thinking errors. Also, performance on the MFFT-2021 predicted higher quality judgments in processing job characteristic cues with embedded interactions, a form of configural information processing. We also found evidence of concurrent validity: performance on the MFFT-2021 differed in a predictable manner for participants grouped by their performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test. In Study 2, we tested discriminant validity by comparing participant performance on the MFFT-2021 to their performance on the Information Sampling Task (IST), another behavioral measure of reflection-impulsivity used in studies of psychopharmacological and addiction behaviors. For our participants (undergraduate business students), we found that the MFFT was a stronger predictor of performance on rational thinking tasks, and, contrary to prior studies, our exploratory factor analysis identified separate factors for the MFFT-2021 and the IST, supporting discriminant validity, indicating that these two instruments measure different subtypes of reflection-impulsivity.

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