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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174217, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087223

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Recent research indicated that imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppressed the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the effect of imatinib on HCC and its mechanism remain under investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that imatinib inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and exerted antitumour effects on HCC xenografts in mice in vivo. Imatinib treatment decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and increased the levels of both p62 (protein sequestosome 1) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in HCC cells and HCC xenografts. Scanning confocal microscopy analysis with a mRFP-GFP-LC3 reporter and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that imatinib suppressed the autophagic flux by obstructing the formation of autolysosomes. Moreover, imatinib reversed the autophagy induced by sorafenib, and combined treatment with imatinib and sorafenib exerted a synergetic effect in HCC cells compared with monotherapy. Our collective data suggested that imatinib may target HCC by acting as an inhibitor of both tyrosine kinase and autophagy; here, we propose that imatinib could be a promising therapeutic agent for HCC in the clinic.

2.
Cell ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077752

RESUMO

The human fetal immune system begins to develop early during gestation; however, factors responsible for fetal immune-priming remain elusive. We explored potential exposure to microbial agents in utero and their contribution toward activation of memory T cells in fetal tissues. We profiled microbes across fetal organs using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and detected low but consistent microbial signal in fetal gut, skin, placenta, and lungs in the 2nd trimester of gestation. We identified several live bacterial strains including Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus in fetal tissues, which induced in vitro activation of memory T cells in fetal mesenteric lymph node, supporting the role of microbial exposure in fetal immune-priming. Finally, using SEM and RNA-ISH, we visualized discrete localization of bacteria-like structures and eubacterial-RNA within 14th weeks fetal gut lumen. These findings indicate selective presence of live microbes in fetal organs during the 2nd trimester of gestation and have broader implications toward the establishment of immune competency and priming before birth.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of His-bundle pacing (HBP) compared with the traditional biventricular pacing (BVP) on patients with brady-arrhythmias, who suffer from permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: All patients with brady-arrhythmias, permanent AF and HFrEF were continuously enrolled from January 2017 to July 2019 and followed up for at least 12 months. The differences in QRS duration (QRSd), New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), tricuspid regurgitation grade, mitral regurgitation grade, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and left atrial size were compared. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were enrolled: 37 patients were with HBP and 15 patients with BVP. There was no electrode dislodged, perforation, infection or thrombosis during the follow-up of 18.12 ± 4.45 months. The success rate for HBP implantation was 88.10%. The capture threshold of his-bundle and the threshold of the left ventricular lead remained stable during follow-up. LVEF increased to higher than 50% in 11 patients with HBP (29.73%). The NYHA classification (both p < .001), LVEF (both p < .001) and LVEDD improved significantly during the follow-up in both groups. NYHA (p = .030), LVEF (p = .013), and LVEDD (p = .003) improved in patients with HBP compared with BVP. CONCLUSION: HBP was safe and more effective in improving the cardiac function and remodeling in patients with brady-arrhythmias, permanent AF and HFrEF compared with BVP.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 260: 119947, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030037

RESUMO

A new fluorescent probe (MBT) for the detection of 4-methylbenzenethiol (p-MePhSH) was developed by using 4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-3-methoxyphenol as the fluorophore and 2,4-dinitrophenyl ether as the sensing moiety. Probe MBT displayed good selectivity toward p-MePhSH in DMSO/PBS buffer (5/5, v/v) solution and anti-interference over other competitive species via nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The fluorescence intensities of the probe responded p-MePhSH showed a 22-fold enhancement and good linearity with p-MePhSH concentration collected in the range of 0-15 µM. Moreover, the probe is sensitive to p-MePhSH and the limit of detection is 45 nM. The sensing mechanism of probe MBT was verified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and fluorescence lifetime. Furthermore, the probe was used to the detection of p-MePhSH in real water samples.

