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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100433], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230376

RESUMO

Background: The exact causal mechanisms of depression remain unclear due to the complexity of the triggers, which has led to limitations in treating depression using modern drugs. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is as effective as medication in treating depression without toxic side effects. Typically, HIIT requires less time commitment (i.e., shorter exercise duration) and exhibits pronounced benefits on depressive symptoms than other forms of physical exercise. This review summarizes the risk reduction and clinical effects of HIIT for depression and discusses the underlying mechanisms, providing a theoretical basis for utilizing HIIT in treating depression. Methods: A database search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception up to October 2022. The methodological quality of the included literature was evaluated by the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale criteria. The review focused on evaluating the changes in depression risk or symptoms of HIIT interventions in healthy individuals, patients with depression, and patients with other disorders co-morbid with depression. Consequently, the mechanisms associated with depression related HIIT were summarized. Results: A total of 586 participants (52 % female; mean age: 43.58±8.93 years) from 22 studies were included. Implementing HIIT using different exercise types alleviates depressive symptoms in individuals with depression and in individuals with depression who have exhibited comorbidities and reduced depression scale scores in subjects immediately after acute exercise. In addition, the long-interval HIIT and short-interval HIIT in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular or psychiatric disorders may reduce depressive symptoms via complex exercise-related changes on several levels, including by effecting the following measures: releasing monoamines, reducing neuronal death, inducing neurogenesis, modulating the functional...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Depressão , Inflamação/reabilitação , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Tratamento Farmacológico
2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329740

RESUMO

Importance: Deep learning image analysis often depends on large, labeled datasets, which are difficult to obtain for rare diseases. Objective: To develop a self-supervised approach for automated classification of macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) with limited labeled data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective comparative study. OCT images from May 2014 to May 2019 were collected by the Lowy Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, and the University of Washington, Seattle, from January 2016 to October 2022. Clinical diagnoses of patients with and without MacTel were confirmed by retina specialists. Data were analyzed from January to September 2023. Exposures: Two convolutional neural networks were pretrained using the Bootstrap Your Own Latent algorithm on unlabeled training data and fine-tuned with labeled training data to predict MacTel (self-supervised method). ResNet18 and ResNet50 models were also trained using all labeled data (supervised method). Main Outcomes and Measures: The ground truth yes vs no MacTel diagnosis is determined by retinal specialists based on spectral-domain OCT. The models' predictions were compared against human graders using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under precision recall curve (AUPRC), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Uniform manifold approximation and projection was performed for dimension reduction and GradCAM visualizations for supervised and self-supervised methods. Results: A total of 2636 OCT scans from 780 patients with MacTel and 131 patients without MacTel were included from the MacTel Project (mean [SD] age, 60.8 [11.7] years; 63.8% female), and another 2564 from 1769 patients without MacTel from the University of Washington (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [18.1] years; 53.4% female). The self-supervised approach fine-tuned on 100% of the labeled training data with ResNet50 as the feature extractor performed the best, achieving an AUPRC of 0.971 (95% CI, 0.969-0.972), an AUROC of 0.970 (95% CI, 0.970-0.973), accuracy of 0.898%, sensitivity of 0.898, specificity of 0.949, PPV of 0.935, and NPV of 0.919. With only 419 OCT volumes (185 MacTel patients in 10% of labeled training dataset), the ResNet18 self-supervised model achieved comparable performance, with an AUPRC of 0.958 (95% CI, 0.957-0.960), an AUROC of 0.966 (95% CI, 0.964-0.967), and accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 90.2%, 0.884, 0.916, 0.896, and 0.906, respectively. The self-supervised models showed better agreement with the more experienced human expert graders. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that self-supervised learning may improve the accuracy of automated MacTel vs non-MacTel binary classification on OCT with limited labeled training data, and these approaches may be applicable to other rare diseases, although further research is warranted.

