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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 9(8)2023 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37623621

RESUMO

Fusarium species are among the filamentous fungi with the most pronounced impact on agricultural production and human health. The mycotoxins produced by pathogenic Fusarium not only attack various plants including crops, causing various plant diseases that lead to reduced yields and even death, but also penetrate into the food chain of humans and animals to cause food poisoning and consequent health hazards. Although sporadic studies have revealed some of the biosynthetic pathways of Fusarium toxins, they are insufficient to satisfy the need for a comprehensive understanding of Fusarium toxin production. In this study, we focused on 35 serious pathogenic Fusarium species with available genomes and systematically analyzed the ubiquity of the distribution of identified Fusarium- and non-Fusarium-derived fungal toxin biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) in these species through the mining of core genes and the comparative analysis of corresponding BGCs. Additionally, novel sesterterpene synthases and PKS_NRPS clusters were discovered and analyzed. This work is the first to systematically analyze the distribution of related mycotoxin biosynthesis in pathogenic Fusarium species. These findings enhance the knowledge of mycotoxin production and provide a theoretical grounding for the prevention of fungal toxin production using biotechnological approaches.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(16)2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37628782

RESUMO

The family Nidulariaceae, consisting of five genera including Cyathus, is a unique group of mushrooms commonly referred to as bird's nest fungi due to their striking resemblance to bird's nests. These mushrooms are considered medicinal mushrooms in Chinese medicine and have received attention in recent years for their anti-neurodegenerative properties. However, despite the interest in these mushrooms, very little is known about their mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes). This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the mitogenomes of five Nidulariaceae species with circular genome structures ranging in size from 114,236 bp to 129,263 bp. Comparative analyses based on gene content, gene length, tRNA, and codon usage indicate convergence within the family Nidulariaceae and heterogeneity within the order Agaricales. Phylogenetic analysis based on a combined mitochondrial conserved protein dataset provides a well-supported phylogenetic tree for the Basidiomycetes, which clearly demonstrates the evolutionary relationships between Nidulariaceae and other members of Agaricales. Furthermore, phylogenetic inferences based on four different gene sets reveal the stability and proximity of evolutionary relationships within Agaricales. These results reveal the uniqueness of the family Nidulariaceae and its similarity to other members of Agaricales; provide valuable insights into the origin, evolution, and genetics of Nidulariaceae species; and enrich the fungal mitogenome resource. This study will help to expand the knowledge and understanding of the mitogenomes in mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Genoma Mitocondrial , Agaricales/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Íntrons/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Proteínas Mitocondriais
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(10): 2829-2840, 2023 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37282943