5.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is one of six diagnostic categories of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). The goal of our study is to assess the outcome of cases classified as AUS/FLUS at our institution. METHODS: AUS/FLUS cases were identified by computer searching of the thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases performed between 2010 and 2016. Outcomes were categorized as: follow-up surgery, repeat FNA or no follow-up available. Demographics, ultrasound findings and FNA diagnostic criteria were reviewed for AUS/FLUS cases with follow-up surgical pathology diagnosis. RESULTS: Our AUS/FLUS thyroid FNA rate was 6% (117 out of 1984 FNAs). Only 15% of the AUS/FLUS cases had repeat FNA, while 41% underwent surgery. The risk of malignancy (ROM) for cases with follow-up surgery was 17%. When considering all AUS/FLUS cases, the ROM was 7%. Statistically, benign neoplasms were more likely to be single lesions on ultrasound comparing to malignant neoplasms, and to exhibit architectural atypia as opposed to non-neoplastic lesions on FNA. The malignancy rates among patients that directly went to surgical resection (17%) and patients having repeat FNA after the first AUS/FLUS diagnosis followed by surgery (29%) was not significantly different. However, repeat FNA was able to reclassify the majority of cases into more definitive categories. CONCLUSION: The outcome of the thyroid FNAs diagnosed as AUS/FLUS in our institution meets the benchmark statistics for AUS/FLUS rate and ROM. This study constitutes a valuable quality assurance measure and serves as a baseline for subsequent quality improvement.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 265: 118064, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966828

RESUMO

Three fluorescent-labeling methods, including DMSO/DBTD, reductive amination and fluoresceinamine (FA), were applied to label arabinoxylan (AX). The conjugates were named AF, ATF and ACF, respectively. Compared to AX, the water solubility of AF significantly decreased while that of ATF significantly increased (p < 0.05); both showed decreased solubility with increasing degree of substitution (DS). However, AX was not successfully labeled by the FA method due to poor solubility. The structural and conformational properties of the AF and ATF conjugates under different DS were compared. Results showed that fluorochrome (FITC) was successfully grafted onto AX molecule by using the DMSO/DBTD and reductive amination methods. A slight increased Mw was noticed for both AF and ATF. AF existed in a more compact conformation, while the chain conformation of ATF was more elongated at a lower DS (1.15 %) and more compact at a higher DS (1.34 %).

7.
Int J Legal Med ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950286

RESUMO

The MinION nanopore sequencing device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Oxford, UK) is the smallest commercially available sequencer and can be used outside of conventional laboratories. The use of the MinION for forensic applications, however, is hindered by the high error rate of nanopore sequencing. One approach to solving this problem is to identify forensic genetic markers that can consistently be typed correctly based on nanopore sequencing. In this pilot study, we explored the use of nanopore sequencing for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and short tandem repeat (STR) profiling using Verogen's (San Diego, CA, USA) ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit. Thirty single-contributor samples and DNA standard material 2800 M were genotyped using the Illumina (San Diego, CA, USA) MiSeq FGx and MinION (with R9.4.1 flow cells) devices. With an optimized cutoff for allelic imbalance, all 94 identity-informative SNP loci could be genotyped reliably using the MinION device, with an overall accuracy of 99.958% (1 error among 2926 genotypes). STR typing was notably error prone, and its accuracy was locus dependent. We developed a custom-made bioinformatics workflow, and finally selected 13 autosomal STRs, 14 Y-STRs, and 4 X-STRs showing high consistency between nanopore and Illumina sequencing among the tested samples. These SNP and STR loci could be candidates for panel design for forensic analysis based on nanopore sequencing.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 672165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054851

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly infectious respiratory pathogen, remains a major threat to global public health. Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be implicated in various cellular processes. Here, we identified a new lncRNA termed RIG-I-dependent IAV-upregulated noncoding RNA (RDUR), which was induced by infections with IAV and several other viruses. Both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that robust expression of host RDUR induced by IAV was dependent on the RIG-I/NF-κB pathway. Overexpression of RDUR suppressed IAV replication and downregulation of RDUR promoted the virus replication. Deficiency of mouse RDUR increased virus production in lungs, body weight loss, acute organ damage and consequently reduced survival rates of mice, in response to IAV infection. RDUR impaired the viral replication by upregulating the expression of several vital antiviral molecules including interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Further study showed that RDUR interacted with ILF2 and ILF3 that were required for the efficient expression of some ISGs such as IFITM3 and MX1. On the other hand, we found that while NF-κB positively regulated the expression of RDUR, increased expression of RDUR, in turn, inactivated NF-κB through a negative feedback mechanism to suppress excessive inflammatory response to viral infection. Together, the results demonstrate that RDUR is an important lncRNA acting as a critical regulator of innate immunity against the viral infection.

