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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297527

RESUMO

Temperature effects on the contact electrification (CE) is of great interest. Here, different kinds of substoichiometric oxide films, such as TiO2-x, Al2O3-x, Ta2O5-x, and Cr2O3-x, are deposited and annealed at different temperatures, and the CE between the films and a Pt-coated tip is performed by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). An intriguing finding is that the polarity on the TiO2-x surface changes from negative to positive with the increase of the sample annealing temperature in air atmosphere. Such a result is attributed to the fact that annealing under an oxidative atmosphere repairs oxygen vacancies and helps upgrade the low valency of Ti3+ to a stable high valency of Ti4+. On the contrary, after annealing occurs in an Ar/H2 atmosphere, the polarity on the TiO2-x surface reverses from positive to negative. This is mainly due to the increase of oxygen vacancies after annealing in reducing atmosphere. Through the KPFM results of Al2O3-x, Ta2O5-x, and Cr2O3-x films, the effect of oxygen vacancies is further confirmed, that is, the decrease of oxygen vacancies eases the films at capturing positive charges. Based on this, TiO2-x-based identical material triboelectric nanogenerators (IM-TENGs) are designed and prepared for the first time to control the current direction. Moreover, a surface state model for explaining the CE mechanism between the metal and annealed dielectric is proposed. This study is conducive to the development of the IM-TENGs which regulate the current direction or voltage output accurately in the future and also provides a further understanding of the dominant mechanism of electron transfer in the CE.

2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312500

RESUMO

Whole-brain mesoscale mapping in primates has been hindered by large brain sizes and the relatively low throughput of available microscopy methods. Here, we present an approach that combines primate-optimized tissue sectioning and clearing with ultrahigh-speed fluorescence microscopy implementing improved volumetric imaging with synchronized on-the-fly-scan and readout technique, and is capable of completing whole-brain imaging of a rhesus monkey at 1 × 1 × 2.5 µm3 voxel resolution within 100 h. We also developed a highly efficient method for long-range tracing of sparse axonal fibers in datasets numbering hundreds of terabytes. This pipeline, which we call serial sectioning and clearing, three-dimensional microscopy with semiautomated reconstruction and tracing (SMART), enables effective connectome-scale mapping of large primate brains. With SMART, we were able to construct a cortical projection map of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and identify distinct turning and routing patterns of individual axons in the cortical folds while approaching their arborization destinations.

3.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2101410, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296785

RESUMO

Immunometabolic modulation offers new opportunities to treat cancers as it is highly associated with cancer progression and immunosuppressive microenvironment. However, traditional regimens using nonselective small-molecule immunomodulators lead to the off-target adverse effects and insufficient therapeutic outcomes. Herein a second near-infrared (NIR-II) photothermally activatable semiconducting polymeric nanoantagonist (ASPA) for synergistic photothermal immunometabolic therapy of cancer is reported. ASPA backbone is obtained by conjugating vipadenant, an antagonist to adenosine A2A receptor, onto NIR-II light-absorbing semiconducting polymer via an azo-based thermolabile linker. Under deep-penetrating NIR-II photoirradiation, ASPA induces tumor thermal ablation and subsequently immunogenic cell death, triggers the cleavage of thermolabile linker, and releases the antagonist to block the immunosuppressive adenosinergic pathway. Such a remotely controlled immunometabolic regulation potentiates cytotoxic T cell functions while suppresses regulatory T cell activities, leading to efficient primary tumor inhibition, pulmonary metastasis prevention, and long-term immunological memory. Thereby, this work provides a generic polymeric approach for precise spatiotemporal regulation of cancer immunometabolism.