3.
ISME Commun ; 4(1): ycad008, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304080

RESUMO

Diatoms, a prominent group of phytoplankton, have a significant impact on both the oceanic food chain and carbon sequestration, thereby playing a crucial role in regulating the climate. These highly diverse organisms show a wide geographic distribution across various latitudes. In addition to their ecological significance, diatoms represent a vital source of bioactive compounds that are widely used in biotechnology applications. In the present study, we investigated the genetic and transcriptomic diversity of 17 accessions of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum including those sampled a century ago as well as more recently collected accessions. The analysis of the data reveals a higher genetic diversity and the emergence of novel clades, indicating an increasing diversity within the P. tricornutum population structure, compared to the previous study and a persistent long-term balancing selection of genes in old and newly sampled accessions. However, the study did not establish a clear link between the year of sampling and genetic diversity, thereby, rejecting the hypothesis of loss of heterozygoty in cultured strains. Transcript analysis identified novel transcript including noncoding RNA and other categories of small RNA such as PiwiRNAs. Additionally, transcripts analysis using differential expression as well as Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis has provided evidence that the suppression or downregulation of genes cannot be solely attributed to loss-of-function mutations. This implies that other contributing factors, such as epigenetic modifications, may play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. Our study provides novel genetic resources, which are now accessible through the platform PhaeoEpiview (https://PhaeoEpiView.univ-nantes.fr), that offer both ease of use and advanced tools to further investigate microalgae biology and ecology, consequently enriching our current understanding of these organisms.

4.
J Nutr Health Aging ; : 100167, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low muscle mass is related to cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to investigate whether relative low muscle mass is related to the diameter and tortuosity of the aorta. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 208 adults without known cardiovascular disease who underwent Computed Tomography (CT) enhanced scan between 2020 and 2021. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was estimated. The morphology of the aorta was measured by diameter and tortuosity using CT. We assessed the relationship between SMI and diameter and tortuosity of the aorta using Spearman correlation analysis and univariate and multivariate-adjusted regression models. RESULTS: Of all -individuals, 124 (59.6%) were male. The average age was 60.13 ± 16.33 years old. SMI was inversely associated with the diameter and tortuosity of the aorta (p < 0.05). Specifically, in a multivariable-adjusted model adjusting for potential confounders, a one-unit increase in the SMI was associated with a -13.56mm(95% confidence intervals (CI): -18.16 to -8.96, p < 0.001), -7.93 mm (95% CI: -10.85 to -5.02, p < 0.001), -8.01 mm (95% CI: -11.30 to -4.73, p < 0.001), -5.16 mm (95% CI: -7.57 to -2.75, p < 0.001) and -2.73 mm (95% CI: -5.18 to -0.27, p = 0.031) increase in L1-L5 diameter respectively, a -0.89 (95% CI: -1.14 to -0.64, p < 0.001) increase in the aorta tortuosity, a -0.48 (95% CI: -0.59 to -0.36, p < 0.001) increase in the descending thoracic aorta tortuosity, and a -0.44 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.35, p < 0.001) increase in the abdominal aorta tortuosity. CONCLUSIONS: Relative muscle mass was negatively associated with the diameter and tortuosity of the aorta, suggesting muscle mass maintenance may play a role in preventing aortic morphological changes.

5.
Chemistry ; : e202304005, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314958

RESUMO

Poly(vinyl chloride) undergoes dechlorination in the presence of triethylsilane (Et3SiH) and a catalytic amount of [Cp2Zr(NPh2)][CH3B(C6F5)3] (1b) at 40-80 °C, with up to 91 % efficiency. Stoichiometric reactivity studies conducted on cyclohexyl chloride as a model suggest that 1b dechlorinates PVC by initial chloride abstraction, followed by hydride transfer to the cationic PVC chain from Et3SiH. Consumer items such as pipe fitting, vinyl disc or electric cable insulation undergo either dechlorination or hydrosilylation of the carbonyl-containing copolymer (polyvinyl acetate) or plasticizer (phthalate).

