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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(14): 1689-1706, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236076

RESUMO

Recent studies reveal that bile acid metabolite composition and its metabolism are changed in metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), yet its role and the mechanism remain largely unknown. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of 163 serum and stool samples of our metabolic disease cohort was performed, and we identified glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA), glycine-conjugated bile acid produced from intestinal bacteria, was decreased in both serum and stool samples from patients with hyperglycemia. RNA-sequencing and quantitative PCR results indicated that GUDCA alleviated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in livers of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice without alteration of liver metabolism. In vitro, GUDCA reduced palmitic acid induced-ER stress and -apoptosis, as well as stabilized calcium homeostasis. In vivo, GUDCA exerted effects on amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. In parallel, ER stress and apoptosis were decreased in GUDCA-treated mice as compared with vehicle-treated mice in liver. These findings demonstrate that reduced GUDCA is an indicator of hyperglycemia. Supplementation of GUDCA could be an option for the treatment of diet-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, with inhibiting ER stress.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3375-3384, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212663

RESUMO

A petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PWWTP) was selected to investigate the distribution and removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and three forms of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), namely intracellular ARGs (iARGs), adsorbed-extracellular ARGs (aeARGs), and free extracellular ARGs (feARGs). Tetracycline, sulfanilamide, and ampicillin ARB were detected with the total absolute concentration of 8.45×102-2.38×105 CFU·mL-1; the absolute concentrations of three types of ARB decreased by 0.04 lg-0.21 lg through anaerobic treatment. The effect of aeration and precipitation treatment on ARB varies with its type, and the absolute concentration of ARB in effluent was 0.12 lg-0.63 lg higher than that in influent. The absolute abundance of aeARGs and iARGs in activated sludge was 1.96×107-3.02×1010 copies·g-1 and 5.22×107-4.15×1010 copies·g-1, respectively; the absolute abundance of feARGs in wastewater was 5.90×108-1.01×1012 copies·L-1. Anaerobic treatment can remove 0.13 lg-0.65 lg aeARGs and 0.04 lg-0.28 lg iARGs, while the removal efficiency of aeARGs and iARGs by aeration and precipitation process was affected by ARGs types and forms. The absolute abundance of feARGs in effluent is 0.06 lg-0.81 lg higher than that in influent. Redundancy analysis showed that the concentration of ARB was significantly positively correlated with chemical oxygen demand (COD), Cl-, and total nitrogen concentration (P<0.05). The abundance of aeARGs was positively correlated with COD and total nitrogen concentration (P<0.05), and both the abundance of iARGs and feARGs are positively correlated with heavy metals concentration (P<0.05). This study confirmed the enrichment risk of ARB and different forms of ARGs in PWWTPs, which provided references for the research and prevention of antibiotic resistance pollution in industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Águas Residuárias/análise
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5543185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258266

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome with high morbidity and mortality. The main pathological features of ALI are increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, edema, uncontrolled migration of neutrophils to the lungs, and diffuse alveolar damage, resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Glucocorticoids, aspirin, and other anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat ALI. Respiratory supports, such as a ventilator, are used to alleviate hypoxemia. Many treatment methods are available, but they cannot significantly ameliorate the quality of life of patients with ALI and reduce mortality rates. Herbal active ingredients, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, and quinonoids, exhibit advantages for ALI prevention and treatment, but the underlying mechanism needs further study. This paper summarizes the role of herbal active ingredients in anti-ALI therapy and progresses in the understanding of their mechanisms. The work also provides some references and insights for the discovery and development of novel drugs for ALI prevention and treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224923

RESUMO

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood and usually occurs in the limbs, trunk, and peritoneum. Less than 10% of MFH cases occur in the head and neck region. The clinical manifestations and pathological features of MFH are atypical, and it is difficult to make a clinical diagnosis. We describe a rare case of MFH of the floor of mouth and provide our diagnosis and treatment experiences. Through this review, we also evaluate the origin, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, clinical presentations, pathological features, treatment methods, and prognosis of MFH. MFH may originate from fibroblasts or primitive mesenchymal cells. MFH was defined as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the 2002 WHO classification of bone and soft tissue tumors. The most common manifestation of MFH is a painless enlarging nodule, often without overlying epidermal ulcers. Jaw lesions are usually found after displays of swelling, pain, paresthesia, and loose teeth. MFH is composed of pleomorphic spindle cells, usually with hemorrhage, necrosis, and lymphocyte infiltration. The main treatment method is surgical resection. Moreover, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have certain auxiliary effects. The local recurrence and distant metastasis of MFH are common, and the prognosis is poor. Therefore, determining the histopathological features of MFH and conducting appropriate immunohistochemical examinations are crucial in establishing the correct diagnosis. In-depth study is required in order to have a better understanding of head and neck MFH.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272794

