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1.
Cytokine ; 149: 155725, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over-activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome can lead to sepsis. NLRP3 is an essential protein in the classical pathway of pyroptosis. This study assessed the use of serum NLRP3 level as a potential inflammatory biomarker in septic patients. METHODS: Patients were categorized into five groups: healthy controls (n = 30), ICU controls (n = 22), infection (n = 19), septic non-shock (n = 33), and septic shock (n = 83). Serum NLRP3 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for all patients upon enrollment. Clinical parameters and laboratory test data (APACHE II, SOFA, and lactate) were also assessed. Moreover, the ability of serum NLRP3 levels to predict sepsis was determined by the area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: The NLRP3 levels in the septic shock group was significantly higher (431.89, 386.61-460.21 pg/mL) than that in the healthy control group (23.24, 9.38-49.73 pg/mL), ICU control group (74.82, 62.71-85.93 pg/mL), infection group (114.34, 99.21-122.56 pg/mL), and septic non-shock group (136.99, 128.80-146.98 pg/mL; P<0.001 for all comparisons). Additionally, the AUC indicated that the ability of serum NLRP3 levels to predict sepsis and septic shock incidences was not lower than that of the SOFA score. Patients with higher NLRP3 serum levels (>147.72 pg/mL) had significantly increased 30-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: NLRP3 is useful for the early identification of high-risk septic patients, particularly septic shock patients. Moreover, elevated NRLP3 levels could result in poor septic prediction outcomes.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118683, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742413

RESUMO

Microbial colonization of catheter surfaces is responsible for most healthcare-associated infections. Quaternized chitin and chitosan have excellent antimicrobial and biocompatible properties and can be used to provide safe and prolonged protection for biomedical catheters. Herein, we prepared quaternized ß-chitin derivative (QC)- and quaternized chitosan derivative (QCS)-based antimicrobial surfaces. The quaternized polysaccharides modified TPU surfaces exhibited hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility. Among these, QCS2-modified TPU exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and prevented the adherence of bacteria compared with pristine TPU. The antibacterial activity of QCS2-modified surfaces maintained for 8 weeks under the condition of immersion in serum. An in vivo subcutaneous implantation experiment revealed 99.87% reduction of bacteria and reduced expression of inflammation-related factors in the surrounding tissue five days after implantation with QCS2-modified TPU. Therefore, quaternized polysaccharide-modified surfaces have promising potential in preventing medical catheter-associated infections.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(12): 5953-5958, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Knockdown of human copper transporter 1 has been associated with reduction in copper uptake and suppression of prostate cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. This study evaluated the effects of steroid-based compounds on copper uptake and proliferation of prostate cancer cells based on their anticancer activity and previous docking analysis of steroid-based copper transporter 1 inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized several new steroid-based compounds and used 64Cu uptake assay and copper quantification assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to study their effects on the cellular copper uptake by prostate cancer cells. Additionally, we used CCK-8 cell proliferation assay to study their effects on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. RESULTS: Significant reduction in cellular copper uptake was observed in the prostate cancer cells treated with these new steroid-based compounds. Moreover, proliferation of prostate cancer cells was suppressed by treatment with the steroid-based compound 6, which had the strongest copper uptake inhibition activity. CONCLUSION: Reduction in copper uptake and inhibition of cell proliferation were demonstrated in prostate cancer cells treated with the new steroid-based compounds synthesized in this study. Steroid-based copper transporter 1 inhibitors may become novel anticancer drugs for targeted anti-copper therapy of prostate cancer and other copper hypermetabolic cancers.

