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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597324

RESUMO

Purpose: The study aims to explore the roles and underlying mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein (lncRNA EBLN3P) in colon cancer, emphasizing the potential impact of these insights on advancing colon cancer treatment strategies. By shedding light on lncRNA EBLN3P's involvement, this research could contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches, enhancing the efficacy of interventions for colon cancer patients. Methods: We employed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess the levels of lncRNA EBLN3P, zinc finger protein (ZFP91), and miR-519d-3p, alongside CCK-8 and EdU assays for cell proliferation, flow cytometry for apoptosis, and Transwell and wound healing assays for migration and invasion. The in vivo function of lncRNA EBLN3P was investigated through a xenograft model, and protein levels were evaluated via Western blot analysis. Results: LncRNA EBLN3P was found to be upregulated in colon cancer tissues and cells, promoting cell proliferation and metastasis while inhibiting apoptosis. Downregulation of lncRNA EBLN3P reduced tumor size, volume, and weight in a mouse model. MiR-519d-3p, which negatively interacts with lncRNA EBLN3P, was found to be downregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. Its upregulation hindered cancer cell proliferation and metastasis while enhancing apoptosis. ZFP91, a binding partner of miR-519d-3p, was upregulated in colon cancer and inversely related to miR-519d-3p levels. Rescue experiments indicated that the effects of lncRNA EBLN3P silencing could be reversed by miR-519d-3p suppression, but were mitigated by ZFP91 downregulation. Conclusion: LncRNA EBLN3P facilitates colon cancer progression via the miR-519d-3p/ZFP91 axis, presenting a novel understanding of lncRNA EBLN3P's role and offering potential therapeutic insights for colon cancer treatment. This study fills a critical gap by linking lncRNA EBLN3P with the miR-519d-3p/ZFP91 axis in the context of colon cancer, thereby broadening our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying colon cancer progression.

2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3163, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605025

RESUMO

The transcription and replication processes of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses (nsNSVs) are catalyzed by a multi-functional polymerase complex composed of the large protein (L) and a cofactor protein, such as phosphoprotein (P). Previous studies have shown that the nsNSV polymerase can adopt a dimeric form, however, the structure of the dimer and its function are poorly understood. Here we determine a 2.7 Å cryo-EM structure of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) L-P complex with the connector domain (CD') of a second L built, while reconstruction of the rest of the second L-P obtains a low-resolution map of the ring-like L core region. This study reveals detailed atomic features of nsNSV polymerase active site and distinct conformation of hPIV3 L with a unique ß-strand latch. Furthermore, we report the structural basis of L-L dimerization, with CD' located at the putative template entry of the adjoining L. Disruption of the L-L interface causes a defect in RNA replication that can be overcome by complementation, demonstrating that L dimerization is necessary for hPIV3 genome replication. These findings provide further insight into how nsNSV polymerases perform their functions, and suggest a new avenue for rational drug design.


Assuntos
Nucleotidiltransferases , Vírus de RNA , Humanos , Dimerização , Domínio Catalítico , Replicação Viral
3.
J Wound Care ; 33(4): 262-270, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined changes in wound symptoms and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with newly diagnosed malignant fungating wounds, and explored the factors that impacted the changes in HRQoL. METHOD: This prospective longitudinal study included patients from three hospitals in China who had been diagnosed with malignant fungating wounds. Questionnaires were used to assess patients' HRQoL and their wound symptoms at the time of diagnosis (T0), as well as at one, three and six (T1, T2 and T3, respectively) months following the treatment period. Factors related to changes in HRQoL were analysed using generalised estimating equation models. RESULTS: A total of 162 patients were included in the study. The patients reported low overall HRQoL. In three health-related dimensions (functional status, social relations and mental health), patients reported lower functional status at the time of wound diagnosis (T0), which then increased slowly with treatment over time. A lower QoL was associated with odour, exudate, bleeding, pruritus, a low performance status and the need for the dressing of wounds. CONCLUSION: The HRQoL of patients with malignant fungating wounds exhibited significant changes across different periods. It is thus of great importance to formulate pragmatic, patient and family-centred palliative wound care management strategies.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Bandagens , Hemorragia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5935-5943, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469860