6.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317382

RESUMO

AIMS: Levofloxacin is a quinolone antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum. It is frequently used in elderly patients with pneumonia. The pharmacokinetic profile of elderly patients changes with age, but data on the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in these patients are limited. The aim of this study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model of levofloxacin in elderly patients with pneumonia and to optimize individualized dosing regimens based on this newly developed model. METHODS: This is a prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic study in elderly patients with pneumonia. Blood samples were collected using an opportunistic approach. The plasma concentrations of levofloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A population pharmacokinetic model was established using nonlinear mixed-effect model software. Monte Carlo simulations were used for dose simulation and dose optimization. RESULTS: Data from 51 elderly patients with pneumonia were used for the population pharmacokinetic analysis. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was most suitable for describing the data, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate was the only covariate that had a significant impact on the model. The final model estimated that the mean clearance of levofloxacin in elderly patients with pneumonia was 5.26 L/h. Monte Carlo simulation results showed that the optimal dosing regimen for levofloxacin was 750 mg once a day in elderly patients with pneumonia, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: The population pharmacokinetic model of levofloxacin in elderly patients with pneumonia was established, and the dose optimization of levofloxacin was completed through Monte Carlo simulation.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1334414, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318295

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic foot ulcers constitute a substantial healthcare burden on a global scale and present challenges in achieving healing. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of modified tibial cortex transverse transport surgery in managing refractory diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 98 patients suffering from diabetic foot ulcers classified as Wagner grade ≥II who were admitted to our medical facility between January 2020 and June 2022. All the patients were treated by modified tibial cortex transverse transport surgery, wherein the osteotomy scope was reduced to two rectangular bone windows measuring 1.5cm × 1.5cm each. Record the patient's general information and ulcer healing time; ulcer area, ankle-brachial index, WIFi classification, and visual analogue scale before and 3 months following the surgical intervention. Results: The average duration of diabetes of 98 patients with diabetic foot ulcer was 20.22 ± 8.02 years, 52 patients had more than one toe gangrene on admission. The postoperative wound healing rate was 95.83% and the average healing time was 53.18 ± 20.18 days. The patients showed significant improvement in ankle-brachial index, WIFi classification, and visual analogue scale at 3 months postoperatively compared to preoperatively, with statistically significant differences (P< 0.05). Eight patients experienced complications, and the incidence of complications was 8.16%. Throughout the follow-up period, there were no instances of ulcer recurrence noted. Conclusion: Modified tibial cortex transverse transport surgery demonstrates effectiveness in the management of diabetic foot ulcers by enhancing lower limb microcirculation and facilitating the process of wound healing.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Humanos , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior , Cicatrização
8.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314665

RESUMO

As the most abundant form of methylation modification in messenger RNA (mRNA), the distribution of N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) has been preliminarily revealed in herbaceous plants under salt stress, but its function and mechanism in woody plants were still unknown. Here, we showed that global m6 A levels increased during poplar response to salt stress. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) revealed that m6 A significantly enriched in the coding sequence region and 3'-untranslated regions in poplar, by recognising the conserved motifs, AGACU, GGACA and UGUAG. A large number of differential m6 A transcripts have been identified, and some have been proved involving in salt response and plant growth and development. Further combined analysis of MeRIP-seq and RNA-seq revealed that the m6 A hypermethylated and enrich in the CDS region preferred to positively regulate expression abundance. Writer inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A treatment increased the sensitivity of poplar to salt stress by reducing mRNA stability to regulate the expression of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Furthermore, we verified that the methyltransferase PagFIP37 plays a positively role in the response of poplar to salt stress, overexpressed lines have stronger salt tolerance, while RNAi lines were more sensitive to salt, which relied on regulating mRNA stability in an m6 A manner of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Collectively, these results revealed the regulatory role of m6 A methylation in poplar response to salt stress, and revealed the importance and mechanism of m6 A methylation in the response of woody plants to salt stress for the first time.