9.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 30, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aeromedical evacuation of patients with burn trauma is an important transport method in times of peace and war, during which patients are exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaric hypoxia; however, the effects of such exposure on burn injuries, particularly on burn-induced lung injuries, are largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on burn-induced lung injuries and to investigate the underlying mechanism using a rat burn model. METHODS: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 in each group): sham burn (SB) group, burn in normoxia condition (BN) group, burn in hypoxia condition (BH) group, and burn in hypoxia condition with treatment intervention (BHD) group. Rats with 30% total body surface area burns were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (2000 m altitude simulation) or normoxia conditions for 4 h. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was administered systemically as a treatment intervention. Systemic inflammatory mediator and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) levels were determined. A histopathological evaluation was performed and the acute lung injury (ALI) score was determined. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome level were determined in lung tissues. Data among groups were compared using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test post hoc analysis. RESULTS: Burns resulted in a remarkably higher level of systemic inflammatory cytokines and mtDNA release, which was further heightened by hypobaric hypoxia exposure (P < 0.01). Moreover, hypobaric hypoxia exposure gave rise to increased NLRP3 inflammasome expression, MDA content, and MPO activity in the lung (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Burn-induced lung injuries were exacerbated, as shown by the histopathological evaluation and ALI score (P < 0.01). Administration of DNase I markedly reduced mtDNA release and systemic inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, the NLRP3 inflammasome level in lung tissues was decreased and burn-induced lung injury was ameliorated (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that simulated aeromedical evacuation further increased burn-induced mtDNA release and exacerbated burn-induced inflammation and lung injury. DNase I reduced the release of mtDNA, limited mtDNA-induced systemic inflammation, and ameliorated burn-induced ALI. The intervening mtDNA level is thus a potential target to protect from burn-induced lung injury during aeromedical conditions and provides safer air evacuations for severely burned patients.

11.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(5): 541-4, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002570

RESUMO

Professor SHAO Ming-xi 's experience in treatment of arthralgia in breast cancer is summarized. Professor SHAO believes that the dysfunction of liver, spleen and kidney is the primary and the invasion of the exogenous wind, cold and damp is the secondary in arthralgia in breast cancer. Emphasized on syndrome/pattern differentiation, this disorder is identified as 4 patterns, i.e. liver qi stagnation, blockage by phlegm and stasis, qi and blood deficiency and obstruction by wind, cold and damp. Acupuncture-moxibustion is applied to Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3) and Waiguan (TE 5). The supplementary acupoints are selected on the base of syndrome/pattern differentiation. Tuina is combined with acupuncture-moxibustion and the reinforcing and reducing techniques are used appropriately. Shaoyang meridian is specially considered, due to which, Waiguan (TE 5) and Zhongzhu (TE 3) of triple energizer meridian of hand-shaoyang and Yanglingquan (GB 34) and Zulinqi (GB 41) of gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang are combined. Additionally, it stresses the combination of the local and distal acupoints and the coordination of various therapies of TCM to achieve the better effect.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Neoplasias da Mama , Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Artralgia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Humanos
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(12): 3422-3431, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High tumor mRNA levels of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are associated with anti-EGFR agent response in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, ligand RNA assays have not been adopted into routine practice due to issues with analytic precision and practicality. We investigated whether AREG/EREG IHC could predict benefit from the anti-EGFR agent panitumumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Artificial intelligence algorithms were developed to assess AREG/EREG IHC in 274 patients from the PICCOLO trial of irinotecan with or without panitumumab (Ir vs. IrPan) in RAS wild-type mCRC. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were RECIST response rate (RR) and overall survival (OS). Models were repeated adjusting separately for BRAF mutation status and primary tumor location (PTL). RESULTS: High ligand expression was associated with significant PFS benefit from IrPan compared with Ir [8.0 vs. 3.2 months; HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.79; P = 0.001]; whereas low ligand expression was not (3.4 vs. 4.4 months; HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.74-1.49; P = 0.78). The ligand-treatment interaction was significant (P interaction = 0.02) and remained significant after adjustment for BRAF-mutation status and PTL. Likewise, RECIST RR was significantly improved in patients with high ligand expression (IrPan vs. Ir: 48% vs. 6%; P < 0.0001) but not those with low ligand expression (25% vs. 14%; P = 0.10; P interaction = 0.01). The effect on OS was similar but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: AREG/EREG IHC identified patients who benefitted from the addition of panitumumab to irinotecan chemotherapy. IHC is a practicable assay that may be of use in routine practice.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 113902, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798367

