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1.
Mov Disord ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a spectrum of involuntary dyskinetic disorders with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 have been identified as the major pathogenic factor. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed 600 paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patients nationwide who were identified by the China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group to summarize the clinical phenotypes and genetic features of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in China and to provide new thoughts on diagnosis and therapy. METHODS: The China Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Collaborative Group was composed of departments of neurology from 22 hospitals. Clinical manifestations and proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 screening results were recorded using unified paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia registration forms. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were conducted in patients with and without proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutations. High-knee exercises were applied in partial patients as a new diagnostic test to induce attacks. RESULTS: Kinesigenic triggers, male predilection, dystonic attacks, aura, complicated forms of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, clustering in patients with family history, and dramatic responses to antiepileptic treatment were the prominent features in this multicenter study. Clinical analysis showed that proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutation carriers were prone to present at a younger age and have longer attack duration, bilateral limb involvement, choreic attacks, a complicated form of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, family history, and more forms of dyskinesia. The new high-knee-exercise test efficiently induced attacks and could assist in diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We propose recommendations regarding diagnostic criteria for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia based on this large clinical study of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The findings offered some new insights into the diagnosis and treatment of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and might help in building standardized paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia clinical evaluations and therapies. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104882, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380051

RESUMO

The outbreak of emerging infectious pneumonia caused by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has posed an enormous threat to public health, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have made vast contribution to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) among Chinese population. As an indispensable part of TCM, Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) are highly valued and critically acclaimed in their campaign to contain and tackle the epidemic, they can achieve considerable effects for both suspected cases under medical observation period, and confirmed individuals with serious underlying diseases or critical conditions. Given this, based on the Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China, the present review summarized the basic information, clinical evidence and published literatures of recommended CPMs against COVID-19. The details were thoroughly introduced involving compositions, therapeutic effects, clinical indications, medication history of CPMs and the profiles of corresponding research. With regard to infected patients with different stages and syndrome, the preferable potentials and therapeutic mechanism of CPMs were addressed through the comprehensive collection of relevant literatures and on-going clinical trials. This study could provide an insight into clinical application and underlying mechanism of recommended CPMs against COVID-19, with the aim to share the Chinese experience in clinical practice and facilitate scientific development of TCM, especially CPMs in the fierce battle of COVID-19.

3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 238: 118375, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438293

RESUMO

DNA methylation has been identified as one of the important causes of tumorigenesis, so it is important to develop some advanced methods for detecting and quantifying DNA methylation. In this study, a label-free and enzyme-free one-step rapid colorimetric detection of DNA methylation based on unmodified Au nanoparticles(Au NPs)has been proposed. This method can quickly, efficiently, economically and easily colorimetric detect methylated DNA only by the color change of unmodified Au NPs solution without the covalent modification of Au NPs in advance or complicated instruments for implementation with practical limitations or expensive biological enzymes or traditional organic dyes during the reaction. The strategy employed the difference in electrostatic attraction of single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA against salt-induced aggregation of Au NPs. The method has a DNA methylated detection limit of 8.47 nM and it is distinctly visible to detect methylated DNA with the naked eye as low as 20 nM. Furthermore, the strategy has an ability to detect methylated DNA in the presence of abundant unmethylated DNA with the detection limit of 0.13% and as low as 1% methylated DNA can be distinguished in heterogeneous samples with the naked eye. Also, the stratagem provides a convenient and rapid platform for methylated DNA detection of human serum samples in one step, which displays a huge potential for clinical diagnosis and treatment of oncological diseases.

4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 57, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite significant advancements in the treatment and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) over the past decade, drug-resistant TB remains an increasing threat to public health. TB outbreaks are most commonly reported in schools considering the delay in TB diagnosis, sustained contact, and overcrowding observed in schools. This report describes multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) transmission in a school in Zhejiang Province. We aimed to raise awareness regarding MDR-TB transmission among students. CASE PRESENTATION: The index patient was a 16-year-old girl in the second year of junior middle school in Zhejiang Province, China, who had been experiencing persistent cough and expectoration for 37 days since 1 March 2014. She tested positive for smear pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB on 8 April 2014 and was subsequently diagnosed with MDR-TB on 1 May 2014. However, the patient was resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Thus, she was suspended from school for anti-TB treatment. All 54 students who were in close contact with the index patient in the same class were screened, and 5 tested positive on the tuberculin skin test. Their exposure time to the index patient was approximately 37 days. Three classmates were subsequently diagnosed with MDR-TB, with similar resistance profiles nearly two years later. Their average discovery delay was 55 days. These three classmates were also suspended from school for anti-TB treatment. During the treatment period, four students visited the local TB-designated hospital for further consultation every month and were followed up once a month by the local community health service center until they were completely cured. CONCLUSIONS: Discovery delay for an index patient played a primary role in MDR-TB transmission inside the school. To immediately detect TB, morning examinations in schools should be performed. TB trackers and case managers should work closely with public health workers and physicians in cases of TB outbreaks or transmissions involving students. Moreover, individuals who are in close contact with MDR-TB patients should undergo careful clinical follow-up for at least two years. Implementing a joint examination strategy to ensure early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of MDR-TB transmission is recommended.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363364