4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 731114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795573

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder seen in age-dependent dementia. There is currently no effective treatment for AD, which may be attributed in part to lack of a clear underlying mechanism. Early diagnosis of AD is of great significance to control the development of the disease. Synaptic loss is an important pathology in the early stage of AD, therefore the measurement of synaptic density using molecular imaging technology may be an effective way to early diagnosis of AD. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is located in the presynaptic vesicle membrane of virtually all synapses. SV2A Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET) could provide a way to measure synaptic density quantitatively in living humans and to track changes in synaptic density in AD. In view of the fact that synaptic loss is the pathology of both epilepsy and AD, this review summarizes the potential role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of AD, and suggests that SV2A should be used as an important target molecule of PET imaging agent for the early diagnosis of AD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762593

RESUMO

Protein s-nitrosylation (SNO is one of the most important post-translational modifications and is formed by the covalent modification of nitric oxide and cysteine residues. Extensive studies have shown that SNO plays a pivotal role in the plant immune response and treating various major human diseases. In recent years, SNO sites have become a hot research topic. Traditional biochemical methods for SNO site identification are time-consuming and costly. In this study, we developed an economical and efficient SNO site prediction tool named Mul-SNO. Mul-SNO ensembled current popular and powerful deep learning model bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM and bidirectional encoder representations from Transformers (BERT . Compared with existing state-of-the-art methods, Mul-SNO obtained better ACC of 0.911 and 0.796 based on 10-fold cross-validation and independent data sets, respectively. The prediction server can be obtained for free at http://lab.malab.cn/~mjq/Mul-SNO/.

6.
Behav Brain Res ; 418: 113673, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798170

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases related to several types of pathophysiological signs, including ß-amyloid (Aß) plaque accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurofibrillary tangles. Similar to one of the three subunits of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase-like (OGDHL) appears to be downregulated in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's (3 × Tg-AD) mice. KGDHC activity is specifically reduced in the brains of people with AD. However, the underlying mechanism of OGDHL in the cause of AD is still unknown. Herein, we confirmed the low expression of OGDHL in the brain of 3 × Tg-AD based on real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We also found that the upregulation of OGDHL can reduce the memory deficits of 3 × Tg-AD mice, thereby reminding its nervous system neuroprotective effect in AD. Next, we confirmed that the increase in OGDHL could reduce neuroinflammation, amyloid plaque load, and tau phosphorylation in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Additionally, we showed that the overexpression of OGDHL could activate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling based on the expression of Wnt7B in vitro. Taken together, the results show that the rise of OGDHL reasonably improves the cognitive functions according to the activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, this enzyme may be a potential strategy for AD treatment.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 699921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778281

RESUMO

Background: There is increased interest in proprioceptive training for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, little consensus supports the effectiveness of this intervention. Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of proprioceptive training on symptoms, function, and proprioception in people with KOA. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 16, 2021 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were pooled by calculating the standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A random-effects model was used for the analyses. Results: A total of 24 RCTs involving 1,275 participants were included in our analysis. This study indicated that compared to no intervention, proprioceptive training significantly improved pain, stiffness, physical function, joint position sense (JPS), muscle strength, mobility, and knee ROM (P < 0.05) in people with KOA. When compared to other non-proprioceptive training, proprioceptive training provided better results in terms of JPS (SMD = -1.28, 95%CI: [-1.64, -0.92], I 2 = 0%, P < 0.00001) and mobility (timed walk over spongy surface) (SMD = -0.76, 95%CI: [-1.33, -0.18], I 2 = 64%, P = 0.01), and other results are similar. When proprioceptive training plus other non-proprioceptive training compared to other non-proprioceptive training, the two groups showed similar outcomes, but there was a greater improvement for JPS (SMD = -1.54, 95%CI: [-2.74, -0.34], I 2 = 79%, P = 0.01), physical function (SMD = -0.34, 95%CI: [-0.56, -0.12], I 2 = 0%, P = 0.003), and knee ROM (P < 0.05) in the proprioceptive training plus other non-proprioceptive training group. When proprioceptive training plus conventional physiotherapy compared against conventional physiotherapy, the two groups demonstrated similar outcomes, but there was a significant improvement for JPS (SMD = -0.95, 95%CI: [-1.73, -0.18], I 2 = 78%, P = 0.02) in the proprioceptive training plus conventional physiotherapy group. Conclusions: Proprioceptive training is safe and effective in treating KOA. There is some evidence that proprioceptive training combined with general non-proprioceptive training or conventional physiotherapy appears to be more effective and should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program. However, given that the majority of current studies investigated the short-term effect of these proprioceptive training programs, more large-scale and well-designed studies with long-term follow up are needed to determine the long-term effects of these proprioceptive training regimes in KOA. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#recordDetails, PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021240587.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 744691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659064