9.
Cell Metab ; 36(2): 408-421.e5, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325336

RESUMO

Statins are currently the most common cholesterol-lowering drug, but the underlying mechanism of statin-induced hyperglycemia is unclear. To investigate whether the gut microbiome and its metabolites contribute to statin-associated glucose intolerance, we recruited 30 patients with atorvastatin and 10 controls, followed up for 16 weeks, and found a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium in feces and altered serum and fecal bile acid profiles among patients with atorvastatin therapy. Animal experiments validated that statin could induce glucose intolerance, and transplantation of Clostridium sp. and supplementation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) could ameliorate statin-induced glucose intolerance. Furthermore, oral UDCA administration in humans alleviated the glucose intolerance without impairing the lipid-lowering effect. Our study demonstrated that the statin-induced hyperglycemic effect was attributed to the Clostridium sp.-bile acids axis and provided important insights into adjuvant therapy of UDCA to lower the adverse risk of statin therapy.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Resistência à Insulina , Microbiota , Humanos , Animais , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico
10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399843

RESUMO

Polysiloxane with multiple acryloxyl groups at the terminal site of the polymer chain was synthesized by the condensation reaction between hydroxyl-terminated polysiloxane and acryloyl chloride and used to improve the cross-linking density of UV-curable silicone materials initiated from dual acryloxy-terminated symmetric polysiloxane or single acryloxy-terminated asymmetric polysiloxane with the mixture of Irgacure 1173 and Irgacure 184 at a mass ratio of 1:1 as the photoinitiator. The effects of factors such as initiator composition, UV irradiation time, structure, and molecular weight of linear dual acryloxy-terminated or single acryloxy-terminated asymmetric siloxane oligomers on the gelation yield, thermal properties, water absorption, and water contact angle of UV-cured film were investigated. The synthesized cross-linking density modifier can be copolymerized with acryloxy-functionalized linear polysiloxanes under the action of a photoinitiator to increase the cross-link density of UV-cured products effectively. Both linear dual acryloxy-terminated or single acryloxy-terminated asymmetric siloxane oligomers can be copolymerized with cross-link density modifiers within 20 s of UV irradiation. The gelation yields of the UV-cured products obtained from the dual acryloxy-terminated siloxane oligomers were greater than 85%, and their surface water contact angles increased from 72.8° to 95.9° as the molecular weight of the oligomers increased. The gelation yields of UV-cured products obtained from single acryloxy-terminated asymmetric siloxane oligomers were less than 80%, and their thermal stabilities were inferior to those obtained from the dual acryloxy-terminated siloxane oligomers. However, the water contact angles of UV-cured products obtained from these single acryloxy-terminated asymmetric siloxane oligomers were all greater than 90°.

11.
Exp Eye Res ; 240: 109825, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360087

RESUMO

The cause of Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) remains unknown and its frequent recurrence may eventually lead to irreversible damage of the optic nerve. The influence of immune factors in the pathophysiology of PSS is gaining more and more interest. Increasing evidence suggests that gut dysbiosis plays vital roles in a variety of neurodegenerative and immune-related diseases. However, alterations of the gut microbiota in PSS patients have not been well defined yet. In this study, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to explore the difference of gut microbiota between PSS patients and healthy controls, and the correlation between the microbiota profile and clinical features was also analyzed. Our data demonstrated a significant increase of Prevotella and Prevotellaceae, and a significant reduction of Bacteroides and Bacteroidaceae in PSS patients, and KEGG analysis showed dysfunction of gut microbiota between PSS patients and healthy controls. Interestingly, further analysis showed that the alteration of gut microbiota was correlated with the PSS attack frequency of PSS. This study demonstrated the gut microbiota compositional profile of PSS patients and speculated the risk microbiota of PSS, which is expected to provide new insights for the diagnosis and treatment of PSS.