5.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 220, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastasis is a major challenge in cervical cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that the dual functional protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) promotes tumor metastasis and is overexpressed in cervical cancer. However, the biological role and mechanism of APE1 in cervical cancer metastasis have rarely been studied. METHODS: We used gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to determine the APE1-related signaling pathways in cervical cancer. To investigate the role and mechanism of APE1 in cervical cancer metastasis and invasion, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting, secondary structure prediction, coimmunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed. The inhibitory effects of the APE1 redox function inhibitor APX3330 on cervical cancer metastasis were evaluated using animal models. RESULTS: Clinical data showed that high expression of APE1 was associated with lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer patients. GSEA results showed that APE1 was associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cervical cancer. Ectopic expression of APE1 promoted EMT and invasion of cervical cancer cells, whereas inhibition of APE1 suppressed EMT and invasion of cervical cancer cells in a redox function-dependent manner. Notably, APE1 redox function inhibitor APX3330 treatment dramatically suppressed cervical cancer cell lymph node and distant metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we found that APE1 enhanced the interaction between ZEB1 and the E-cadherin promoter by binding to ZEB1, thereby suppressing the expression of E-cadherin, a negative regulator of EMT. CONCLUSION: Our findings help to elucidate the role played by APE1 in cervical cancer metastasis and targeting APE1 redox function may be a novel strategy for inhibiting cervical cancer metastasis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Birth weight has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood, but no consensus has emerged on the threshold of birth weight for the lowest CVD risk and few studies have examined potential interaction between birth weight and adult adiposity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 256,787 participants, who had birth weight data and were free of CVD at baseline, were included from UK Biobank. Multivariate restricted cubic splines and Cox regression models were used to assess the association between birth weight and CVD. We observed nonlinear inverse associations of birth weight with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and heart failure. Participants with the first quintile of birth weight (≤2.85 kg) had higher risks for CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.32), stroke (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.37), and heart failure (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11-1.48), as compared to the fourth quintile (3.41-3.79 kg). There was a significant interaction between birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI) on CHD and heart failure (both P for interaction <0.001), showing the highest risk for those who had birth weight ≤2.85 kg and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (HR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.70-2.25 and HR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.77-3.22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate nonlinear inverse associations between birth weight and CVD risk, with a threshold of 3.41-3.79 kg for the lowest risk. Moreover, low birth weight may interact with adult obesity to increase the risk of CHD and heart failure.

7.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies highlight the role of metabolites in immune diseases, but it remains unknown how much of this effect is driven by genetic and non-genetic host factors. RESULT: We systematically investigate circulating metabolites in a cohort of 500 healthy subjects (500FG) in whom immune function and activity are deeply measured and whose genetics are profiled. Our data reveal that several major metabolic pathways, including the alanine/glutamate pathway and the arachidonic acid pathway, have a strong impact on cytokine production in response to ex vivo stimulation. We also examine the genetic regulation of metabolites associated with immune phenotypes through genome-wide association analysis and identify 29 significant loci, including eight novel independent loci. Of these, one locus (rs174584-FADS2) associated with arachidonic acid metabolism is causally associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic target. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive map of the integration between the blood metabolome and immune phenotypes, reveals novel genetic factors that regulate blood metabolite concentrations, and proposes an integrative approach for identifying new disease treatment targets.

8.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232317

RESUMO

Agglutinin-like sequence protein 3 (Als3) is a cell surface glycoprotein of Candida albicans that plays essential roles in the processes of adherence and biofilm formation in vitro. In this study, we focused on the contribution of Als3 to the structure and drug susceptibility of biofilms. The C. albicans wild-type (WT) strain DAY185, the als3Δ/Δ null strain and the als3Δ/Δ + pALS3 complemented strain were used. Colony-forming unit enumeration, crystal violet and cell surface hydrophobicity assays, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled with analyses using COMSTAT software were performed to evaluate the biomass and architecture of the biofilms. The detailed architectural analysis showed a significant variation in the biofilm parameters of the als3Δ/Δ biofilms compared with those of the WT biofilms. Fluconazole, miconazole and amphotericin B were selected as the antifungal agents for the antimycotic susceptibility test, and increased susceptibility was found with the ALS3 deletion biofilms. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulation of biofilm formation-related genes (ALS1, EFG1, HWP1 and CSH1) and drug resistance-related genes (ERG11, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) in the als3Δ/Δ biofilms. We concluded that Als3 contributes to biofilm formation by changing the biofilm architecture and is involved in the antifungal resistance of C. albicans biofilms.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117721, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247001