RESUMO

When a major, sudden infectious disease occurs, people tend to react emotionally and display reactions such as tension, anxiety, fear, depression, and somatization symptoms. Social media played a substantial awareness role in developing countries during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to analyze public opinion regarding COVID-19 and to explore the trajectory of psychological status and online public reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic by examining online content from Weibo in China. This study consisted of three steps: first, Weibo posts created during the pandemic were collected and preprocessed on a large scale; second, public sentiment orientation was classified as "optimistic/pessimistic/neutral" orientation via natural language processing and manual determination procedures; and third, qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to reveal the trajectory of public psychological status and online public reactions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public psychological status differed in different periods of the pandemic (from December 2019 to May 2020). The newly confirmed cases had an almost 1-month lagged effect on public psychological status. Among the 15 events with high impact indexes or related to government decisions, there were 10 optimism orientation > pessimism orientation (OP) events (2/3) and 5 pessimism orientation > optimism orientation (PO) events (1/3). Among the top two OP events, the high-frequency words were "race against time" and "support," while in the top two PO events, the high-frequency words were "irrationally purchase" and "pass away." We proposed a hypothesis that people developed negative self-perception when they received PO events, but their cognition was developed by how these external stimuli were processed and evaluated. These results offer implications for public health policymakers on understanding public psychological status from social media. This study demonstrates the benefits of promoting psychological healthcare and hygiene activity in the early period and improving risk perception for the public based on public opinion and the coping abilities of people. Health managers should focus on disseminating socially oriented strategies to improve the policy literacy of Internet users, thereby facilitating the disease prevention work for the COVID-19 pandemic and other major public events.

10.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1364, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659510

RESUMO

Chemoresistance is the primary cause of the poor outcome of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 6 (LGR6) is involved in the growth and proliferation of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer and ovarian cancer. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of LGR6 in GBM malignancy and chemoresistance. Cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel®-Transwell assays were conducted to assess GBM cell viability and invasion. The effect of LGR6 on cell cycle progression and activation of Akt signaling was analyzed by performing propidium iodide staining and western blotting, respectively. The results demonstrated that LGR6, a microRNA-1236-3p target candidate, promoted GBM cell viability and invasion, and mediated temozolomide sensitivity in SHG-44 and U251 GBM cells. In addition, LGR6 triggered the activation of the Akt signaling pathway during GBM progression. Collectively, the results of the present study suggested that LGR6 promoted GBM malignancy and chemoresistance, at least in part, by activating the Akt signaling pathway. The results may aid with the identification of a novel therapeutic target and strategy for GBM.