RESUMO

Kokumi-active γ-glutamyl dipeptides accumulate during sourdough fermentation. γ-Glutamylcysteine ligases (Gcls) of Limosilactobacillus reuteri synthesize γ-glutamyl dipeptides during growth in sourdough. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of Gcls from strains of L. reuteri in the formation of kokumi-active γ-glutamyl dipeptides in sourdough bread. Among 12 acceptor amino acids, the three Gcls of L. reuteri were the most active to Cys. With the acceptor amino acids Ile, Leu, and Phe, Gcl1 was more active than Gcl2 and Gcl3. Accordingly, Gcl1 contributed to the γ-Glu-Ile synthesis in sourdough fermentation. Proofing and baking strongly influenced the concentration of γ-glutamyl dipeptides in bread. The addition of 10% sourdough increased the content of γ-Glu-Leu and γ-Glu-Phe but not of other γ-glutamyl dipeptides in bread. In conclusion, the accumulation of kokumi γ-glutamyl dipeptides in sourdoughs was attributed to the combined activity of cereal enzymes, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligases, and other microbial enzymes.


Assuntos
Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Cisteína/metabolismo , Pão , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo
5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202400177, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488857

RESUMO

Mn(I)-catalyzed enantioselective C-C bond-forming reactions represent a great challenge in homogeneous catalysis primarily due to a limited understanding of its mechanistic principles. Herein, we have developed an interesting catalytic strategy that leverages a synergistic combination of a dimeric manganese(I) catalyst and a chiral aminocatalyst to address this issue. A range of conjugated dienals and trienals can exclusively proceed 1,4-hydroalkenylation by using readily available aromatic and aliphatic alkenyl boronic acids as coupling partners, producing a rich library of skipped diene aldehydes in synthetically useful yields and high levels of enantioselectivities. Notably, downstream transformations of these products can not only afford a concise approach to construct enantioenriched skipped trienes but also realize enantioselective total synthesis of analogues to (-)-Blepharocalyxin D in four steps. DFT calculations suggest the 1,4-hydroalkenylation is kinetically more favorable than 1,6-hydroalkenylation.

6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 299(1): 36, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492113

RESUMO

Previous studies have observed relationships between pancreatitis and gut microbiota; however, specific changes in gut microbiota abundance and underlying mechanisms in pancreatitis remain unknown. Metabolites are important for gut microbiota to fulfil their biological functions, and changes in the metabolic and immune environments are closely linked to changes in microbiota abundance. We aimed to clarify the mechanisms of gut-pancreas interactions and explore the possible role of metabolites and the immune system. To this end, we conducted two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to evaluate the casual links between four different types of pancreatitis and gut microbiota, metabolites, and inflammatory cytokines. A two-step MR analysis was conducted to further evaluate the probable mediating pathways involving metabolites and inflammatory cytokines in the causal relationship between pancreatitis and gut microbiota. In total, six potential mediators were identified in the causal relationship between pancreatitis and gut microbiota. Nineteen species of gut microbiota and seven inflammatory cytokines were genetically associated with the four types of pancreatitis. Metabolites involved in glucose and amino acid metabolisms were genetically associated with chronic pancreatitis, and those involved in lipid metabolism were genetically associated with acute pancreatitis. Our study identified alterations in the gut microbiota, metabolites, and inflammatory cytokines in pancreatitis at the genetic level and found six potential mediators of the pancreas-gut axis, which may provide insights into the precise diagnosis of pancreatitis and treatment interventions for gut microbiota to prevent the exacerbation of pancreatitis. Future studies could elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between pancreatitis and the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Pancreatite , Humanos , Doença Aguda , Citocinas/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pancreatite/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
7.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 11(1): 6, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the recurrence of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) based on the neovascular signal of mCNV around the perforating scleral vessel (PSV). METHODS: A consecutive series of naïve patients with mCNV accepted anti-VEGF therapy with a minimum 12-month follow-up period. The neovascular signal relationship between PSV and mCNV were classified into the presence of neovascular signal of CNV around PSV or not. The recurrence of mCNV, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), hyperreflective foci height, CNV area and CNV flow area were analyzed between two groups. RESULTS: Neovascular signal of CNV around PSV was detected in 20 eyes (39.2%). The one-year recurrence rate in the group with neovascular signal of CNV around PSV was significantly higher than that in the group without neovascular signal of CNV around PSV (P = 0.045). The recurrence time in the group with neovascular signal around PSV was shorter than that in the group without neovascular signal around PSV (P = 0.030). Cox proportional hazard model showed that the presence of neovascular signal of CNV around PSV [hazard ratio (HR): 2.904] and subfoveal choroidal thickness ≤ 50 µm (HR: 0.368) were risk factors for recurrence of mCNV. In the group with neovascular signal around PSV, the BCVA was worse (P = 0.024) and the CNV flow area was more unstable (P = 0.027) after therapy. CONCLUSIONS: PSV was commonly detected in patients with mCNV. The presence of neovascular signal of CNV around PSV was prone to recur with a shorter time in mCNV patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are twofold: first, to visualize the structure of malformed cochleae through image reconstruction; and second, to develop a predictive model for postoperative outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in patients diagnosed with cochlear hypoplasia (CH) and incomplete partition (IP) malformation. METHODS: The clinical data from patients diagnosed with cochlear hypoplasia (CH) and incomplete partition (IP) malformation who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) at Beijing Tongren Hospital between January 2016 and August 2020 were collected. Radiological features were analyzed through 3D segmentation of the cochlea. Postoperative auditory speech rehabilitation outcomes were evaluated using the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cochlear parameters and postoperative outcomes. Additionally, a predictive model for postoperative outcomes was developed using the K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm. RESULTS: In our study, we conducted feature selection by using patients' imaging and audiological attributes. This process involved methods such as the removal of missing values, correlation analysis, and chi-square tests. The findings indicated that two specific features, cochlear volume (V) and cochlear canal length (CDL), significantly contributed to predicting the outcomes of hearing and speech rehabilitation for patients with inner ear malformations. In terms of hearing rehabilitation, the KNN classification achieved an accuracy of 93.3%. Likewise, for speech rehabilitation, the KNN classification demonstrated an accuracy of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: The measurements obtained from the 3D reconstruction model hold significant clinical relevance. Despite the considerable variability in cochlear morphology across individuals, radiological features remain effective in predicting cochlear implantation (CI) prognosis for patients with inner ear malformations. The utilization of 3D segmentation techniques and the developed predictive model can assist surgeons in conducting preoperative cochlear structural measurements for patients with inner ear malformations. This, in turn, can offer a more informed perspective on the anticipated outcomes of cochlear implantation.