RESUMO

Both soil microbial nitrate (NO3--N) immobilization and denitrification are carbon (C)-limited; however, to what extent organic C addition may increase NO3--N immobilization while stimulate denitrification nitrogen (N) loss remains unclear. Here, 15N tracing coupled with acetylene inhibition methods were used to assess the effect of adding glucose, wheat straw and peanut straw on NO3--N immobilization and denitrification under aerobic conditions in an upland soil, in which NO3--N immobilization has been previously demonstrated to be negligible. The organic C sources (5 g C kg-1 soil) were added in a factorial experiment with 100, 500, and 1000 mg N kg-1 soil (as K15NO3) in a 12-d laboratory incubation. Microbial NO3--N immobilization in the 12-d incubation in the three N treatments was 5.5, 7.7, and 8.2 mg N kg-1 d-1, respectively, in the glucose-amended soil, 5.9, 4.2, and 2.4 mg N kg-1 d-1, respectively, in the wheat straw-amended soil, and 4.9, 5.1 and 4.4 mg N kg-1 d-1, respectively, in the peanut straw-amended soil. Therefore, under sufficient NO3--N substrate, the higher microbial NO3--N immobilization in the glucose than in the crop residue treatments was likely due to the slow decomposition of the latter that provided low available C. The 15N recovery in the N2O + N2 pool over the12-day incubation was <2% for all treatments, indicating negligible denitrification N loss due to low denitrification rates in the aerobic incubation in spite of increasing C availability. We conclude that external C addition can enhance microbial NO3--N immobilization without causing large N losses through denitrification. This has significant implications for reducing soil NO3--N accumulation by enhancing microbial NO3--N immobilization through increasing C inputs using organic materials and subsequently mitigating nitrate pollution of water bodies.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 5510869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258296

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of noncoding RNA that can interact with miRNAs to regulate gene expression. However, little is known concerning circRNA, which is crucial in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To date, limited studies have explored the role of circ_0044516 in lung cancer progression. Recently, we observed that circ_0044516 expression levels were obviously elevated in lung cancer tissues and cells. A549 and SPCA1 cells were transfected with circ_0044516 siRNA. We observed that knockdown of circ_0044516 dramatically repressed cell proliferation, increased cell apoptosis, and repressed the cell cycle. Moreover, A549 and SPCA1 cell migration and invasion abilities were greatly repressed by circ_0044516 siRNA. Due to accumulating evidence demonstrating the vital role of cancer stem cells, their mechanism of involvement has drawn increasing attention in tumor progression and metastasis research. We also found that cancer stem cell properties were restrained by silencing circ_0044516 in A549 and SPC-A1 cells. Moreover, in vivo xenograft experiments showed that circ_0044516 downregulation reduced tumor growth. Mechanistically, in lung cancer and using bioinformatics, we demonstrated that circ_0044516 sponges miR-136 targeting MAT2A. Furthermore, rescue assays were carried out to identify that circ_0044516 modulates cell proliferation, invasion, and stemness by regulating miR-136 and MAT2A in lung cancer. In summary, our study revealed that the circ_0044516/miR-136/MAT2A axis is involved in lung cancer progression. Our findings may provide novel targets for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in lung cancer patients.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(55): 6780-6783, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137393

RESUMO

We combined a microporous polymer backbone with an organic redox-active dopant to construct a reversible electrode system based on the conversion-(de)incorporation behaviour of the dopant. The correspondence between the reversible conversion-(de)incorporation mechanism of the dopant and the electrochemical performance of the designed electrode system was established by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