11.
EJNMMI Res ; 11(1): 103, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that neuroinflammation (NI) significantly contributes to drug addiction, but the conversion of NI after drug withdrawal is not clear. Here, we conducted 18F-flutriciclamide (GE180) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to investigate the conversion of NI during drug withdrawal and conditioning-induced aversion by measuring the change in microglial activation with 18F-GE180. METHODS: Twelve male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to morphine withdrawal by the administration of naloxone, and six of them were used to model conditioned place aversion (CPA). 18F-GE180 PET imaging was performed for 11 rats on the last day of the morphine treatment phase and for 10 rats on the response assessment phase of the behavior conditioning procedure. A 18F-GE180 template was established for spatial normalization of each individual image, and the differential 18F-GE180 uptakes between the drug withdrawal (DW) group and the drug addiction (DA) group, the CPA group and the DA group, and the CPA group and the DW group were compared by a voxel-wise two-sample t test using SPM8. RESULTS: Both the DW group and the CPA group spent less time in the conditioning cage during the post-test phase compared with the pretest phase, but only the difference in the CPA group was significant (63.2 ± 34.6 vs. - 159.53 ± 22.02, P < 0.005). Compared with the DA group, the uptake of 18F-GE180 increased mainly in the hippocampus, visual cortex, thalamus and midbrain regions and decreased mainly in the sensory-related cortices after the administration of naloxone in both the DW and CPA groups. Increased 18F-GE180 uptake was only observed in the mesolimbic regions after conditioned aversion compared with the DW group. CONCLUSION: In morphine-dependent rats, Neuroinflammation (NI) became more severe in the addiction-involved brain regions but remitted in the sensory-related brain regions after the administration of naloxone, and this NI induced by withdrawal was further aggravated after conditioned aversion formation thus may help to consolidate the withdrawal memory.

12.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633461

RESUMO

Nodule Inception (NIN) is one of the most important root nodule symbiotic genes as it is required for both infection and nodule organogenesis in legumes. Unlike most legumes with a sole NIN gene, there are four putative orthologous NIN genes in soybean (Glycine max). Whether and how these NIN genes contribute to soybean-rhizobia symbiotic interaction remain unknown. In this study, we found that all four GmNIN genes are induced by rhizobia and that conserved CE and CYC binding motifs in their promoter regions are required for their expression in the nodule formation process. By generation of multiplex Gmnin mutants, we found that the Gmnin1a nin2a nin2b triple mutant and Gmnin1a nin1b nin2a nin2b quadruple mutant displayed similar defects in rhizobia infection and root nodule formation, Gmnin2a nin2b produced fewer nodules but displayed a hyper infection phenotype compared to wild type, while the Gmnin1a nin1b double mutant nodulated similar to wild type. Overexpression of GmNIN1a, GmNIN1b, GmNIN2a, and GmNIN2b reduced nodule numbers after rhizobia inoculation, with GmNIN1b overexpression having the weakest effect. In addition, overexpression of GmNIN1a, GmNIN2a, or GmNIN2b, but not GmNIN1b, produced malformed pseudo-nodule-like structures without rhizobia inoculation. In conclusion, GmNIN1a, GmNIN2a, and GmNIN2b play functionally redundant yet complicated roles in soybean nodulation. GmNIN1b, although expressed at a comparable level with the other homologs, plays a minor role in root nodule symbiosis. Our work provides insight into the understanding of the asymmetrically redundant function of GmNIN genes in soybean.

13.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(7): 2305-2309, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705378

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated age-associated morphology changes in the cranial base, facial development, and upper airway of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). A total of 33 preoperative computed tomographic images (TCS, n = 14; control, n = 19) were included in the study and divided into three age-related subgroups (2-6 years, 7-18 years, and older than 18 years). Linear, angular cephalometric measurements and upper airway volumes were collected. All measurements were analyzed using ProPlan CMF software (version 3.0; Materialize, Leuven, Belgium). The association between aging and upper airway morphology was analyzed. Compared to control subjects, TCS patients had a smaller cranial base, maxilla, and nose; they also had reduced upper airway volume compared to control subjects. The observed differences were most significant in patients between the ages of 7 and 18 years. This study used computed tomography-based three-dimensional analyses to provide a detailed description of age-related changes that occur in craniofacial measurements and upper airway volumes in children, adolescents, and young adult patients with TCS in China. These data can be used to evaluate individual patients with TCS and to select treatment to improve the growth of the craniofacial region.