RESUMO

Synthetic dimension provides a new platform for realizing topological photonic devices. Here, we propose a method to realize a rainbow concentrator of topological photonic states based on the synthetic dimension concept. The synthetic dimension is constructed using a translational degree of freedom of the nanostructures inside the unit cell of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. The translational deformation induces a nontrivial topology in the synthetic dimension, which gives rise to robust interface states at different frequencies. The topological rainbow can trap states with different frequencies, controlled by tuning the spatial modulation of interface state group velocities. The operation frequency as well as the bandwidth of the topological rainbow can be easily tuned by controlling the band gap of the photonic crystal. The topological principle can be applied to photonic crystals of any symmetry and arbitrary material composition, as long as a complete band gap exists. This Letter provides a new and general scheme for the realization of a topological rainbow concentrator and will be useful for the development of topological photonic devices.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 117402, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798377

RESUMO

Bound states in the continuum (BICs) confine resonances embedded in a continuous spectrum by eliminating radiation loss. Merging multiple BICs provides a promising approach to further reduce the scattering losses caused by fabrication imperfections. However, to date, BIC merging has been limited to only the Γ point, which constrains potential application scenarios such as beam steering and directional vector beams. Here, we propose a new scheme to construct merging BICs at almost an arbitrary point in reciprocal space. Our approach utilizes the topological features of BICs on photonic crystal slabs, and we merge a Friedrich-Wintgen BIC and an accidental BIC. The Q factors of the resulting merging BIC are enhanced for a broad wave vector range compared with both the original Friedrich-Wintgen BIC and the accidental BIC. Since Friedrich-Wintgen BICs and accidental BICs are quite common in the band structure, our proposal provides a general approach to realize off-Γ merging BICs with superhigh Q factors that can substantially enhance nonlinear and quantum effects and boost the performance of on-chip photonic devices.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802386

RESUMO

In this paper, an improved method for the electric performance of polypropylene (PP) film was proposed to promote the safety and stability of power capacitors. Modified PP films containing three different polycyclic compounds were prepared, which showed good thermal properties and decreased DC conductivity. The DC breakdown strength of the modified PP films under both positive and negative voltage is increased compared with that of the original film. The deep traps introduced by polycyclic compounds and the decreased carrier mobility give an explanation of the decreased DC conductivity. A quantum chemistry calculation was further performed to clarify the mechanism for improving electrical performance, presenting that polycyclic compounds with a high electron affinity and low ionization energy can capture high-energy electrons, protecting the PP molecular chain from attack, and then increase the breakdown strength. It is concluded that the modified PP films by polycyclic compounds have great potential in improving the insulating properties of power capacitors.