9.
Science ; 383(6685): 855-859, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386724

RESUMO

Scalable fabrication of all-perovskite tandem solar cells is challenging because the narrow-bandgap subcells made of mixed lead-tin (Pb-Sn) perovskite films suffer from nonuniform crystallization and inferior buried perovskite interfaces. We used a dopant from Good's list of biochemical buffers, aminoacetamide hydrochloride, to homogenize perovskite crystallization and used it to extend the processing window for blade-coating Pb-Sn perovskite films and to selectively passivate defects at the buried perovskite interface. The resulting all-perovskite tandem solar module exhibited a certified power conversion efficiency of 24.5% with an aperture area of 20.25 square centimeters.

10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1645, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388556

RESUMO

The presence of oral microbes in extra-oral sites is linked to gastrointestinal cancers. However, their potential ectopically colonization in the nasopharynx and impact on local cancer development remains uncertain. Our study involving paired nasopharyngeal-oral microbial samples from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and controls unveils an aberrant oral-to-nasopharyngeal microbial translocation associated with increased NPC risk (OR = 4.51, P = 0.012). Thirteen species are classified as oral-translocated and enriched in NPC patients. Among these, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia are validated through culturomics and clonal strain identification. Nasopharyngeal biopsy meta-transcriptomes confirm these microbes within tumors, influencing local microenvironment and cytokine response. These microbes correlate significantly with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in the nasopharynx, exhibiting an increased dose-response relationship. Collectively, our study identifies oral microbes migrating to the nasopharynx, infiltrating tumors, impacting microenvironments and linking with EBV infection. These results enhance our understanding of abnormal microbial communication and their roles in carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Translocação Genética , Boca , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
ACS Nano ; 18(10): 7618-7632, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422984

RESUMO

Calcium nanoparticles have been investigated for applications, such as drug and gene delivery. Additionally, Ca2+ serves as a crucial second messenger in the activation of immune cells. However, few studies have systematically studied the effects of calcium nanoparticles on the calcium levels and functions within immune cells. In this study, we explore the potential of calcium nanoparticles as a vehicle to deliver calcium into the cytosol of dendritic cells (DCs) and influence their functions. We synthesized calcium hydroxide nanoparticles, coated them with a layer of silica to prevent rapid degradation, and further conjugated them with anti-CD205 antibodies to achieve targeted delivery to DCs. Our results indicate that these nanoparticles can efficiently enter DCs and release calcium ions in a controlled manner. This elevation in cytosolic calcium activates both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways, in turn promoting the expression of costimulatory molecules, antigen-presenting molecules, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In mouse tumor models, the calcium nanoparticles enhanced the antitumor immune response and augmented the efficacy of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy without introducing additional toxicity. Our study introduces a safe nanoparticle immunomodulator with potential widespread applications in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Nanopartículas , Animais , Camundongos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Imunoterapia/métodos
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(3): e0227623, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319095