12.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 50(4): 108020, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish a spectral CT-based nomogram for predicting early neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) response for locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC). METHODS: This study prospectively recruited 222 cases (177 male and 45 female patients, 9.59 ± 9.54 years) receiving NAC and radical gastrectomy. Triple enhanced spectral CT scans were performed before NAC initiation. According to post-operative tumor regression grade (TRG), patients were classified into responders (TRG = 0 + 1) or non-responders (TRG = 2 + 3), and split into a primary (156) and validation (66) dataset at 7:3 ratio chronologically. We compared clinicopathological data, follow-up information, iodine concentration (IC), normalized ICs (nICs) in arterial/venous/delayed phases (AP/VP/DP) between responders and non-responders. Independent risk factors of response were screened by multivariable logistic regression and adopted for model construction. Model was visualized by nomograms and its capability was determined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Log-rank survival analysis was conducted to explore associations between TRG, nomogram and patients' survival. RESULTS: This work identified Borrmann classification, ICDP, and nICDP were independent risk factors of response outcomes. A spectral CT-based nomogram was built accordingly and achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.797 (0.692-0.879) and 0.741(0.661-0.811) for the primary and validation dataset, respectively, higher than AUC of individual parameters alone. The nomogram was related to disease-free survival in the validation dataset (Hazard ratio (HR): 5.19 [1.18-12.93], P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The spectral CT-based nomogram provides an efficient tool for predicting the pathologic response outcomes of GC after NAC and disease-free survival risk stratification.

13.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 37: 101600, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371527

RESUMO

Background: Cancer growth is significantly influenced by processes such as pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis that underlie PANoptosis, a proinflammatory programmed cell death. Several studies have examined the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD). However, the predictive value of lncRNAs related to PANoptosis for PAAD has not been established. Methods: The Clinical Genome Atlas database was used to obtain the transcriptome 、clinical data and the corresponding mutation data of the patients with PAAD in this study. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis was employed to obtain prognosis-related lncRNAs for constructing a risk signature. According to the median risk score of the signature, patients with PAAD were grouped into low- and high-risk groups to further compare the survival prognosis of different risk groups. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves, c-index analysis, nomograms, principal component analysis and univariate Cox and multivariate Cox regression were performed for the internal validation of the signature. In addition, enrichment analysis of different genes was performed using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Lastly, differences in tumor mutation burden (TMB), immune function, tumor immune dysfunction and rejection (TIDE), and drug response were determined for the two risk groups. Results: The signature was constructed with six PANoptosis-related lncRNAs (AC067817.2、LINC02004、AC243829.1、AC092171.5、AP005233.2、AC004687.1) that predicted the prognosis of the patients with PAAD. Survival curves showed that patients in the two risk groups had statistically significant differences in prognosis (P < 0.05), and multi-cox regression analysis identified risk score as an independent risk factor for PAAD prognosis, and internal validation of nomograms showed high confidence in the signature. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed functional and pathway differences between the high- and low-risk groups. TMB evaluation demonstrated that patients in the high-risk group had a higher frequency of mutations. The TIDE score indicated that the high-risk group had a lower risk of immunotherapy escape and better immunotherapy outcomes. Additionally, the two risk groups revealed significantly different responses to 11 anticancer drugs. Conclusion: We identified a novel risk signature for PANoptosis-related lncRNAs, which is a standalone prognostic indicator for PAAD. The PANoptosis-related lncRNA risk signature may be relevant for immunotherapy and a therapeutic target for PAAD.