16.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 31, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment outcomes of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Zhejiang, China and to evaluate possible risk factors associated with poor outcomes of M/XDR-TB. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-sixty-two patients having M/XDR-TB who received the diagnosis and treatment at nine referral hospitals from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016 in Zhejiang, China were included. All patients received second-line regimens recommended by WHO under the DOTS-Plus strategy. RESULTS: Among the 262 patients, the treatment success rate was 55.34% (n = 145) with 53.44% (n = 140) cured and 1.91% (n = 5) who completed treatment, 62 (23.66%) failed, 27 (10.31%) died, 16 (6.11%) defaulted and 12 (4.58%) transferred out. Forty (64.52%) of the 62 M/XDR-TB patients who failed treatment were due to adverse effects in the first 10 months of treatment. Eighteen patients (6.37%) had XDR-TB. Treatment failure was significantly higher among patients with XDR-TB at 50% than that among patients with non-XDR-TB at 21.72% (P = 0.006). Failure outcomes were associated with a baseline weight less than 50 kg (OR, 8.668; 95% CI 1.679-44.756; P = 0.010), age older than 60 years (OR, 9.053; 95% CI 1.606-51.027; P = 0.013), hemoptysis (OR, 8.928; 95% CI 1.048-76.923; P = 0.045), presence of cavitary diseases (OR, 10.204; 95% CI 2.032-52.631; P = 0.005), or treatment irregularity (OR, 47.619; 95% CI 5.025-500; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Treatment outcomes for M/XDR-TB under the DOTS-Plus strategy in Zhejiang, China were favorable but still not ideal. Low body weight (< 50 kg), old age (> 60 years), severe symptoms of TB including cavitary disease, hemoptysis and irregular treatment were independent prognostic factors for failure outcomes in patients with M/XDR-TB.

17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 214, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To clarify the appropriate initial dosage of heparin during radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving uninterrupted nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment. METHODS: A total of 187 consecutive AF patients who underwent their first RFCA in our center were included. In the warfarin group (WG), an initial heparin dose of 100 U/kg was administered (control group: n = 38). The patients who were on NOACs were randomly divided into 3 NOAC groups (NG: n = 149), NG110, NG120, and NG130, and were administered initial heparin doses of 110 U/kg, 120 U/kg, and 130 U/kg, respectively. During RFCA, the activated clotting time (ACT) was measured every 15 min, and the target ACT was maintained at 250-350 s by intermittent heparin infusion. The baseline ACT and ACTs at each 15-min interval, the average percentage of measurements at the target ACT, and the incidence of periprocedural bleeding and thromboembolic complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in sex, age, weight, or baseline ACT among the four groups. The 15 min-ACT, 30 min-ACT, and 45 min-ACT were significantly longer in the WG than in NG110 and NG120. However, no significant difference in 60 min-ACT or 75 min-ACT was detected. The average percentages of measurements at the target ACT in NG120 (82.2 ± 23.6%) and NG130 (84.8 ± 23.7%) were remarkably higher than those in the WG (63.4 ± 36.2%, p = 0.007, 0.003, respectively). These differences were independent of the type of NOAC. The proportion of ACTs in 300-350 s in NG130 was higher than in WG (32.4 ± 31.8 vs. 34.7 ± 30.6, p = 0.735). Severe periprocedural thromboembolic and bleeding complications were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with AF receiving uninterrupted NOAC treatment who underwent RFCA, an initial heparin dosage of 120 U/kg or 130 U/kg can provide an adequate intraprocedural anticoagulant effect, and 130 U/kg allowed ACT to reach the target earlier. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: ChiCTR1800016491, First Registration Date: 04/06/2018 (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx ).