Assuntos
Disostose Mandibulofacial , Adolescente , Cefalometria , Criança , Humanos , Mandíbula , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila , Base do Crânio
14.
Nanoscale ; 13(41): 17521-17529, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652362

RESUMO

Mesocrystals are superstructures of crystallographically aligned nanoparticles and are a rapidly emerging class of crystalline materials displaying sophisticated morphologies and properties, beyond those originating from size and shape of nanoparticles alone. This study reports the first synthesis of Cu3N mesocrystals employing structure-directing agents with a subtle tuning of the reaction parameters. Detailed structural characterizations carried out with a combination of transmission electron microscopy techniques (HRTEM, HAADF-STEM-EXDS) reveal that Cu3N mesocrystals form by non-classical crystallization, and variations in their sizes and morphologies are traced back to distinct attachment scenarios of corresponding mesocrystal subunits. In the presence of oleylamine, the mesocrystal subunits in the early reaction stages prealign in a crystallographic fashion and afterwards grow into the final mesocrystals, while in the presence of hexadecylamine the subunits come into contact through misaligned attachment, and subsequently, to some degree, realign in crystallographic register. Upon prolonged heating both types of mesocrystals undergo chemical conversion processes resulting in structural and morphological changes. A two-step mechanism of chemical conversion is proposed, involving Cu3N decomposition and anion exchange driven by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, resulting first in multicomponent/heterostructured Cu3N-Cu2O mesocrystals, which subsequently convert into Cu2O nanocages. It is anticipated that combining nanostructured Cu3N and Cu2O in a mesocrystalline and hollow morphology will provide a platform to expand their application potential.

15.
Neuroscience ; 478: 39-48, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687794

RESUMO

Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a potential candidate for surgery; however, nearly one-third subjects had a poor surgical prognosis. We studied the underlying neuromechanism related to the surgical prognosis using graph theory based on metabolic brain network. Sixty-four unilateral TLE subjects with preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scanning were retrospectively enrolled and divided into Ia (Engel class Ia, n = 32) and non-Ia (Engel class Ib-IV, n = 32) groups according to more than 3-year follow-up after unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). The metabolic brain network was constructed and the changed metabolic connectivity of Ia and non-Ia was detected compared with 15 matched healthy controls (HCs). Further, the network properties, including small-worldness and global efficiency, were calculated and hub nodes were also identified for the 3 groups respectively. Non-Ia group exhibited increased connectivity between contralateral fusiform gyrus and contralateral lingual gyrus; while Ia showed decreased connectivity mainly among bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal cortex. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that non-Ia group showed increased small-worldness (35%

16.
Future Oncol ; 17(36): 5033-5044, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704468

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the alteration in ACE2 expression and correlation between ACE2 expression and immune infiltration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: The authors first analyzed the expression profiles and prognostic value of ACE2 in ccRCC patients using The Cancer Genome Atlas public database. The authors used ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT algorithms to analyze the correlation between ACE2 expression and tumor microenvironment in ccRCC samples. Results: ACE2 was correlated with sex, distant metastasis, clinical stage, tumor T stage and histological grade. Moreover, downregulation of ACE2 was correlated with unfavorable prognosis. In addition, ACE2 expression was associated with different immune cell subtypes. Conclusion: The authors' analyses suggest that ACE2 plays an important role in the development and progression of ccRCC and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in ccRCC patients.