RESUMO

Natural Cordyceps sinensis as an insect-fungal complex, which is developed after Ophiocordyceps sinensis infects a larva of Hepialidae family. Seventeen genotypes of O. sinensis have been identified in natural C. sinensis. This paper summarized the literature reports and GenBank database regarding occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in natural C. sinensis, in Hirsutella sinensis(GC-biased Genotype #1 of O. sinensis), to infer the mating pattern of O. sinensis in the lifecycle of natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes and transcripts of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of natural C. sinensis. However, their fungal sources are unclear because of co-colonization of several genotypes of O. sinensis and multiple fungal species in natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were differentially present in 237 H. sinensis strains, constituting the genetic control of the O. sinensis reproduction. Transcriptional control of the O. sinensis reproduction includes: differential transcription or silencing of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, and the MAT1-2-1 transcript with unspliced intron I that contains 3 stop codons. Research on the H. sinensis transcriptome demonstrated differential and complementary transcriptions of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in Strains L0106 and 1229, which may become mating partners to accomplish physiological heterothallism. The differential occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes in H. sinensis are inconsistent with the self-fertilization hypothesis under homothallism or pseudohomothallism, but instead indicate the need of mating partners of the same H. sinensis species, either monoecious or dioecious, for physiological heterothallism, or heterospecific species for hybridization. Multiple GC-and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis were identified in the stroma, stromal fertile portion(densely covered with numerous ascocarps) and ascospores of natural C. sinensis. It needs to be further explored if the genome-independent O. sinensis genotypes could become mating partners to accomplish sexual reproduction. S. hepiali Strain FENG experienced differential transcription of the mating-type genes with a pattern complementary to that of H. sinensis Strain L0106. Additional evidence is needed to explore a hybridization possibility between S. hepiali and H. sinensis, whether they are able to break the interspecific reproductive isolation. Genotypes #13~14 of O. sinensis feature large DNA segment reciprocal substitutions and genetic material recombination between 2 heterospecific parental fungi, H. sinensis and an AB067719-type fungus, indicating a possibility of hybridization or parasexuality. Our analysis provides important information at the genetic and transcriptional levels regarding the mating-type gene expression and reproduction physiology of O. sinensis in the sexual life of natural C. sinensis and offers crucial reproductive physiology evidence, to assist in the design of the artificial cultivation of C. sinensis to supplement the increasing scarcity of natural resource.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Cordyceps/genética , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento/genética , Reprodução/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286865, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine multiple genotypes of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in a semi-quantitative manner in the stromal fertile portion (SFP) densely covered with numerous ascocarps and ascospores of natural Cordyceps sinensis and to outline the dynamic alterations of the coexisting O. sinensis genotypes in different developmental phases. METHODS: Mature Cordyceps sinensis specimens were harvested and continuously cultivated in our laboratory (altitude 2,254 m). The SFPs (with ascocarps) and fully and semi-ejected ascospores were collected for histological and molecular examinations. Biochip-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) was used to genotype multiple O. sinensis mutants in the SFPs and ascospores. RESULTS: Microscopic analysis revealed distinct morphologies of the SFPs (with ascocarps) before and after ascospore ejection and SFP of developmental failure, which, along with the fully and semi-ejected ascospores, were subjected to SNP MS genotyping analysis. Mass spectra showed the coexistence of GC- and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis that were genetically and phylogenetically distinct in the SFPs before and after ejection and of developmental failure and in fully and semi-ejected ascospores. The intensity ratios of MS peaks were dynamically altered in the SFPs and the fully and semi-ejected ascospores. Mass spectra also showed transversion mutation alleles of unknown upstream and downstream sequences with altered intensities in the SFPs and ascospores. Genotype #5 of AT-biased Cluster-A maintained a high intensity in all SFPs and ascospores. An MS peak with a high intensity containing AT-biased Genotypes #6 and #15 in pre-ejection SFPs was significantly attenuated after ascospore ejection. The abundance of Genotypes #5‒6 and #16 of AT-biased Cluster-A was differentially altered in the fully and semi-ejected ascospores that were collected from the same Cordyceps sinensis specimens. CONCLUSION: Multiple O. sinensis genotypes coexisted in different combinations with altered abundances in the SFPs prior to and after ejection, the SFP of developmental failure, and the two types of ascospores of Cordyceps sinensis, demonstrating their genomic independence. Metagenomic fungal members present in different combinations and with dynamic alterations play symbiotic roles in different compartments of natural Cordyceps sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Cordyceps/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectrometria de Massas , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Genótipo
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 178, 2023 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37170135

RESUMO

Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a sporadic malignant tumor that mainly originates from the pulmonary arteries. However, PAS may also involve the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and lead to obstruction, syncope, or sudden death. Early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are essential to prolong survival and improve the quality of life of patients with PAS. Herein, we report a case of a young female patient admitted for pulmonary malignancy and acute pulmonary embolism. The patient had a mass in the RVOT, which was detected by transthoracic echocardiography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the invasion depth and extent of the lesions. Surgical resection improved hemodynamics, while pathological and immunohistochemical tests confirmed the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma. Local recurrence was detected in the adjacent tissues about two months after the surgery. Given the potential risk of reoperation, the patient was suggested to undergo conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sarcoma , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo , Humanos , Feminino , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Sarcoma/patologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/diagnóstico , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/etiologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/cirurgia
7.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0270776, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the differential occurrence of Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes in the stroma, stromal fertile portion (SFP) densely covered with numerous ascocarps, and ascospores of natural Cordyceps sinensis. METHODS: Immature and mature C. sinensis specimens were harvested. Mature C. sinensis specimens were continuously cultivated in our laboratory (altitude 2,200 m). The SFPs (with ascocarps) and ascospores of C. sinensis were collected for microscopic and molecular analyses using species-/genotype-specific primers. Sequences of mutant genotypes of O. sinensis were aligned with that of Genotype #1 Hirsutella sinensis and compared phylogenetically using a Bayesian majority-rule method. RESULTS: Fully and semiejected ascospores were collected from the same specimens. The semiejected ascospores tightly adhered to the surface of the asci as observed by the naked eye and under optical and confocal microscopies. The multicellular heterokaryotic ascospores showed uneven staining of nuclei. The immature and mature stromata, SFPs (with ascocarps) and ascospores were found to differentially contain several GC- and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis, Samsoniella hepiali, and an AB067719-type fungus. The genotypes within AT-biased Cluster-A in the Bayesian tree occurred in all compartments of C. sinensis, but those within AT-biased Cluster-B were present in immature and mature stromata and SPFs but absent in the ascospores. Genotype #13 of O. sinensis was present in semi-ejected ascospores and Genotype #14 in fully ejected ascospores. GC-biased Genotypes #13-14 featured large DNA segment substitutions and genetic material recombination between the genomes of the parental fungi (H. sinensis and the AB067719-type fungus). These ascosporic offspring genotypes combined with varying abundances of S. hepiali in the 2 types of ascospores participated in the control of the development, maturation and ejection of the ascospores. CONCLUSION: Multiple genotypes of O. sinensis coexist differentially in the stromata, SFPs and 2 types of C. sinensis ascospores, along with S. hepiali and the AB067719-type fungus. The fungal components in different combinations and their dynamic alterations in the compartments of C. sinensis during maturation play symbiotic roles in the lifecycle of natural C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Cordyceps/genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA , Primers do DNA/genética , Genótipo
8.
JCI Insight ; 8(6)2023 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36809299