RESUMO

We introduce a new and highly efficient synthetic protocol towards multifunctional fluorescent cyclopeptides by solid-phase peptide macrocyclization via dipyrrin construction, with full scope of proteinogenic amino acids and different ring sizes. Various bicyclic peptides can be created by dipyrrin-based crosslinking and double dipyrrin-ring formation. The embedded dipyrrin can be, respectively, either transformed to fluorescent BODIPY and then utilized as cancer-selective targeted protein imaging probe in vitro , or directly employed as a selective metal sensor in aqueous media. This work furnishes a valuable addition to the peptide macrocyclization toolbox and blueprints the development of multifunctional dipyrrin linkers in cyclopeptides for a wide range of potential bioapplications.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263671

RESUMO

This paper proposes, a method for the physical modeling of the perimodiolar electrode, particularly for the process of recovering its preset shape with the guide wire drawn out, based on the composite spring-mass model by employing the virtual-volumetric spring inspired from the traditional spring-mass model. Simulation experiments of modeling and virtual insertion of perimodiolar electrode were carried out. The results indicated that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the local deformation angles of the simulated and measured sets of mass points, (1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), …, (13, 14, 15), were 6.34° and 5.98°, respectively. Additionally, the physical model of the perimodiolar electrode can reflect the overall morphological changes of the real perimodiolar electrode.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281077

RESUMO

An effective approach for assessing a drug's potential to induce autoimmune diseases (ADs) is needed in drug development. Here, we aim to develop a workflow to examine the association between structural alerts and drugs-induced ADs to improve toxicological prescreening tools. Considering reactive metabolite (RM) formation as a well-documented mechanism for drug-induced ADs, we investigated whether the presence of certain RM-related structural alerts was predictive for the risk of drug-induced AD. We constructed a database containing 171 RM-related structural alerts, generated a dataset of 407 AD- and non-AD-associated drugs, and performed statistical analysis. The nitrogen-containing benzene substituent alerts were found to be significantly associated with the risk of drug-induced ADs (odds ratio = 2.95, p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we developed a machine-learning-based predictive model by using daily dose and nitrogen-containing benzene substituent alerts as the top inputs and achieved the predictive performance of area under curve (AUC) of 70%. Additionally, we confirmed the reactivity of the nitrogen-containing benzene substituent aniline and related metabolites using quantum chemistry analysis and explored the underlying mechanisms. These identified structural alerts could be helpful in identifying drug candidates that carry a potential risk of drug-induced ADs to improve their safety profiles.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283592

RESUMO

The practical synthesis of P-stereogenic tertiary phosphines, which have wide applications in asymmetric catalysis, materials, and pharmaceutical chemistry, represents a significant challenge. A regio- and enantioselective hydrophosphination using cheap and ubiquitous alkynes catalyzed by a nickel complex was designed, in which the toxic and air-sensitive secondary phosphines were prepared in situ from bench-stable secondary phosphine oxides. This methodology has been demonstrated with unprecedented substrate scope and functional group compatibility to afford electronically and structurally diversified P(III) compounds. The products could be easily converted into various precursors of bidentate ligands and organocatalysts, as well as a variety of transition-metal complexes containing both P- and metal-stereogenic centers.

9.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(4): 109-116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the association between TBX21 gene polymorphisms (rs17250932, rs2240017, and rs4794067) and the risk of autoimmune diseases in Asian populations. METHODS: The Medline, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were used to retrieve eligible studies that were published before July 2020. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by using the dominant model, heterozygote contrast model, and allelic contrast model. Publication bias was evaluated using contour-enhanced funnel plots and Egger's regression test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of this meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 12 eligible studies including 3834 patients and 4824 healthy controls were recruited in this meta-analysis. The pooled data demonstrated that TBX21 rs2240017 and rs4794067 polymorphisms are significantly associated with the risk of autoimmune diseases in Asian populations in allelic contrast model (OR: 1.456, 95% CI: 1.131-1.875, p=0.004; OR: 0.766, 95% CI: 0.615-0.954, p=0.017), heterozygote comparison model (OR: 1.647, 95% CI: 1.239-2.189, p=0.001; OR: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.634-0.999, p=0.049), and dominant mode (OR: 1.572, 95% CI: 1.194-2.071, p=0.004; OR: 0.767, 95% CI: 0.607-0.970, p=0.027). The G allele of rs2240017 may be a risk factor for autoimmune diseases and the T allele of rs4794067 may increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. However, we failed to find evidence of the association between TBX21 rs17250932 polymorphism and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that TBX21 rs2240017 and rs4794067 polymorphisms confer susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, but not rs17250932.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227005