12.
Lancet ; 398(10297): 303-313, 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of disease relapse, despite a high proportion of patients attaining complete clinical remission after receiving standard-of-care treatment (ie, definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy). Additional adjuvant therapies are needed to further reduce the risk of recurrence and death. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial, highlighting the need for more effective adjuvant treatment options. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 14 hospitals in China. Patients (aged 18-65 years) with histologically confirmed, high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stage III-IVA, excluding T3-4N0 and T3N1 disease), no locoregional disease or distant metastasis after definitive chemoradiotherapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, sufficient haematological, renal, and hepatic function, and who had received their final radiotherapy dose 12-16 weeks before randomisation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral metronomic capecitabine (650 mg/m2 body surface area twice daily for 1 year; metronomic capecitabine group) or observation (standard therapy group). Randomisation was done with a computer-generated sequence (block size of four), stratified by trial centre and receipt of induction chemotherapy (yes or no). The primary endpoint was failure-free survival, defined as the time from randomisation to disease recurrence (distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence) or death due to any cause, in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of capecitabine or who had commenced observation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02958111. FINDINGS: Between Jan 25, 2017, and Oct 25, 2018, 675 patients were screened, of whom 406 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the metronomic capecitabine group (n=204) or to the standard therapy group (n=202). After a median follow-up of 38 months (IQR 33-42), there were 29 (14%) events of recurrence or death in the metronomic capecitabine group and 53 (26%) events of recurrence or death in the standard therapy group. Failure-free survival at 3 years was significantly higher in the metronomic capecitabine group (85·3% [95% CI 80·4-90·6]) than in the standard therapy group (75·7% [69·9-81·9]), with a stratified hazard ratio of 0·50 (95% CI 0·32-0·79; p=0·0023). Grade 3 adverse events were reported in 35 (17%) of 201 patients in the metronomic capecitabine group and in 11 (6%) of 200 patients in the standard therapy group; hand-foot syndrome was the most common adverse event related to capecitabine (18 [9%] patients had grade 3 hand-foot syndrome). One (<1%) patient in the metronomic capecitabine group had grade 4 neutropenia. No treatment-related deaths were reported in either group. INTERPRETATION: The addition of metronomic adjuvant capecitabine to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved failure-free survival in patients with high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a manageable safety profile. These results support a potential role for metronomic chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. FUNDING: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education, and the Overseas Expertise Introduction Project for Discipline Innovation. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(8): 2561-2572, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176031

RESUMO

To investigate value of spectral reconstructions for the quantification of coronary stenosis in the presence of calcified or partially calcified plaques using a dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT). Seventy-two consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled. Conventional 120 kVp images, eight virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) (70 to 140 keV), the effective atomic number (Z effective) and iodine no water images were reconstructed. Invasive coronary angiography was used as the reference standard. Parallel and serial testing were used to assess the incremental diagnostic value of Z effective and iodine no water images to the best VMI series. 122 coronary lesions of 72 patients (49 men and 23 women; 63.7 ± 10.2 years) were enrolled in analysis. Reconstruction at 100 keV yielded optimal diagnostic performance, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy to identify stenosis ≥ 50% or ≥ 70% were 84%, 70%, 80%, 76%, 79% and 78%, 98%, 93%, 91%, 92%, respectively. A serial combination (100 keV VMI followed by Z effective images) resulted in an improved specificity (from 70 to 80%) with a moderate loss of sensitivity (81% from 84%) in identifying ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.021). For patients with high Agatston score, this combination could further reduce false positive cases and improve diagnostic accuracy. 100 keV VMI provide optimal diagnostic performance for the detection of coronary stenosis in the presence of calcified or partially calcified plaques using a dual-layer SDCT, with further improvements obtained with the combined use of Z effective images.

14.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 23(7): 615-626, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080502

RESUMO

Five new denudatine-type diterpenoid alkaloids (1-5), along with the known analogue aconicarmine (6), were isolated from an aqueous decoction of the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii (fu-zi). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 5 is the first denudatine-type diterpenoid alcohol iminium alkaloid, which could be partially transformed into the aza acetal form in pyridine-d5. Compound 5 inhibited mice writhing in an acetic acid-induced writhing assay.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Alcaloides , Diterpenos , Animais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26062, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087849