RESUMO

Anti-CD36 Abs have been suggested to induce transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) upon blood transfusion, particularly in Asian populations. However, little is known about the pathological mechanism of anti-CD36 Ab-mediated TRALI, and potential therapies have not yet been identified. Here, we developed a murine model of anti-CD36 Ab-mediated TRALI to address these questions. Administration of mouse mAb against CD36 (mAb GZ1) or human anti-CD36 IgG, but not GZ1 F(ab')2 fragments, induced severe TRALI in Cd36+/+ male mice. Predepletion of recipient monocytes or complement, but not neutrophils or platelets, prevented the development of murine TRALI. Moreover, plasma C5a levels after TRALI induction by anti-CD36 Abs increased more than 3-fold, implying a critical role of complement C5 activation in the mechanism of Fc-dependent anti-CD36-mediated TRALI. Administration of GZ1 F(ab')2, antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC), or C5 blocker (mAb BB5.1) before TRALI induction completely protected mice from anti-CD36-mediated TRALI. Although no significant amelioration in TRALI was observed when mice were injected with GZ1 F(ab')2 after TRALI induction, significant improvement was achieved when mice were treated postinduction with NAC or anti-C5. Importantly, anti-C5 treatment completely rescued mice from TRALI, suggesting the potential role of existing anti-C5 drugs in the treatment of patients with TRALI caused by anti-CD36.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão , Camundongos , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/patologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Monócitos/patologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Ativação do Complemento
9.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 39(1): 26-39, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448712

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is a gynecological cancer with high mortality. OC-derived exosomal circRNAs can regulate angiogenesis. This study aims to explore the role and mechanism of exosomal circRNA nuclear factor I X (CircNFIX) derived from OC cells in angiogenesis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to evaluate the levels of circNFIX, miR-518a-3p, and tripartite motif protein 44 (TRIM44) in OC and adjacent tissues. Exosomes from the ovarian surface epithelial cell (HOSEpiC) and OC cells (SKOV3 or OVCAR3) were isolated by differential centrifugation. Exosomes were cocultured with the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The angiogenesis capacity was analyzed by Tube formation assay. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Transwell assays were used to determine the cell viability and migration ability. The dual-luciferase report, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), and RNA pull-down assays were applied to validate the gene's interaction. CircNFIX and TRIM44 expression were higher and miR-518a-3p was lower in OC tissues than in the adjacent tissues. Upregulated circNFIX and TRIM44 were significantly correlated with the tumor size and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage of OC patients. HUVECs treated OC-derived exosomes had higher proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis capacities than the control group. While OC-derived exosomal circNFIX silencing restrained HUVECs' proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, compared with the OC-derived exosomes group. OC-derived exosomal circNFIX positively regulated TRIM44 expression by targeting miR-518a-3p in HUVECs. OC-derived exosomal circNFIX promoted angiogenesis by regulating the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (JAK/STAT1) pathway via miR-518a-3p/TRIM44 axis in HUVECs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo
10.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 39(3): 234-243, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495291