RESUMO

In this work, a tunicate-inspired gelatin-based hydrogel is prepared by simply mixing 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde (THB)-tethered gelatin solution with a small amount of Fe3+ ions via the Schiff-base reaction and simultaneous formation of hexavalent Fe-complexes. The resulting hydrogel (termed GelTHB-Fe) exhibits not only tunable gelation time, rheological properties and self-healing ability by adjusting the composition, but also robust adhesion to a variety of materials, with an average adhesion strength of 136.7 kPa, 147.3 kPa, 153.7 kPa, 92.9 kPa, and 56.5 kPa to PMMA, iron, ceramics, glass and pigskin, respectively. Intriguingly, the pyrogallol moieties impart an antibacterial activity to the GelTHB-Fe hydrogel, which is shown to reduce infection and promote wound healing in a diabetic rat model. This GelTHB-Fe hydrogel holds great potential as a promising tissue adhesive.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but the relationships between laboratory features and viral load has not been comprehensively described. METHODS: Adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 who underwent multiple (≥ 5 times) nucleic acid tests with nasal and pharyngeal swabs were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including general patients (n=70), severe patients (n=195) and critical patients (n=43). Laboratory data, demographic and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The fitted polynomial curve was used to explore the association between serial viral loads and illness severity. RESULTS: Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaked within the first few days (2-4 days) after admission, then decreased rapidly along with virus rebound under treatment. Critical patients had the highest viral loads, in contrast to the general patients showing the lowest viral loads. The viral loads were higher in sputum compared with nasal and pharyngeal swab (p=0.026). The positive rate of respiratory tract samples was significantly higher than that of gastrointestinal tract samples (p<0.001). The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was negatively correlated with portion parameters of blood routine and lymphocyte subsets, and was positively associated with laboratory features of cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: The serial viral loads of patients revealed whole viral shedding during hospitalization and the resurgence of virus during the treatment, which could be used for early warning of illness severity, thus improve antiviral interventions.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2001130, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374473

RESUMO

On-skin flexible devices provide a noninvasive approach for continuous and real-time acquisition of biological signals from the skin, which is essential for future chronic disease diagnosis and smart health monitoring. Great progress has been achieved in flexible devices to resolve the mechanical mismatching between conventional rigid devices and human skin. However, common materials used for flexible devices including silicon-based elastomers and various metals exhibit no resistance to epidermal surface lipids (skin oil and grease), which restricts the long-term and household usability. Herein, an on-skin electrode with anti-epidermal-surface-lipid function is reported, which is based on the grafting of a zwitterionic poly(2-methacryl-oyloxyethyl, methacryloyl-oxyethyl, or meth-acryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) brush on top of gold-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (Au/PDMS). Such an electrode allows the skin-lipids-fouled surface to be cleaned by simple water rinsing owing to the superhydrophilic zwitterionic groups. As a proof-of-concept, the PMPC-Au/PDMS electrodes are employed for both electrocardiography (ECG) and electromyography (EMG) recording. The electrodes are able to maintain stable skin-electrode impedance and good signal-to noise ratio (SNR) by water rinsing alone. This work provides a material-based solution to improve the long-term reusability of on-skin electronics and offers a unique prospective on developing next generation wearable healthcare devices.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375973