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has become the major contributor to end-stage renal disease with high incidence and mortality. The functional roles and exact mechanisms of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network in DKD are still largely unknown. This study sought to discover novel potential biomarkers and ceRNA network for DKD.The candidate differentially expressed genes (DEGs), lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in human glomerular and tubular tissues derived from Gene Expression Omnibus database were systematically selected and analyzed. Functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis were conducted to identify hub genes and reveal their regulatory mechanisms involved in DKD. Following this, the integrated ceRNA network was constructed by bioinformatics methods.A total of 164 DEGs, 6 lncRNAs and 18 miRNAs correlated with DKD were finally filtered and identified. It is noteworthy that the global lncRNA-associated ceRNA network related to DKD was constructed, among which lnc-HIST2H2AA4-1, VCAN-AS1 and MAGI2-AS1 were identified as the 3 key lncRNAs, and VCAN, FN1, CCL2, and KNG1 were identified as the predominant genes. Consistent with that observed in the training set, 3 of the key genes also showed significant differences in the 2 validation datasets. Integrating with functional enrichment analysis results, these key genes in the ceRNA network were mainly enriched in the immune and inflammation-related pathways.This study first identified key lncRNAs, miRNAs and their targets, and further revealed a global view of lncRNA-associated ceRNA network involved in DKD by using whole gene transcripts analysis.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
16.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 6024-6035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181543

RESUMO

Existing GAN-based multi-view face synthesis methods rely heavily on "creating" faces, and thus they struggle in reproducing the faithful facial texture and fail to preserve identity when undergoing a large angle rotation. In this paper, we combat this problem by dividing the challenging large-angle face synthesis into a series of easy small-angle rotations, and each of them is guided by a face flow to maintain faithful facial details. In particular, we propose a Face Flow-guided Generative Adversarial Network (FFlowGAN) that is specifically trained for small-angle synthesis. The proposed network consists of two modules, a face flow module that aims to compute a dense correspondence between the input and target faces. It provides strong guidance to the second module, face synthesis module, for emphasizing salient facial texture. We apply FFlowGAN multiple times to progressively synthesize different views, and therefore facial features can be propagated to the target view from the very beginning. All these multiple executions are cascaded and trained end-to-end with a unified back-propagation, and thus we ensure each intermediate step contributes to the final result. Extensive experiments demonstrate the proposed divide-and-conquer strategy is effective, and our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on four benchmark datasets qualitatively and quantitatively.

17.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 142, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain is a frequent sequel to peripheral nerve injury and maladaptive nervous system function. Divanillyl sulfone (DS), a novel structural derivative of 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl sulfoxide from a traditional Chinese medicine Gastrodia elata with anti-nociceptive effects, significantly alleviated neuropathic pain following intrathecal injection. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of DS against neuropathic pain. METHODS: A chronic constrictive injury (CCI) mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve ligation was performed to evaluate the effect of DS by measuring the limb withdrawal using Von Frey filament test. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the cell localizations and expressions of Iba-1, ASC, NLRP3, and ROS, the formation of autolysosome. The levels of NLRP3-related proteins (caspase-1, NLRP3, and IL-1ß), mitophagy-related proteins (LC3, Beclin-1, and p62), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-XL and Bax) were detected by Western blotting. The apoptosis of BV-2 cell and caspase activity were evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: DS significantly alleviated the neuropathic pain by increasing the mechanical withdrawal threshold and inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 in CCI-induced model mice. Our findings indicated that DS promoted the mitophagy by increasing the LC3II and Beclin 1 and decreasing the levels of p62 protein in BV-2 cell. This is accompanied by the inhibition of NLRP3 activation, which was shown as inhibited the expression of NLRP3 in lysates as well as the secretion of mature caspase-1 p10 and IL-1ß p17 in supernatants in cultured BV-2 microglia. In addition, DS could promote mitophagy-induced improvement of dysfunctional mitochondria by clearing intracellular ROS and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings demonstrated that DS ameliorate chronic neuropathic pain in mice by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mitophagy in microglia. DS may be a promising therapeutic agent for chronic neuropathic pain.