RESUMO

We aimed to study the regulatory roles and mechanism of circular nuclear factor IX (circNFIX) in cancer growth and stemness properties of ovarian cancer (OC). CircNFIX and SH3RF3 levels in OC tissues and cells were tested by quantitative real-time PCR. RNase R treatment quantified circNFIX RNA stability. Molecular interaction among circNFIX, LIN28B, and SH3RF3 was predicted by bioinformatics software and validated through RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. The gain- or loss-experiments of circNFIX on capabilities of metastasis and stemness in vitro were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, western blot, and sphere-formation assays. CircNFIX and SH3RF3 were markedly elevated in OC tissues and OC cells. Knocking down circNFIX repressed the proliferation, migration, invasion, and stemness properties of A2780 and SKOV3 cells. The RIP assay verified the direct binding relationship between LIN28B, circNFIX, and SH3RF3. Additionally, overexpression of circNFIX elevated the SH3RF3 expression, while this effect was reversed by LIN28B silence. Rescue experiments demonstrated that the overexpression of SH3RF3 reversed the knockdown of circNFIX on OC cells' proliferation, metastasis, and stemness properties. CircNFIX improved the mRNA stability and translation of SH3RF3 via recruiting LIN28B, thus promoting the proliferation, invasion, and stemness properties of OC cells in vitro.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
11.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-986062

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the right ventricular function using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D STE) and analyze the associated risk factors of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with silicosis. Methods: All 104 patients with silicosis treated in the Department of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University from May 2021 to September 2022 were enrolled in this study in October 2022. The clinical information of patients such as general data, arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function test were collected. The right ventricular function of patients was evaluated by 2-D STE-derived right ventricular free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) and conventional echocardiographic-derived parameters, including right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and doppler tissue imaging-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S'), respectively. Based on their RVFWLS, the patients were divided into right ventricular dysfunction group and normal right ventricular function group. Risk factors for right ventricular dysfunction in patients with silicosis were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 104 silicosis patients were enrolled, with aneverage age (65.52±11.18) years old, among whom including 57 cases diagnosed with stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ silicosis and 47 cases diagnosed with stage Ⅲ silicosis. 26 (25.00%) patients concurrent right ventricular dysfunction. The abnormal rates of RVFAC, TAPSE and S' in patients were 16.35% (17 cases), 21.15% (22 cases) and 6.73% (7 cases), respectively. The RVFAC and TAPSE in right ventricular dysfunction group were lower than those in normal right ventricular function group, and the incidence of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure ≥36 mmHg was higher than that in normal right ventricular function group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that arterial partial pressure of oxygen (OR=0.932, 95%CI: 0.885-0.981, P=0.007) was the protective factor, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) /forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio<70% (OR=5.484, 95%CI: 1.049-28.662, P=0.044) and stage Ⅲ silicosis (OR=6.343, 95%CI: 1.698-23.697, P=0.007) were the risk factors for silicosis patients concurrent right ventricular dysfunction. Conclusion: The incidence of right ventricular dysfunction is higher in patients with stage Ⅲ silicosis than that in patients with stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ silicosis. Using 2-D STE can help the early detection of silicosis with right ventricular dysfunction. Hypoxemia, airflow limitation and the stage Ⅲ silicosis are the risk factors for silicosis patients concurrent right ventricular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Ecocardiografia , Fatores de Risco , Silicose/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1108-1116, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1008940

RESUMO

Patients with acute heart failure (AHF) often experience dyspnea, and monitoring and quantifying their breathing patterns can provide reference information for disease and prognosis assessment. In this study, 39 AHF patients and 24 healthy subjects were included. Nighttime chest-abdominal respiratory signals were collected using wearable devices, and the differences in nocturnal breathing patterns between the two groups were quantitatively analyzed. Compared with the healthy group, the AHF group showed a higher mean breathing rate (BR_mean) [(21.03 ± 3.84) beat/min vs. (15.95 ± 3.08) beat/min, P < 0.001], and larger R_RSBI_cv [70.96% (54.34%-104.28)% vs. 58.48% (45.34%-65.95)%, P = 0.005], greater AB_ratio_cv [(22.52 ± 7.14)% vs. (17.10 ± 6.83)%, P = 0.004], and smaller SampEn (0.67 ± 0.37 vs. 1.01 ± 0.29, P < 0.001). Additionally, the mean inspiratory time (TI_mean) and expiration time (TE_mean) were shorter, TI_cv and TE_cv were greater. Furthermore, the LBI_cv was greater, while SD1 and SD2 on the Poincare plot were larger in the AHF group, all of which showed statistically significant differences. Logistic regression calibration revealed that the TI_mean reduction was a risk factor for AHF. The BR_ mean demonstrated the strongest ability to distinguish between the two groups, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.846. Parameters such as breathing period, amplitude, coordination, and nonlinear parameters effectively quantify abnormal breathing patterns in AHF patients. Specifically, the reduction in TI_mean serves as a risk factor for AHF, while the BR_mean distinguishes between the two groups. These findings have the potential to provide new information for the assessment of AHF patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Respiração , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Doença Aguda
13.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 156-159, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1005525