RESUMO

A novel obligately anaerobic, thermophilic and formate-utilizing bacterium K32T was isolated from Shengli oilfield of China. Cells were straight rods (0.4-0.8 µm × 2.5-8.0 µm), Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming and slightly motile. Optimum growth occurred with pH of 7 and 0.5 g l-1 NaCl under temperature of 55-60 °C. Nitrate could be reduced into nitrite, syntrophic formate oxidation to methane and carbon dioxide occurred when co-culturing strain K32T and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ΔH. The main cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (24.0 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (21.7 %), C16 : 0 (12.7 %) and C14 : 0 (10.8 %), and the main polar lipid was phosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.3 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of K32T shared ≤90.4 % of sequence similarity to closest type strains of Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans, Calderihabitans maritimus and members of the genus Moorella. Based on the phenotypic, biochemical and genotypic characterization, Zhaonella formicivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed with K32T (=CCAM 584T =DSM 107278T=CGMCC1.5297T) as the type strain, which is the first representative of Zhaonellaceae fam. nov. In addition, the order Thermoanaerobacterales and family Peptococcaceae were reclassified, and three novel families in the novel order of Moorellales ord. nov. were also proposed.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 305, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In citrus, genetic improvement via biotechnology is hindered by the obstacle of in vitro regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE). Although a few B3 transcription factors are reported to regulate embryogenesis, little is known about the B3 superfamily in citrus, and which members might be involved in SE. RESULTS: Genome-wide sequence analysis identified 72 (CsB3) and 69 (CgB3) putative B3 superfamily members in the genomes of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, polyembryonic) and pummelo (C. grandis, monoembryonic), respectively. Genome duplication analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the B3 superfamily in citrus, and that the B3 superfamily evolved under the effect of purifying selection. Phylogenetic relationships were well supported by conserved gene structure and motifs outside the B3 domain, which allowed possible functions to be inferred by comparison with homologous genes from Arabidopsis. Expression analysis identified 23 B3 superfamily members that were expressed during SE in citrus and 17 that may play functional roles at late SE stages. Eight B3 genes were identified that were specific to the genome of polyembryonic sweet orange compared to monoembryonic pummelo. Of these eight B3 genes, CsARF19 was found to be specifically expressed at higher levels in embryogenic callus (EC), implying its possible involvement in EC initiation. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a genome-wide analysis of the citrus B3 superfamily, including its genome organization, evolutionary features and expression profiles, and identifies specific family members that may be associated with SE.

11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 105981, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330584

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order to gain a better understanding about the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in Beijing, China, we performed molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility test, and drug resistance gene sequencing on 174 C. difficile strains collected from four large tertiary hospitals in Beijing. A total of 31 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 174 strains, of which ST81 was found to be the most prevalent clone, accounting for 26.4% (46/174) of the isolates, followed by ST2 (16.7%, 29/174) and ST54 (9.8%, 17/174). All the isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. The test strains displayed resistance rates of 97.1%, 44.3%, and 44.3% for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, respectively. The ST81 isolates displayed a drug resistance rate of 97.8% for the antibiotics levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, which was significantly higher than the rates of the ST2 (0%), ST54 (17.6%), and ST42 (0%) isolates (P<0.05). An amino acid mutation, T82I, was identified in GyrA and the total mutation rate of the C. difficile strains was 40.8% (71/174), while the mutation rate of the ST81 strains was 95.7% (44/46). Three amino acid mutations including D426N, S366A, and D426V were identified in GyrB and the total mutation rate of GyrB was 39.1%. The double-site mutation in GyrB, S366A+D426V was identified in all the ST81 (n=46) strains. In conclusion, the C. difficile ST81 clone showed high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance in Beijing, China, thus highlighting the need for nationwide surveillance of CDI.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: As the incidence of fungal infections in China increases, the demand for rapid and accurate diagnosis of mycoses is growing. Yet, information on current diagnostic capacity is scarce. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in February 2018 to collect information on mycology testing from tertiary care hospitals across China. Responses from 348 hospitals were analyzed, and a scoring system was designed and employed to assess the overall diagnostic capacity. RESULTS: Most of the surveyed hospitals did not have separate laboratory space, manpower, or equipment dedicated for fungal testing. Conventional staining methods were widely available (>70%), whereas GMS and fluorescent staining were less common. Fungal identification services were offered mostly with chromogenic medium, morphological characterization or automated identification systems, other than more advanced methods such as MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing. Fungal serology testing was available in 81.1%, with G test being the most often used. Though 91.8% of the respondents had the ability to perform antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts, less than 13% conducted such testing for molds. The percentage of laboratories participating in External Quality Assessment programs and research was 57.5% and 32.5%, respectively. The average score for the 348 surveyed hospitals was 37.2 (out of a maximum of 89 points), with only 15 hospitals scoring >60, suggesting a general lack of high-quality mycology laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: The overall clinical testing capacity for fungal infection in China is insufficient. More investment and training efforts are warranted to establish centers of excellence and promote access to high-quality diagnostic services.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 38-43, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of standard-dose (SD) daptomycin with those of high-dose (HD) daptomycin in complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) in an Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from three medical centers diagnosed with cSSTIs were screened in the clinical information system. Patients included in the analysis were divided into two groups: those who received daptomycin at doses ≥ 6 mg/kg (HD group) and those receiving 4 mg/kg (SD group). The demographics and clinical treatment information were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 155 patients were recruited, including 108 patients in the SD group and 47 patients in the HD group. The rate of healthcare-associated infections was higher in the HD group (61.70% vs. 37.04%), demonstrating a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005). Compared with the SD group, the HD group had statistically significant early clinical stabilization (72.34% vs 52.78%, P = 0.023). The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that HD daptomycin was an independent effector for early clinical stabilization (HR=0.394, P < 0.001). The rate of drug-related adverse events was equally distributed in the HD and SD groups (36.17% vs. 26.85%, P = 0.243). CONCLUSION: Compared with SD daptomycin, HD daptomycin increased the rate of early clinical stabilization in Asian patients with cSSTIs, whereas the incidence of adverse events did not increase.