18.
Hereditas ; 158(1): 20, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis, defined as premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, affects approximately 1 in every 2000-2500 live births. Sagittal craniosynostosis (CS), the most prevalent form of isolated craniosynostosis, is caused by interplay between genetic and perinatal environmental insults. However, the underlying details remain largely unknown. METHODS: The proband (a female monochorionic twin diagnosed with CS), her healthy co-twin sister and parents were enrolled. Obstetric history was extracted from medical records. Genetic screening was performed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Functional annotation, conservation and structural analysis were predicted in public database. Phenotype data of Axin2 knockout mice was downloaded from The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC, http://www.mousephenotype.org ). RESULTS: Obstetric medical records showed that, except for the shared perinatal risk factors by the twins, the proband suffered additional persistent breech presentation and intrauterine growth restriction. We identified a heterozygous mutation of Axin2 (c.1181G > A, p.R394H, rs200899695) in monochorionic twins and their father, but not in the mother. This mutation is not reported in Asian population and results in replacement of Arg at residue 394 by His (p.R394H). Arg 394 is located at the GSK3ß binding domain of Axin2 protein, which is highly conserved across species. The mutation was predicted to be potentially deleterious by in silico analysis. Incomplete penetrance of Axin2 haploinsufficiency was found in female mice. CONCLUSIONS: Axin2 (c.1181G > A, p.R394H, rs200899695) mutation confers susceptibility and perinatal risk factors trigger the occurrence of sagittal craniosynostosis. Our findings provide a new evidence for the gene-environment interplay in understanding pathogenesis of craniosynostosis in Chinese population.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102655

RESUMO

Adult chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP) is a chronic and usually life-long haemorrhagic disorder in which enhanced platelet destruction and weakened platelet production lead to thrombocytopenia. Platelets were isolated from blood samples collected from 40 adult patients with cITP and 40 healthy volunteers. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and plasma membrane phosphatidylserine externalization were determined by flow cytometry, and activation of caspase-3 and expressions of Bax, Bak and Bcl-xL were analysed by western blotting. Flow cytometry showed increased mitochondrial depolarization and lower ΔΨm in platelets from adult patients with cITP. In addition, plasma membrane phosphatidylserine externalization was observed on platelets from adult patients with cITP, but rarely from healthy volunteers. Western blot analysis of platelet proteins revealed that, in adult cITP patients, caspase-3 was activated, which cleaved gelsolin and to release a 47-kDa fragment. Moreover, the expressions of Bax and Bak were elevated, and Bcl-xL was decreased markedly in platelets from adult patients with cITP. Our findings reveal, based on loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activation, enhanced expression of Bax and Bak, and attenuated expression of Bcl-xL, that platelet death in the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in chronic ITP in adults is apoptotic.

20.
Esophagus ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop and validate a nomogram for the prediction of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: Clinical factors, dose-volume histogram parameters, and pulmonary function parameters were collected from 402 ESCC patients between 2010 and 2017, including 321 patients in the primary cohort and 81 in the validation cohort. The end-point was the occurrence of symptomatic RP (grade ≥ 2) within the first 12 months after radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the predictive value of each factor for RP. A prediction model was generated in the primary cohort, which was internally validated to assess its performance. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, 31 patients (9.7%) experienced symptomatic RP. Based on logistic regression model, patients with larger planning target volumes (PTVs) or higher lung V20 had a higher predictive risk of RP, whereas the overall risk was substantially higher for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) than intensity-modulated radiotherapy. On multivariate analysis, independent predictive factors for RP were smoking history (P = 0.035), radiotherapy modality (P < 0.001), PTV (P = 0.039), and lung V20 (P < 0.001), which were incorporated into the nomogram. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the nomogram in the primary and validation cohorts were 0.772 and 0.900, respectively, which were superior to each predictor alone. CONCLUSIONS: Non-smoking status, 3DCRT, lung V20 (> 27.5%), and PTV (≥ 713.0 cc) were significantly associated with a higher risk of RP. A nomogram was built with satisfactory prediction ability.

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