RESUMO

Natural disasters and epidemics are intertwined, posing a great threat to national health and property security, and hindering economic development. Faced with the complex rescue environment, the contradiction between individual interests and collective interests may escalate, causing ethical dilemmas different from those encountered in conventional medicine. In the context of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control, how to maximize the coordination of the conflict between individual interests and collective interests, minimize the losses caused by disasters, and maintain social stability is a new topic of ethical research. Based on the ethical principles of public management, this paper explored the ethical conflicts of public management faced by emergency disaster rescue, in the view of providing ethical theoretical support for dealing with the practical difficulties of emergency public health crisis, and promoting the development and progress of disaster medical rescue work.

14.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-981386

RESUMO

Natural Cordyceps sinensis as an insect-fungal complex, which is developed after Ophiocordyceps sinensis infects a larva of Hepialidae family. Seventeen genotypes of O. sinensis have been identified in natural C. sinensis. This paper summarized the literature reports and GenBank database regarding occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in natural C. sinensis, in Hirsutella sinensis(GC-biased Genotype #1 of O. sinensis), to infer the mating pattern of O. sinensis in the lifecycle of natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes and transcripts of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of natural C. sinensis. However, their fungal sources are unclear because of co-colonization of several genotypes of O. sinensis and multiple fungal species in natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were differentially present in 237 H. sinensis strains, constituting the genetic control of the O. sinensis reproduction. Transcriptional control of the O. sinensis reproduction includes: differential transcription or silencing of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, and the MAT1-2-1 transcript with unspliced intron I that contains 3 stop codons. Research on the H. sinensis transcriptome demonstrated differential and complementary transcriptions of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in Strains L0106 and 1229, which may become mating partners to accomplish physiological heterothallism. The differential occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes in H. sinensis are inconsistent with the self-fertilization hypothesis under homothallism or pseudohomothallism, but instead indicate the need of mating partners of the same H. sinensis species, either monoecious or dioecious, for physiological heterothallism, or heterospecific species for hybridization. Multiple GC-and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis were identified in the stroma, stromal fertile portion(densely covered with numerous ascocarps) and ascospores of natural C. sinensis. It needs to be further explored if the genome-independent O. sinensis genotypes could become mating partners to accomplish sexual reproduction. S. hepiali Strain FENG experienced differential transcription of the mating-type genes with a pattern complementary to that of H. sinensis Strain L0106. Additional evidence is needed to explore a hybridization possibility between S. hepiali and H. sinensis, whether they are able to break the interspecific reproductive isolation. Genotypes #13~14 of O. sinensis feature large DNA segment reciprocal substitutions and genetic material recombination between 2 heterospecific parental fungi, H. sinensis and an AB067719-type fungus, indicating a possibility of hybridization or parasexuality. Our analysis provides important information at the genetic and transcriptional levels regarding the mating-type gene expression and reproduction physiology of O. sinensis in the sexual life of natural C. sinensis and offers crucial reproductive physiology evidence, to assist in the design of the artificial cultivation of C. sinensis to supplement the increasing scarcity of natural resource.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento/genética , Reprodução/genética
15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1055055, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569047