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a complex and multifactorial disease which stems significantly from both environmental and genetic factors. A growing number of epidemiological studies have suggested that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may play an important role in breast cancer development. However, no consistency has been reached concerning whether high levels of air pollutant exposure were related to increased breast cancer risk among the current evidence. To further clarify such association of long-term AAP exposure with risk of breast cancer, a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was performed. An extensive literature search in 3 academic databases was conducted before March 10, 2020. The risk of bias (RoB) for each individual study was evaluated with a domain-based assessment tool, developed by the National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT). Meta-estimates for air pollutant-breast cancer combinations were calculated for a standardized increment in exposure by random-effect models. The confidence level in the body of evidence and the certainty of evidence was also assessed for each air pollutant-breast cancer combination. The initial search identified 5446 studies, and 18 of them were eligible. The pooled analysis found an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with an increase in each 10 µg/m3 in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.04), while particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5, PM10) revealed no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Our evaluation on the certainty of evidence indicates that there was a "moderate level of evidence" in the body of evidence for an association of NO2 exposure with an increased breast cancer risk and an "inadequate level of evidence" in the body of evidence for an association of PM2.5 and PM10 exposure with an increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests long-term exposure to NO2 is related to an increased risk of breast cancer. However, in consideration of the limitations, further studies, especially performed in developing countries, with improvements in exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, and confounder adjustment, are needed to draw a definite evidence of a causal relationship.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8836355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211634

RESUMO

Idiopathic hypercalciuria is an important risk factor for the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is closely related to cell and tissue remodeling and is involved in ectopic tissue calcification. However, little is known about its role in kidney stone formation. In this study, we found that the expression of MMP-9 and that of osteoblastic-related proteins was increased in normal rat kidney epithelial-like (NRK-52E) cells following treatment with a high concentration of calcium, while the knockout or overexpression of MMP-9 could, respectively, significantly inhibit or upregulate the expression of osteoblastic-related proteins and calcium crystal deposition. In addition, apoptosis and calcium crystal deposition were significantly reduced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 1,25(OH)2D3-induced hypercalciuria following MMP-9 inhibitor I treatment. Furthermore, inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathway significantly reduced calcium-induced MMP-9 expression and calcium crystal deposition. In summary, our results suggested that a high calcium concentration promotes epithelial-osteoblastic transformation and calcium crystal deposition in renal tubule cells by regulating the ROS/NF-κB/MMP-9 axis and identified a novel role for MMP-9 in regulating calcium-induced calcium crystal deposition in renal tubules.

12.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy has been widely used in intensive care units (ICU); however, its efficacy remains inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of HFNO therapy with th at of alternative noninvasive oxygen therapies such as conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in ICU. METHODS: A Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library database search was performed in March 2020. Results: The meta-analysis ultimately included 17 clinical studies. Compared with the overall effect of COT and NIV, HFNO was associated with a low incidence of pneumonia (95% CI: 0.6-0.99, P = 0.04) and improvement in lowest pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) during oxygenation (95% CI: 0.02-1.61; P = 0.04). However, no differences were detected in the following outcomes: length of ICU stay, the rate of intubation or reintubation, mortality at day 28, hospital mortality, and SpO2 at the end of oxygen therapy (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients in ICU, HFNO may improve oxygenation and decrease pneumonia rate without affecting the length of ICU stay, intubation or reintubation rate, mortality, and SpO2 at the end of oxygen therapy.

13.
Appl Opt ; 60(16): 4557-4566, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143009

RESUMO

This paper proposes a design method for an off-axis reflective anamorphic optical system (ORAOS). This method first applies vector aberration theory to establish a mathematical model to balance the aberration of an ORAOS. It then builds the error function of structural parameters and constraints through spatial ray tracing and grouping design. Next, it introduces automatic adjustment of weight factors for dynamic balance of aberrations and constraints. A particle swarm simulated annealing algorithm is used to iteratively calculate the initial structure of the ORAOS. Finally, we use an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic projection objective with off-axis six-reflective anamorphic mirrors (${\beta _x} = 1/4,{\beta _y} = 1/8$) as an example to verify the effectiveness of this method. We obtain an EUV lithographic anamorphic objective with a numerical aperture of 0.55 and a root mean square wavefront error better than $1/30\lambda$ (${\hat{\text I}}\gg\, = 13.5\;{\rm nm}$).