14.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence of influenza virus has highlighted the value of public databases and related bioinformatic analysis tools in investigating transcriptomic change caused by different influenza virus infections in human and animal models. METHODS: We collected a large amount of transcriptome research data related to influenza virus-infected human and animal models in public databases (GEO and ArrayExpress), and extracted and integrated array and metadata. The gene expression matrix was generated through strictly quality control, balance, standardization, batch correction, and gene annotation. We then analyzed gene expression in different species, virus, cells/tissues or after antibody/vaccine treatment and imported sample metadata and gene expression datasets into the database. RESULTS: Overall, maintaining careful processing and quality control, we collected 8064 samples from 103 independent datasets, and constructed a comparative transcriptomics database of influenza virus named the Flu-CED database (Influenza comparative expression database, https://flu.com-med.org.cn/). Using integrated and processed transcriptomic data, we established a user-friendly website for realizing the integration, online retrieval, visualization, and exploration of gene expression of influenza virus infection in different species and the biological functions involved in differential genes. Flu-CED can quickly query single and multi-gene expression profiles, combining different experimental conditions for comparative transcriptome analysis, identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between comparison groups, and conveniently finding DEGs. CONCLUSION: Flu-CED provides data resources and tools for analyzing gene expression in human and animal models infected with influenza virus that can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease occurrence and development, and enable prediction of key genes or therapeutic targets that can be used for medical research.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 186, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we describe the patterns of antibiotic prescription for neonates based on World Health Organization's (WHO) Essential Medicines List Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe), and the Management of Antibiotic Classification (MAC) Guidelines in China. METHODS: One-day point-prevalence surveys (PPS) on antimicrobial prescriptions were conducted on behalf of hospitalized neonates in China from September 1 and November 30, annually from 2017 to 2019. RESULTS: Data was collected for a total of 2674 neonatal patients from 15 hospitals in 9 provinces across China of which 1520 were newborns who received at least one antibiotic agent. A total of 1943 antibiotic prescriptions were included in the analysis. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was meropenem (11.8%). The most common reason for prescribing antibiotic to neonates was pneumonia (44.2%). There were 419 (21.6%), 1343 (69.1%) and 6 (0.3%) antibiotic prescriptions in the Access, Watch and Reserve groups, respectively. According to MAC Guidelines in China, there were 1090 (56.1%) antibiotic agents in the Restricted and 414 (21.3%) in the Special group. CONCLUSION: Broad-spectrum antibiotics included in the Watch and Special groups were likely to be overused in Chinese neonates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia
16.
Mol Cancer ; 23(1): 31, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347558

RESUMO

Minimally invasive testing is essential for early cancer detection, impacting patient survival rates significantly. Our study aimed to establish a pioneering cell-free immune-related miRNAs (cf-IRmiRNAs) signature for early cancer detection. We analyzed circulating miRNA profiles from 15,832 participants, including individuals with 13 types of cancer and control. The data was randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets (7:2:1), with an additional external test set of 684 participants. In the discovery phase, we identified 100 differentially expressed cf-IRmiRNAs between the malignant and non-malignant, retaining 39 using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Five machine learning algorithms were adopted to construct cf-IRmiRNAs signature, and the diagnostic classifies based on XGBoost algorithm showed the excellent performance for cancer detection in the validation set (AUC: 0.984, CI: 0.980-0.989), determined through 5-fold cross-validation and grid search. Further evaluation in the test and external test sets confirmed the reliability and efficacy of the classifier (AUC: 0.980 to 1.000). The classifier successfully detected early-stage cancers, particularly lung, prostate, and gastric cancers. It also distinguished between benign and malignant tumors. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive pan-cancer analysis on cf-IRmiRNAs, offering a promising non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for early cancer detection and potential impact on clinical practice.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Gástricas , Masculino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
17.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 163-173, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332967

RESUMO

Background: There is growing evidence that an antioxidant diet is a protective factor against frailty. However, few studies have examined the effect of comprehensive dietary antioxidants on frailty symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the composite dietary antioxidant index (CDAI) and frailty and the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods: Based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2003-2018, this study included 11,277 older persons aged ≥60 years. In this study, frailty was defined as having a total score >0.21 on the 49-item frailty index. Six dietary antioxidants were selected for use in calculating the CDAI. A weighted multiple logistic regression model with subgroup analysis and restricted cubic splines (RCSs) were used to examine the association between the CDAI and frailty. To examine the role of oxidative stress, mediation analyses were also conducted. Results: The association between the CDAI score and frailty risk was significant according to the multivariate model. Compared with participants in tertile 1, participants in both tertile 2 and tertile 3 had lower odds of developing frailty symptoms (OR=0.86; 95% CI=0.75-0.97; P=0.02; and OR=0.81; 95% CI=0.70-0.93; P=0.003). According to the subgroup analyses, the differences in interactions were not statistically significant. There was also a potential nonlinear relationship between the CDAI score and frailty risk. The serum albumin concentration and uric acid concentration had significant mediating effects on the association between the CDAI score and frailty index, with 19.25% (P=0.002) and 21.26% (P < 0.001) of the total, respectively. Conclusion: Frailty is negatively associated with the CDAI score, which may be partially mediated by oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fragilidade , Idoso , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso Fragilizado , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Dieta , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
J Contam Hydrol ; 261: 104305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301313