RESUMO

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is widely utilized due to its pharmaceutical value. Mycelial protein forms a key active component of O. sinensis and determines the medicinal potential of fungus. Here, we describe the development of an optimized fermentation medium to obtain more mycelial soluble protein from O. sinensis using response surface methodology (RSM) and investigate the increased mycelial protein content using transcriptomics. The maximum mycelial protein content of 2.11% was obtained using a medium consisting of 20% beef broth, 0.10% peptone, 2% glucose, 0.15% yeast extract, 0.20% KH2PO4, and 0.02% MgSO4. Transcriptome analysis identified 790 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 592 up-regulated genes and 198 down-regulated genes, optimisation resulted in more up-regulated genes. The main DEGs were enriched in metabolic pathways, ABC transporters, starch and sucrose metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. In addition, some DEGs associated with mycelial protein enhancement such as tyrosinase (TYR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutamine synthetase (glnA), and ß-glucosidase may contribute to increased mycelial protein content. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to confirm gene expression and the results support the accuracy of RNA-Seq and DEG analysis. This study provides an optimized fermentation method for enhancing the mycelial protein content of O. sinensis and a reference for the effective development of O. sinensis protein.

16.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(12): 9463-9475, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270872

RESUMO

Phenyllactic acid (PLA) has been demonstrated to possess antibacterial activity and capacity to prolong food shelf life. However, studies on the performance of PLA in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and its effectiveness when applied to dairy products are largely lacking. Here, antibacterial activity (planktonic and biofilm states) of PLA against S. aureus CICC10145 (S. aureus_45) were investigated. The results showed that PLA inhibited growth of S. aureus_45 and formation of S. aureus_45 biofilm. Next, the antibacterial action target of PLA was uncovered from both physiological and phenotypic perspectives. The results showed that PLA decreased cell metabolic activity and cell viability, damaged cell membrane integrity, triggered leakage of intracellular contents (DNA, proteins, and ATP), and caused oxidative stress damage and morphological deformation of S. aureus_45. In practical application, the antibacterial activity of PLA against S. aureus_45 cells was further confirmed in skim milk and cheese as dairy food models, and the antibacterial effects can be adequately maintained during storage for 21 d, at least at 4°C. These findings suggested that PLA could be a potential candidate for controlling S. aureus outgrowth in dairy foods.


Assuntos
Queijo , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Poliésteres
17.
Front Genet ; 13: 853907, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464846

RESUMO

Background: Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (mcEDS) is a rare heritable connective tissue disease with various symptoms. The diagnosis of mcEDS is difficult because of the large overlap of clinical symptoms between different EDS subtypes. Methods: We performed karyotype analysis, gene copy number variation detection, whole-exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing to reveal the underlying genetic etiology of a fetus with structural abnormalities in feet and kidneys. Results: A likely pathogenic mutation [NM_130468.3 c.958C>T (p.Arg320*)] and an uncertain significance mutation [NM_130468.3 c.896A>G (p.Tyr299Cys)] were identified in the carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14 (CHST14) gene by whole-exome sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. Conclusion: The two identified mutations appear highly likely to be the genetic causes of the fetal structural abnormalities.

18.
J Food Sci ; 87(6): 2718-2731, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470896

RESUMO

Bacteriocins inhibit various foodborne bacteria in planktonic and biofilm forms. However, bacteriocins with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus argenteus, a pathogen that can cause food poisoning, are still poorly known. Here, the novel bacteriocin LSB1 derived from Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1.12934 was purified and characterized extensively. LSB1 had a molecular weight of 1425.78 Da and an amino acid sequence of YIFVTGGVVSSLGK. Moreover, LSB1 exhibited excellent stability under heat and acid-base stress and presented sensitivity to pepsin and proteinase K. LSB1 exhibited an extensive antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration of LSB1 against S. argenteus_70917 was 10.36 µg/ml, which was lower than that of most of the previously found bacteriocins against Staphylococcus strains. Furthermore, LSB1 significantly inhibited S. argenteus_70917 planktonic cells (p < 0.01) and decreased their viability. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that cell membrane permeability of S. argenteus_70917 upon exposure to LSB1 showed leakage of cytoplasmic contents and rupture, leading to cell death. In addition, biofilm formation ability of S. argenteus_70917 was significantly (p < 0.01) impaired by LSB1, with the percent inhibition of 35% at 10 µg/ml and 80% at 20 µg/ml. Overall, this study indicates that LSB1 can be considered a potential antibacterial agent in the control of S. argenteus in both planktonic and biofilm states. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus argenteus, and their biofilms represent potential risks for food safety. In recent years, customers' demand for "natural" products has increased food control. This study describes the novel bacteriocin LSB1 produced by the lactic acid bacterium species Lactobacillus plantarum. LSB1 showed strong antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against S. argenteus as well as thermal and acid-alkaline stability. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of LSB1 on S. argenteus were preliminarily explored. These results indicate that LSB1 might be potentially used as an effective and natural food preservative.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Lactobacillus plantarum , Antibacterianos/química , Bacteriocinas/química , Biofilmes , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Staphylococcus
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(3): 2094-2107, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180941