14.
Appl Opt ; 60(15): 4469-4476, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143140

RESUMO

Tomographic approaches in confined space require advanced imaging algorithms that can properly consider the refractive distortion as the imaging rays pass through the optical wall. Our previous work established an algorithm (cross-interfaces computed tomography, CICT) and practically solved tomographic problems in confined space. However, critical restriction was found in CICT, which is that images simulated at small azimuth angles are contaminated with noticeable signal loss and become unusable. Based on this recognition, this work has developed an improved tomography approach, namely, full-field cross-interfaces computed tomography (FCICT), to extend the available view angles to all perspectives. The key to this approach involves the 3D domain discretization using voxel parallelepipeds instead of traditional voxel layers to establish the ray-tracing relationship between imaging planes and the measurement domain. The imaging process of FCICT is first validated by quantitatively comparing the grid imaging locations in measured and simulated projections of a calibration plate. By evenly distributing the view angles in the whole azimuth angle range, the FCICT reconstruction is then numerically validated by reconstructing a simulated double-cone flame phantom. The reconstruction presents a high correlation coefficient of ${\sim}{98}\%$ with the original phantom. Finally, the FCICT is employed to reconstruct an ethylene-air premixed flame. Comparisons show that re-projections generated by the FCICT reconstruction are in accordance with measured flame images, with the mean correlation coefficients of more than 95%.

15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102388, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin is the first line of defense against harmful external environmental factors. Skin flora living on the skin surface impact skin health and skin disease. Bacteria, form part of the unique and complex skin micro-ecological system. For example, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a member of the anaerobic organisms and is involved in the induction of skin acne. It produces porphyrins that absorb ultraviolet light and emit red fluorescence in response. As a result, fluorescence surveillance of the skin can be important in both the diagnosis of skin acne and the evaluation of therapeutic effects. Many different measurement methods for single skin biophysical properties have been reported.. This study focused on the age-dependent changes in porphyrins for normal skin, and developed a novel algorithm to evaluate porphyrins using the fluorescence images by image processing quantitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extraction algorithm was proposed for the segmentation of porphyrin fluorescence images in OpenCV. The algorithm consisted primarily of preprocessing, conversion from RGB color space to HSV color space, and classification of fluorescence. There are 3595 healthy Japanese aged 16-85 years enrolled in the study and fluorescence images were acquired from their cheek sites under 375 nm UV-LED excitation. Age-related fluorescence variation was conducted applying the algorithm implemented. RESULTS: A new extraction algorithm has been proposed with fluorescence image input and three indexes output, including the number of fluorescence, area of fluorescence, and mean intensity of fluorescence. Proposed algorithm was verified by three parameters, the accuracy, sensitivity, and precision, which refer to the ability of algorithm to detect the number of fluorescence correctly and repeatedly. The verification results were 71%, 72%, and 88% respectively, taking a validly fundamental step for skin health record and analysis. Furthermore, large-scale fluorescence image segmentation results revealed that similar trends were coming out for all three indexes in cheek as people get older. All the fluorescence number, area and mean intensity arrived at the highest at 30 years old and fell off since then. CONCLUSION: The number, area, and fluorescence intensity of porphyrins can be extracted well from fluorescence images with the proposed algorithm in the study, which has the potential to aid in thediagnosis of skin acne and predict skin conditions as an assisted tool. It is implicated that fluorescence status is influenced by age, which rises to the peak around 30 years old for normal cheek's skin.

17.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(3): 15579883211029458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190625

RESUMO

There have been no studies as to whether parthanatos, a poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-dependent and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death, is present in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Basic studies have, however, been conducted on several of the key molecules in parthanatos, such as PARP-1, AIF, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). For this study, we collected blood samples from 88 incident male patients with PH and 50 healthy controls at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. We measured the key factors of parthanatos (PARP-1, PAR, AIF, and MIF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and performed a logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Kaplan-Meier test to assess the prognostic value of the key molecules in diagnosing and predicting survival. The patients who ultimately died had a significantly poorer clinical status during the study than those who survived. The PARP-1, PAR, AIF, and MIF levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (all p < .0001), and the PARP-1, PAR, and AIF levels were higher in the nonsurvivors than in the survivors (all p < .0001). PARP-1 and AIF levels served as independent predictors of disease onset and mortality in these patients (all p < .005). Patients with PARP-1 levels <11.24 ng/mL or AIF levels <1.459 pg/mL had significantly better survival than those with higher PARP-1 or AIF levels (p < .0001). Circulating levels of PARP-1 and AIF were independent predictors for PH onset and mortality, which indicated that parthanatos might be associated with the pathogenesis of PH.