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2440-2448, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884815

RESUMO

Paddy soil often undergoes frequent dry-wet alternation. The change in water status not only affects the physical and chemical properties of the soil, but also changes the structure and diversity of the soil microbial communities, which in turn determines the rate of soil organic carbon mineralization. However, the effects of different water conditions and soil microbial biomass levels on the process of soil organic carbon mineralization and its mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, this study took typical subtropical paddy soil as the research object, applied a laboratory incubation experiment with two water treatments of dry-wet and continuous flooding, and reduced the soil microbial biomass through chloroform fumigation, thereby obtaining high and low soil microbial biomass carbon contents, to elucidate the influencing mechanisms of microbial biomass and water conditions on organic carbon mineralization in paddy soil. The results showed that during the first 30 d of incubation, the dry-wet treatment was in a non-flooded stage and its cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly lower than those of the continuous flooded treatment. After 30 d, the dry-wet treatment entered the flooded stage. The difference in the cumulative CO2 emissions of the soils with a high microbial biomass carbon content between the dry-wet and continuous flooding treatments gradually decreased, and there was no significant difference on day 78. In the soil with a low microbial biomass carbon content, the cumulative CO2 emissions of the dry-wet treatment on day 78 was still significantly lower than that of the continuous flooded treatment. The soils with a low microbial biomass carbon content showed a faster CO2 emission rate at the beginning of the incubation period (first 20 d), which was 1.1-6.1 times greater than that of the high microbial biomass carbon soils owing to their high soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and the CO2 emission rate then gradually decreased until it was below that of the soil with a high microbial biomass carbon content. The soil organic carbon mineralization rate became stable later in the incubation period (days 45-78). The stable mineralization rate of the high microbial biomass carbon soil was 20%-30% higher than that of the low microbial biomass carbon soil. The multiple regression analysis results showed that the decrease in the soil DOC content (ΔDOC) and the increase in the Fe2+ content (ΔFe2+) significantly affected the change in cumulative CO2 emissions (ΔCO2) under continuous flooding conditions, but had no effect on ΔCO2 during the flooding stage of the dry-wet treatment. The correlation analysis showed that the daily CO2 emission rate of soils with high microbial biomass carbon was significantly positively correlated with glucosidase activity under dry-wet treatment and significantly negatively correlated with acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and peroxidase activities under continuous flooding treatment. In the low microbial biomass carbon soils, the daily CO2 emission rate of the continuous flooding treatment was negatively correlated with the NAG activity, but showed no correlation with enzyme activities under dry-wet management. In summary, the cumulative CO2 emissions of dry-wet treatment were lower than those of continuous flooding treatment, and the difference was significant in soils with low microbial biomass carbon. The size of the soil microbial biomass determined the level of the stable soil organic carbon mineralization rate. The amount of soluble organic carbon and iron reduction affected the soil CO2 emissions under continuous flooding conditions, and the soil water conditions affected the daily CO2 emission rate and its key influencing enzymes. This study provides data and theoretical support for the carbon cycle and carbon sequestration potential in paddy soil.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Biomassa , Carbono , Microbiologia do Solo , Água
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9226, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927297

RESUMO

We evaluated the serum levels of (1-3)-beta-D-glucan (BG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a tool to support pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) diagnostic procedures in non-HIV patients. We retrospectively collected non-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients presenting clinical features of PCP between April 1st, 2013, and December 31st, 2018. A total of 225 included patients were tested for Pneumocystis jirovecii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and methenamine silver staining. Based on different exclusion criteria, 179 cases were included in the BG group, and 196 cases were included in the LDH group. In each group, cases with positive immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and PCR were considered proven PCP, while cases with only positive PCR were considered probable PCP. Fifty patients with negative IF and PCR results and proven to be non-PCP infection were chosen randomly as the control group. The cut-off levels of BG and LDH to distinguish non-PCP from probable PCP were 110 pg/mL and 296 U/L with 88% sensitivity and 86% specificity, and 66% sensitivity and 88% specificity, respectively. The cut-off levels of BG and LDH to distinguish non-PCP from proven PCP were 285.8 pg/mL and 379 U/L with 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity, and 85% sensitivity and 77% specificity, respectively. The cut-off levels of BG and LDH to distinguish non-PCP from proven/probable PCP were 144.1 pg/mL and 363 U/L with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity and 80% sensitivity, 76% specificity respectively. BG and LDH are reliable indicators for detecting P. jirovecii infection in HIV-uninfected immunocompromised patients.

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