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm have emerged as a significant threat to the safety of dairy products. In recent years, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins have been widely acknowledged as the potential natural antibacterial substance in food biopreservation due to their excellent antibacterial effects. However, few LAB bacteriocins with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against S. aureus have been reported in dairy products. In the present study, a novel bacteriocin LSX01 of Lactobacillus paracasei LS-6 isolated from a traditional fermented yogurt produced in Yunnan, China, was purified and characterized extensively. The LSX01 possessed a molecular weight of 967.49 Da and an AA sequence of LDQAGISYT. The minimum inhibitory concentration of LSX01 against S. aureus_45 was 16.90 µg/mL, which was close to or lower than the previously reported bacteriocins. The LSX01 exhibited an extensive antimicrobial spectrum against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, LSX01 exhibited excellent tolerance to heat and acid-base treatments, and sensitivity to the proteolytic enzymes, such as pepsin and proteinase K. Furthermore, the treatment of S. aureus_45 planktonic cells with LSX01 significantly reduced their metabolic activity and disrupted the cell membrane integrity. Scan electron microscopy results demonstrated that LSX01 induced cytoplasmic content leakage and cell deformation. Additionally, biofilm formation of S. aureus_45 was also significantly inhibited by LSX01. Overall, the results suggested that the novel LAB bacteriocin LSX01 possessed antibacterial activity and antibiofilm activity against S. aureus and, hence, could have potential for improving safety of dairy products.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Biofilmes , China , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus , Iogurte
20.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-939800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for evidence of the efficacy and safety of head acupuncture (HA) plus Schuell's language rehabilitation (SLR) in post-stroke aphasia.@*METHODS@#Seven databases including Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Technology Periodical Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, SinoMed and Wanfang Data Information Site were searched for RCTs published from database inception until November 14, 2021. RCTs that compared HA plus SLR with sham (or blank) control, acupuncture therapy alone, certain language rehabilitation therapy alone or other therapies for post-stroke aphasia were included. Data were extracted and assessed, and the quality of RCTs was evaluated. Fixed-effects model was used, with meta-inflfluence analysis, meta-regression, and regression-based sub-group analyses applied for exploration of heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated by funnel plots and Egger's tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 32 RCTs with 1,968 patients were included and 51 comparisons were conducted classified as types of strokes and aphasia. (1) For patients with aphasia after ischemic stroke, HA plus PSA showed significantly higher accumulative markedly effective rate [relative risk (RR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.02, I2=0%] and accumulative effective rate (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36, I2=0%). (2) For patients with comprehensive types of stroke, HA plus PSA was more effective in increasing recovery rate (RR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.39-2.56, I2=0%), accumulative markedly effective rate (RR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.36-1.72, I2=9%) and accumulative effective rate (RR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.19, I2=34%). (3) For patients with aphasia after stroke, HA plus PSA was superior to PSA alone with statistical significance in increasing recovery rate (RR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.24-3.46, I2=0%), accumulative markedly effective rate (RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.24-1.78, I2=0%) and accumulative effective rate (RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.24, I2=39%). (4) For patients with multiple types of aphasia, HA plus PSA also demonstrated significantly higher recovery rate (RR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28-2.72, I2=0%), accumulative markedly effective rate (RR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.35-1.78, I2=22%), and accumulative effective rate (RR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23, I2=41%). (5) For patients with motor aphasia after ischemic stroke, compared with PSA alone, HA plus PSA showed significantly higher accumulative markedly effective rate (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.06-1.79, I2=0%) and accumulative effective rate (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37, I2=0%). Meta-regression analyses were performed without significant difference, and publication bias was found in some comparisons.@*CONCLUSION@#HA plus SLR was significantly associated with better language ability and higher effective rate for patients with post-stroke aphasia, and HA should be operated cautiously especially during acupuncture at eye and neck. (Registration No. CRD42020154475).


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura , Afasia/reabilitação , AVC Isquêmico , Idioma , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
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