RESUMO

Consumer demand for plant cheeses is increasing, but challenges of improving both flavor and quality remain. This study investigated the microbiological and physicochemical impact of seed germination and fermentation with Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the ripening of plant cheese analogs. Chlorine treatment or addition of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis controlled microbial growth during seed germination. Lp. plantarum and Lc. lactis also served as starter cultures for the acidification of soy and lupine milk and were subsequently present in the unripened plant cheese as dominant microbes. Acidification also inhibited the growth and metabolic activity of bacilli but Bacillus spores remained viable throughout ripening. During plant cheese ripening, Lc. lactis was inactivated before Lp. plantarum and the presence of bacilli during seed germination delayed Lc. lactis inactivation. Metagenomic sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicons confirmed that the relative abundance of the inoculated strains in each ripened cheese sample exceeded 99%. Oligosaccharides including raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose were rapidly depleted in the initial stage of ripening. Both germination and the presence of bacilli during seed germination had impact on polysaccharide hydrolysis during ripening. Bacilli but not seed germination enhanced proteolysis of plant cheese during ripening. In conclusion, the use of germination with lactic acid bacteria in combination with Bacillus spp. exhibited the potential to improve the quality of ripened plant cheeses with a positive effect on the reduction of hygienic risks. IMPORTANCE: The development of novel plant-based fermented food products for which no traditional templates exist requires the development of starter cultures. Although the principles of microbial flavor formation in plant-based analogs partially overlap with dairy fermentations, the composition of the raw materials and thus likely the selective pressure on the activity of starter cultures differs. Experiments that are described in this study explored the use of seed germination, the use of lactic acid bacteria, and the use of bacilli to reduce hygienic risks, to acidify plant milk, and to generate taste-active compounds through proteolysis and fermentative conversion of carbohydrates. The characterization of fermentation microbiota by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods also confirmed that the starter cultures used were able to control microbial communities throughout 90 d of ripening. Taken together, the results provide novel tools for the development of plant-based analogs of fermented dairy products.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Germinação , Queijo/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes , Lactobacillales/genética , Bacillus/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leite/microbiologia
13.
Sci Adv ; 10(8): eadk3663, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394204

RESUMO

Glycolytic metabolism may account for antitumor immunity failure. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and platelet phosphofructokinase (PFKP), two key enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, are hyperactivated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using ganetespib as a drug model for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition and combining results from clinical trials and animal treatment, we demonstrated that HSP90 inhibition leads to a blockade of glycolytic flux in HNSCC cells by simultaneously suppressing PKM2 and PFKP at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Down-regulation of tumor glycolysis facilitates tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T cells via suppression of glycolysis-dependent interleukin-8 signaling. The addition of ganetespib to radiation attenuates radiation-induced up-regulation of PKM2 and PFKP and potentiates T cell-mediated antitumor immunity, resulting in a more potent antitumor effect than either treatment alone, providing a molecular basis for exploring the combination of HSP90 inhibitors with radiotherapy to improve outcomes for patients with HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Animais , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Glicólise
14.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 1, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175325

RESUMO

AIM: Robotic-assisted pancreatectomy has been widely used. Organ-preserving pancreatectomy (OPP) and parenchymal-sparing pancreatectomy (PSP) has been gradually adopted for pancreatic benign or low-grade malignant tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robotic-assisted OPP/PSP in our institute. METHODS: Patients undergoing robotic-assisted OPS/PSP at First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between July 2015 and October 2021 were included in this study. The short-term and long-term outcomes of patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were enrolled, including spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, and enucleation. Patients included were more likely to be young female (female: 46/72, median age: 47 years old). The median intraoperative blood loss and operation time was 50 ml and 255 min, respectively. Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula was 20.8% (grade B: 15/72, 20.8%; no grade C). The overall complication rate was 22.2% with the median postoperative length-of-stay of 8 days. At a median follow-up time of 28.5 months, the 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rate were 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The short-term and long-term outcomes of patients receiving robotic-assisted OPP/PSP were acceptable. Robotic-assisted OPP/PSP was a feasible and safe technique for pancreatic benign or low-grade malignant lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
15.
Commun Chem ; 7(1): 1, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167859