18.
Skin Res Technol ; 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin micro-relief has been researched by a variety of devices and methods, which usually are expensive or complicated. On the other hand, skin micro-relief relates to quite a few parameters, and it is hard to evaluate all of them at the same time. In the study, all parameters related to skin micro-relief are extracted and evaluated by image analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skin micro-relief evaluation was divided into four aspects: (a) Tamura features method was used to evaluate skin surface. (b) Morphological transform was applied to extract skin pores. (c) Watershed transform was applied to extract skin furrows. (d) labeling operation was used to evaluate the number, area and average area of skin closed polygons. Then, cheek images from 163 healthy Japanese females (0-70 years old) are analyzed to explore the age-dependent changes. RESULTS: Most parameters increased as age went on with significant differences, such as skin surface coarseness, contrast, skin pore number, area, average area, skin furrow width, skin closed polygon area and skin closed polygon average area. Skin coarseness has a strong correlation with pore area. CONCLUSION: The method proposed in the study provided a comprehensive and effective assessment of skin micro-relief.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147130, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088150

RESUMO

The effects of global warming and anthropogenic disturbance force animals to migrate from lower to higher elevations to find suitable new habitats. As such migrations increase hypoxic stress on the animals, it is important to understand how plateau- and plain-dwelling animals respond to low-oxygen environments. We used comparative transcriptomics to explore the response of Neodon fuscus, Lasiopodomys brandtii, and Mus musculus skeletal muscle tissues to hypoxic conditions. Results indicate that these species have adopted different oxygen transport and energy metabolism strategies for dealing with a hypoxic environment. N. fuscus promotes oxygen transport by increasing hemoglobin synthesis and reduces the risk of thrombosis through cooperative regulation of genes, including Fga, Fgb, Alb, and Ttr; genes such as Acs16, Gpat4, and Ndufb7 are involved in regulating lipid synthesis, fatty acid ß-oxidation, hemoglobin synthesis, and electron-linked transmission, thereby maintaining a normal energy supply in hypoxic conditions. In contrast, the oxygen-carrying capacity and angiogenesis of red blood cells in L. brandtii are promoted by genes in the CYP and COL families; this species maintains its bodily energy supply by enhancing the pentose phosphate pathway and mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway. However, under hypoxia, M. musculus cannot effectively transport additional oxygen; thus, its cell cycle, proliferation, and migration are somewhat affected. Given its lack of hypoxic tolerance experience, M. musculus also shows significantly reduced oxidative phosphorylation levels under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that the glucose capacity of M. musculus skeletal muscle does not provide sufficient energy during hypoxia; thus, we hypothesize that it supplements its bodily energy by synthesizing ketone bodies. For the first time, we describe the energy metabolism pathways of N. fuscus and L. brandtii skeletal muscle tissues under hypoxic conditions. Our findings, therefore, improve our understanding of how vertebrates thrive in high altitude and plain habitats when faced with hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has survival benefits in patients with intraperitoneal malignant lesions, but there is no study specific to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). PURPOSE: To compare the prognosis of patients with advanced ICC undergoing CRS + HIPEC compared with CRS alone. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients with advanced ICC treated at the Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital between 01/2014 and 12/2018. The patients were divided into either CRS + HIPEC or CRS group based on the treatment they received. Overall survival (OS), complications, hospital stay, biochemical indicators, tumor markers, and number of HIPEC were examined. RESULTS: There were 51 and 61 patients in the CRS + HIPEC and CRS groups, respectively. There were no differences between the groups regarding preoperative CA19-9 levels (421 ± 381 vs. 523 ± 543 U/mL, P = 0.208). The hospital stay was longer in the CRS + HIPEC group (22.2 ± 10.0 vs. 18.6 ± 7.6 days, P = 0.033). The occurrence of overall complications was similar in the two groups (37.2% vs. 34.4%, P = 0.756). The postoperative CA19-9 levels were lower in the CRS + HIPEC group compared with the CRS group (196 ± 320 vs. 337 ± 396 U/mL, P = 0.044). The median OS was longer in the CRS + HIPEC group than in the CRS group (25.53 vs. 11.17 months, P < 0.001). Compared with the CRS group, the CRS + HIPEC group showed a higher occurrence of leukopenia (7.8% vs. 0, P = 0.040) but a lower occurrence of total bilirubin elevation (15.7% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: CRS + HIPEC could be a treatment option for patients with advanced ICC, with improved OS and similar complications and adverse events compared with CRS alone.

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