14.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 173: 107367, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251642

RESUMO

Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) was proven to be the aetiological agent of a disease causing mass die-offs of shrimp, prawn and crayfish. The specific purpose of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of DIV1. A pair of primers that amplify a 142 bp fragment and a TaqMan probe were selected for the major capsid protein gene of DIV1. They were shown to be specific for DIV1 and did not react with other common shrimp pathogens or healthy shrimp DNA. The method could detect as virus levels as low as 1.2 copies of DIV1 plasmid DNA.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 924-927, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286155

RESUMO

Confirmative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections has been challenged due to unsatisfactory positive rate of molecular assays. Here we identified a family cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with five of six family members were SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin serology testing positive, while molecular assays only detected two of this five patients even repeated twice. We comprehensively analyzed this familial cluster of cases based on the clinical characteristics, chest CT images, SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection results, and serology testing results. At last, two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, two were suspected of COVID-19, and two were considered close contacts. Our results emphasized the significance of serology testing to assist timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections, especially for COVID-19 close contacts screening.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Família , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 798-808, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237479

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) has a high disability rate and is highly harmful. It has a long course of treatment and is prone to adverse reactions or events(ADR/ADE). Selection of drugs in particular shall give consideration to both benefits and risk. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(TGT) is one of the important drugs for the treatment of RA. It has a remarkable efficacy, but a strong toxicity, which is controversial in clinical use. The study was oriented to patients, and quantitatively evaluated the efficacy and risk of TGT in treatment of RA, providing an intuitive basis for clinical safety and effective application of TGT. A multi-criteria decision-making analysis(MCDA) model of TGT was built in the treatment of RA, and then benefit and risk indicators were weighted by SWING method. Totally 53 random clinical trials(RCT) in accordance with the evaluation criteria were included by Meta-analysis method. The RCT results were merged by Meta-analysis, indicating that compared with the conventional therapy of chemical immunosuppressant(CISD), TGT could improve the curative effect whether it was used alone or in combination with CISD, but it would increase the incidence of reproductive system damage. The combined administration with CISD would also increase the incidence of liver and kidney damages. Treatment outcomes varied according to the different conditions of the combined administration with CISD. Based on MCDA model and clinical results, the benefit value, risk value and benefit-risk value of different doses, courses and combined administration of TGT in the treatment with RA were compared. The results showed that when the benefit and risk of the drug were equally important to the patient, the benefit-risk value of the single administration of TGT was 59, while that of the combined administration of TGT and CISD was 39. Therefore, the benefit-risk value of the single administration of TGT was 100% better than the combined administration. When the combined administration of TGT and CISD is unavoidable, the benefit-risk value of low-dose TGT(0.10-0.99 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was 48, while that of high-dose TGT was 36. Therefore, low-dose TGT combined with CISD was more easily accepted by patients. The 2 to 3-month treatment course had a benefit-risk value of 40, while the long treatment course had a benefit-risk value of 38. Based on existing evidences, the single administration of TGT may be better than the combined administration with CISD. If the patients need to combine with CISD to treat RA, low dosage and 2 to 3-month course may be relatively optimal.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 518-522, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237508