RESUMO

Initial flush management is an effective measure to control non-point source pollution (NPSP) in storm runoff. However, determining the parameter of the initial flush in different areas may pose challenges in storm runoff management strategies. To address this issue, Erhai Lake in China, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, was selected as an example for the study. Erhai Lake is a typical mesotrophic lake with the profound influence of NPSP. The NPSP control strategy in this area will provide a valuable reference for other lakes. In 2021, 289 storm events and 190 ditchwater samples were detected around Erhai Lake. The average flow in the ditches ranged from 0.004 to 0.147 m3/s, the instant total nitrogen (TN) concentration ranged from 0.28 to 91.43 mg/L, and the instant total phosphorus (TP) concentration ranged from 0.26 to 7.35 mg/L in the storm events. It was found that the concentration of pollutants was lower than expected in the initial flush period. Instead, the event mean concentrations of TN and TP were 9.3 and 2.1 times higher than in the wet seasons, showing high nutrient concentration levels throughout the entire rainfall period. To manage storm runoff effectively, a flow-processes-division method was proposed to analyze the inflow condition and pollutant removal rate in different runoff periods. The peak flow interception strategy was recommended as the optimal stormwater management plan, as it showed the highest inflow conditions and 50% pollutant removal rate. Considering the need to reduce the constant flush of stormwater runoff, it is essential to establish a healthy water cycle system to alleviate NPSP and raise the Erhai water level. The storm runoff management method can serve as a practical tool for lake areas that do not exhibit initial flush characteristics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Chuva , China , Movimentos da Água , Fósforo , Nitrogênio/análise
19.
Adv Mater ; : e2312473, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385598

RESUMO

Organic ion-gated transistors (OIGTs) demonstrate commendable performance for versatile neuromorphic systems. However, due to the fragility of organic materials to organic solvents, efficient and reliable all-photolithography methods for scalable manufacturing of high-density OIGT arrays with multimode neuromorphic functions are still missing, especially when all active layers are patterned in high-density. Here, we fabricated a flexible high-density (9662 devices/cm2 ) OIGT array with high yield and minimal device-to-device variation by a modified all-photolithography method. The unencapsulated flexible array can withstand 1000 times' bending at a radius of 1 mm, and 3 months' storage test in air, without obvious performance degradation. More interesting, the OIGTs can be configured between volatile and nonvolatile modes, suitable for constructing reservoir computing systems to achieve high accuracy in classifying handwritten digits with low training costs. This work proposes a promising design of organic and flexible electronics for affordable neuromorphic systems, encompassing both array and algorithm aspects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 339: 111788, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to innovatively integrate both linear and nonlinear characteristics of brain signals in Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) research, with the goal of uncovering deeper insights into the pathogenesis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and identifying novel targets for other physical intervention therapies. METHODS: We measured brain entropy (BEN) in 42 MDD patients and 42 matched healthy controls (HC) using rs-fMRI data. Brain regions that differed significantly in patients with MDD before and after ECT were extracted. Then, we use these brain regions as seed points to investigate the differences in whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns before and after ECT. RESULTS: Compared to HCs, patients had higher BEN levels in the right precuneus (PCUN.R) and right angular gyrus (ANG.R). After ECT, patients had lower BEN levels in the PCUN.R and ANG.R. Compared with before ECT, patients showed significantly increased RSFC after ECT between the PCUN.R and right middle temporal gyrus and ANG.R. Significantly increased RSFC was observed between the ANG.R and right middle frontal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus after ECT. CONCLUSION: Combining the linear and nonlinear characteristics of brain signals can effectively explore the pathogenesis of depression and provide new targets for ECT.

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