RESUMO

The search for lead compounds with anti-neuroinflammatory activity from structurally 'optimized' natural products is a crucial and promising strategy in the quest to discover safe and efficacious agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases. A phytochemical investigation on the aerial portions of Hypericum elatoides led to the isolation of five nitrogenous polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), hyperelanitriles A-D (1-4) and hyperelamine A (5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, ECD and NMR calculations, and X-ray crystallography. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1-4 represent the first examples of acylphloroglucinols featuring an α-aminonitrile moiety, while 5 is a rare enamine-containing PPAP. Further, the synthesis of these naturally occurring PPAP-based nitriles or amines was accomplished. Compound 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against LPS-activated NO production in BV-2 cells, potentially through the suppression of TLR-4/NF-κB signaling. Here we show the isolation, structural elucidation, synthesis, and bioactive evaluation of compounds 1-5.

16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 40(1): 211-225, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258642

RESUMO

The banana Fusarium wilt (BFW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race4 (FocTR4) is difficult to control worldwide, which causes a huge economic losse to banana industry. The purpose of this study was to screen Trichoderma strains with antagonistic activity against FocTR4, to isolate and purify the active compound from the fermentation broth, so as to provide important biocontrol strains and active compound resources. In this work, Trichoderma strains were isolated and screened from the rhizosphere soil of crops, and the strains capable of efficiently inhibiting FocTR4 were screened by plate confrontation, and further confirmed by testing inhibition for the conidial germination and mycelial growth of FocTR4. The phylogenetic tree clarified the taxonomic status of the biocontrol strains. Moreover, the active components in the fermentation broth of the strains were separated and purified by column chromatography, the structure of the most active component was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), the BFW control effect was tested by pot experiments. We obtained a strain JSHA-CD-1003 with antagonistic activity against FocTR4, and the inhibition rate from plate confrontation was 60.6%. The fermentation broth of JSHA-CD-1003 completely inhibited the germination of FocTR4 conidia within 24 hours. The inhibition rate of FocTR4 hyphae growth was 52.6% within 7 d. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the ITS and tef1-α gene tandem sequences, and JSHA-CD-1003 was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum. Purification and NMR identification showed that the single active compound was trichodermin, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 25 µg/mL. Pot experiments showed that the fermentation broth of strain JSHA-CD-1003 was effective against BFW. The control rate of leaf yellowing was 47.4%, and the rate of bulb browning was 52.0%. Therefore, JSHA-CD-1003 effectively inhibited FocTR4 conidial germination and mycelium growth through producing trichodermin, and showed biocontrol effect on banana wilt caused by FocTR4, thus is a potential biocontrol strain.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Hypocreales , Musa , Filogenia , Tricodermina
17.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(4)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271723

RESUMO

Object. The existing diagnostic paradigm for diabetic retinopathy (DR) greatly relies on subjective assessments by medical practitioners utilizing optical imaging, introducing susceptibility to individual interpretation. This work presents a novel system for the early detection and grading of DR, providing an automated alternative to the manual examination.Approach. First, we use advanced image preprocessing techniques, specifically contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization and Gaussian filtering, with the goal of enhancing image quality and module learning capabilities. Second, a deep learning-based automatic detection system is developed. The system consists of a feature segmentation module, a deep learning feature extraction module, and an ensemble classification module. The feature segmentation module accomplishes vascular segmentation, the deep learning feature extraction module realizes the global feature and local feature extraction of retinopathy images, and the ensemble module performs the diagnosis and classification of DR for the extracted features. Lastly, nine performance evaluation metrics are applied to assess the quality of the model's performance.Main results. Extensive experiments are conducted on four retinal image databases (APTOS 2019, Messidor, DDR, and EyePACS). The proposed method demonstrates promising performance in the binary and multi-classification tasks for DR, evaluated through nine indicators, including AUC and quadratic weighted Kappa score. The system shows the best performance in the comparison of three segmentation methods, two convolutional neural network architecture models, four Swin Transformer structures, and the latest literature methods.Significance. In contrast to existing methods, our system demonstrates superior performance across multiple indicators, enabling accurate screening of DR and providing valuable support to clinicians in the diagnostic process. Our automated approach minimizes the reliance on subjective assessments, contributing to more consistent and reliable DR evaluations.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Computadores
18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(11): e202319896, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197522