17.
J Org Chem ; 86(21): 15631-15639, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643381

RESUMO

A copper-catalyzed annulation of 3-aryl-2H-azirines with 2-naphthols has been developed for the rapid assembly of C-3-naphthol-substituted benzo[e]indoles in one pot. This cascade reaction was realized through dearomatic nucleophilic ring opening of azirine, intramolecular cyclization, and oxidative cross-dehydrogenative coupling to furnish the important unreported π-expanded naphthol/benzo[e]indole biaryls.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To test the advantages of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosing lymph nodes and staging nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to investigate its benefits for survival and treatment decisions. METHODS: The performance of PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis was compared based on 460 biopsied lymph nodes. Using the propensity matching method, survival differences of T3N1M0 patients with (n = 1093) and without (n = 1377) PET/CT were compared in diverse manners. A radiologic score model was developed and tested in a subset of T3N1M0 patients. RESULTS: PET/CT performed better than MRI with higher sensitivity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (96.7% vs. 88.5%, p < 0.001; 88.0% vs. 81.1%, p < 0.001; 0.863 vs. 0.796, p < 0.05) in diagnosing lymph nodes. Accordingly, MRI-staged T3N0-3M0 patients showed nondifferent survival rates, as they were the same T3N1M0 if staged by PET/CT. In addition, patients staged by PET/CT and MRI showed higher survival rates than those staged by MRI alone (p < 0.05), regardless of the Epstein-Barr virus DNA load. Interestingly, SUVmax-N, nodal necrosis, and extranodal extension were highly predictive of survival. The radiologic score model based on these factors performed well in risk stratification with a C-index of 0.72. Finally, induction chemotherapy showed an added benefit (p = 0.006) for the high-risk patients selected by the model but not for those without risk stratification (p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: PET/CT showed advantages in staging nasopharyngeal carcinoma due to a more accurate diagnosis of lymph nodes and this contributed to a survival benefit. PET/CT combined with MRI provided prognostic factors that could identify high-risk patients and guide individualized treatment.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 701836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485337

RESUMO

Background: It is much valuable to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control in the non-pharmacological intervention phase of the pandemic across countries and identify useful experiences that could be generalized worldwide. Methods: In this study, we developed a susceptible-exposure-infectious-asymptomatic-removed (SEIAR) model to fit the daily reported COVID-19 cases in 160 countries. The time-varying reproduction number (R t ) that was estimated through fitting the mathematical model was adopted to quantify the transmissibility. We defined a synthetic index (I AC ) based on the value of R t to reflect the national capability to control COVID-19. Results: The goodness-of-fit tests showed that the SEIAR model fitted the data of the 160 countries well. At the beginning of the epidemic, the values of R t of countries in the European region were generally higher than those in other regions. Among the 160 countries included in the study, all European countries had the ability to control the COVID-19 epidemic. The Western Pacific Region did best in continuous control of the epidemic, with a total of 73.76% of countries that can continuously control the COVID-19 epidemic, while only 43.63% of the countries in the European Region continuously controlled the epidemic, followed by the Region of Americas with 52.53% of countries, the Southeast Asian Region with 48% of countries, the African Region with 46.81% of countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean Region with 40.48% of countries. Conclusion: Large variations in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic existed across countries. The world could benefit from the experience of some countries that demonstrated the highest containment capabilities.

20.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1769-1784, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470548

RESUMO

Traditional combined photodynamic and photothermal therapy (PDT/PTT) was limited in clinical treatment of cancer due to the exceptionally low drug delivery efficiency to tumor sites and the activation by laser excitation with different wavelengths. We have accidentally discovered that our synthesized chlorin e6-C-15-ethyl ester (HB, a new type of photosensitizer) be activated by a laser with an excitation wavelength of 660 nm. Herein, we utilized Au nanorods (AuNRs) as 660 nm-activated PTT carriers to be successively surface-functionalized with HB and tumor-targeting peptide cyclic RGD (cRGD) to develop HB-AuNRs@cRGD for single NIR laser-induced targeted PDT/PTT. The HB-AuNRs@cRGD could be preferentially accumulated within tumor sites and rapidly internalized by cancer cells. Thereby, the HB-AuNRs@cRGD could exhibit amplified therapeutic effects by producing both significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hyperthermia simultaneously under the guidance of fluorescence imaging. The tumor inhibition rate on ECA109 esophageal cancer model was approximately 77.04%, and the negligible systematic toxicity was observed. This study proposed that HB-AuNRs@cRGD might be a promising strategy for single NIR laser-induced and imaging-guided targeted bimodal phototherapy.

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