RESUMO

Coumarin is an important class of natural organic compounds, which widely exists in a variety of plants and microorganisms. Coumarins have many biological activities and wide clinical applications, such as anti-tumor, anti-HIV, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-coagulation, but they have obvious toxic effects in rodents. It was found that the toxicity of coumarins in different animals and organs was significantly different, and high dose oral administration was more likely to produce toxic reactions. Based on the research and analysis of domestic and foreign literatures in recent 60 years, this paper mainly summarized the hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity induced by coumarins, and probed into their possible mechanisms. It was found that the toxicity of coumarins had metabolic differences and species differences. The liver of rats and lungs of mice were more susceptible to coumarins. Toxic reactions occurred mainly in the second metabolic pathway of coumarin metabolism in vivo. In order to put forward safety considerations and evaluate the impact of coumarin on human body, it was found that coumarin is unlikely to produce hepatotoxicity at normal exposure level. It was also suggested that species differences due to different metabolic patterns in model animals should be carefully considered when assessing coumarin toxicity, in order to provide reference for clinical research and rational use of coumarins and improve the rational use of coumarins.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is mainly spread through respiratory droplets or direct contact. But the infection condition of genital system is still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate whether or not SARS-CoV-2 is found in the vaginal fluid of women with COVID-19 illness. METHODS: 10 women with confirmed severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to in Tongji Zhongfa Hospital Intensive care union(ICU) ward from Feb 4, 2020 to Feb 24, 2020 were included. Clinical records, laboratory results, and computer tomography(CT)-scan examination were retrospectively reviewed. The evidence of genital infection potential was accessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal fluids obtained from vaginal swab samples. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to confirm the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaginal fluids. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics of these ten women were similar to those reported severe COVID-19 patients. All ten patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal fluid, and all samples tested negative for the virus. CONCLUSION: Findings from this small group of cases suggest that no SARS-CoV-2 virus existing in the vaginal fluids of severe COVID-19 patients.

19.
Front Neural Circuits ; 14: 11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296310

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether the CSF-contacting nucleus receives brainstem and spinal cord projections and to understand the functional significance of these connections. Methods: The retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CB) was injected into the CSF-contacting nucleus in Sprague-Dawley rats according the previously reported stereotaxic coordinates. After 7-10 days, these rats were perfused and their brainstem and spinal cord were sliced (thickness, 40 µm) using a freezing microtome. All the sections were subjected to CB immunofluorescence staining. The distribution of CB-positive neuron in different brainstem and spinal cord areas was observed under fluorescence microscope. Results: The retrograde labeled CB-positive neurons were found in the midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord. Four functional areas including one hundred and twelve sub-regions have projections to the CSF-contacting nucleus. However, the density of CB-positive neuron distribution ranged from sparse to dense. Conclusion: Based on the connectivity patterns of the CSF-contacting nucleus receives anatomical inputs from the brainstem and spinal cord, we preliminarily conclude and summarize that the CSF-contacting nucleus participates in pain, visceral activity, sleep and arousal, emotion, and drug addiction. The present study firstly illustrates the broad projections of the CSF-contacting nucleus from the brainstem and spinal cord, which implies the complicated functions of the nucleus especially for the unique roles of coordination in neural and body fluids regulation.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1820, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286334

RESUMO

Novel quasiparticles beyond those mimicking the elementary high-energy particles such as Dirac and Weyl fermions have attracted great interest in condensed-matter physics and materials science. Here we report an experimental observation of the long-desired quadratic Weyl points by using a three-dimensional chiral metacrystal of sound waves. Markedly different from the newly observed unconventional quasiparticles, such as the spin-1 Weyl points and the charge-2 Dirac points featuring respectively threefold and fourfold band crossings, the charge-2 Weyl points identified here are simply twofold degenerate, and the dispersions around them are quadratic in two directions and linear in the third one. Besides the essential nonlinear bulk dispersions, we further unveil the exotic double-helicoid surface arcs that emanate from a projected quadratic Weyl point and terminate at two projected conventional Weyl points. This unique global surface connectivity provides conclusive evidence for the double topological charges of such unconventional topological nodes.

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