RESUMO

Upgrading of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste into valuable oxygenated molecules is a fascinating process, yet it remains challenging. Herein, we developed a two-step strategy involving methanolysis of PET to dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), followed by hydrogenation of DMT to produce the high-valued chemical methyl p-methyl benzoate (MMB) using a fixed-bed reactor and a Cu/ZrO2 catalyst. Interestingly, we discovered the phase structure of ZrO2 significantly regulates the selectivity of products. Cu supported on monoclinic ZrO2 (5 %Cu/m-ZrO2 ) exhibits an exceptional selectivity of 86 % for conversion of DMT to MMB, while Cu supported on tetragonal ZrO2 (5 %Cu/t-ZrO2 ) predominantly produces p-xylene (PX) with selectivity of 75 %. The superior selectivity of MMB over Cu/m-ZrO2 can be attributed to the weaker acid sites present on m-ZrO2 compared to t-ZrO2 . This weak acidity of m-ZrO2 leads to a moderate adsorption capability of MMB, and facilitating its desorption. Furthermore, DFT calculations reveal Cu/m-ZrO2 catalyst shows a higher effective energy barrier for cleavage of second C-O bond compared to Cu/t-ZrO2 catalyst; this distinction ensures the high selectivity of MMB. This catalyst not only presents an approach for upgrading of PET waste into fine chemicals but also offers a strategy for controlling the primary product in a multistep hydrogenation reaction.

19.
J Food Sci ; 89(2): 1127-1142, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193192

RESUMO

Superfine grinding (SG), as an innovative technology, was conducted to improve the physicochemical and structural properties of fruit pulps. Nectarine, apple, and honey peach were selected as the materials. With the increase in SG frequency, the soluble solids content, viscosity, D[4, 3], D[3, 2], G' and G″ of fruit pulps were evidently decreased, whereas the turbidity was increased. The smallest D[4, 3] (294.90 µm) and D[3, 2] (159.67 µm) were observed in nectarine pulp under SG at 50 Hz. The highest turbidity (266.33) was shown in honey peach pulp under SG at 50 Hz. The active groups of the fruit pulps with SG were exposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Notably, the excessive destruction in structure was confirmed in SG with 50 Hz. With soy protein isolate (SPI) addition, D[4, 3] and D[3, 2] of complexes decreased, whereas G' and G″ increased. The formation of new fruit pulp-SPI complexes was demonstrated by FT-IR and LF-NMR analysis. The dense and uniform structure was found in complexes prepared by SPI and fruit pulp with 30 Hz SG. Especially, apple-SPI complex with 30 Hz SG showed the highest water-holding capacity (WHC) (0.75) and adhesiveness (7973.00 g s). A significant correlation between fruit pulps and the complexes was revealed. Taken together, the impact of SG modification on fruit pulps would enhance WHC, rheology, and textural properties of the fruit pulp-SPI complexes, especially for SG with 30 Hz. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research provided a comprehensive exploration of the potential of SG technology to modify fruit pulps, solving the diversity of textural customization problems and offering valuable insights for the development of semisolid food products.


Assuntos
Malus , Prunus persica , Proteínas de Soja/química , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade , Alérgenos/análise
20.
J Nutr ; 154(1): 252-260, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if adherence to the planetary healthy diet (PHD), designed to improve human and environmental health, is associated with better cognitive function in aging, and if this association differs by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between the PHD pattern and risk of poor cognitive function, and to further assess whether the APOE ε4 allele could modify this association. METHODS: The study included 16,736 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. The PHD score was calculated using data from a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1993-1998), with higher scores indicating greater adherence to the PHD. Cognitive function was assessed by the Singapore-modified Mini-Mental State Examination at follow-up 3 visits (2014-2016). A subset of 9313 participants had APOE genotype data. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 2397 (14.3%) cases of poor cognitive function. In the total population, OR (95% CI) of poor cognitive function for each one-SD increment in the PHD score was 0.89 (0.85, 0.93). Carriers of APOE ε4 allele had increased risk of poor cognitive function (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.61). There was a significant interaction between the PHD score and the APOE ε4 allele (P-interaction = 0.042). Each one-SD increment in the PHD score was significantly associated with lower risk of poor cognitive function (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96) in non-carriers of APOE ε4 allele, but not in APOE ε4 allele carriers (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Midlife adherence to the PHD was associated with reduced risk of poor cognitive function in later life. However, this was not observed in carriers of APOE ε4 allele who had higher risk of poor cognitive function.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4 , Dieta Saudável , Adulto , Humanos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Singapura , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Cognição , Genótipo , Alelos
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