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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 129, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As economical traits, food habits domestication can reduce production cost in aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanism underlying food habits domestication has remained elusive. Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) only feed on live prey fish and refuse artificial diets. In the present study, we domesticated mandarin fish to feed on artificial diets. The two groups were obtained, the fish did not eat artificial diets or ate artificial diets during all of the three domestication processes, named Group W or X, respectively. RESULTS: Using transcriptome and metabolome analysis, we investigated the differentially expressed genes and metabolites between the two groups, and found three common pathways related to food habit domestication, including retinol metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathways. Furthermore, the western blotting and bisulfite sequencing PCR analysis were performed. The gene expression of TFIIF and histone methyltransferase ezh1 were significantly increased and decreased in the fish of Group X, respectively. The total DNA methylation levels of TFIIF gene and tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) were significantly higher and lower in the fish of Group X, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was speculated that mandarin fish which could feed on artificial diets, might be attributed to the lower expression of ezh1, resulting in the decreased level of H3K27me3 and increased level of DNA methylation of TFIIF gene. The high expression of TFIIF gene might up-regulate the expression of genes in retinol metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism and glycerophosphoric metabolism pathways. Our study indicated the relationship between the methylation of DNA and histone and food habits domestication, which might be a novel molecular mechanism of food habits domestication in animals.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523381

RESUMO

Composting has become the most important way to recycle medicinal herbal residues (MHRs). The traditional composting method, adding a microbial agent at one time, has been greatly limited due to its low composting efficiency, mutual influence of microbial agents, and unstable compost products. This study was conducted to assess the effect of multi-phase inoculation on the lignocellulose degradation, enzyme activities, and fungal community during MHRs composting. The results showed that multi-phase inoculation treatment had the highest thermophilic temperature (68.2 °C) and germination index (102.68%), significantly improved available phosphorus content, humic acid, and humic substances concentration, accelerated the degradation of cellulose and lignin, and increased the activities of cellulase in the mature phase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, and utilization of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that the composting process and inoculation significantly influenced fungal community composition. In multi-phase inoculation treatment, Thermomyces in mesophilic, thermophilic, and mature phase, unclassified_Sordariales, and Coprinopsis in mature phase were the dominant genus that might be the main functional groups to degrade lignocellulose and improve the MHRs composting process.

3.
Complement Ther Med ; : 102676, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) training are regarded as promising new tools for rehabilitation, but the effect on patients' daily participation is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of virtual reality (VR) training on different types of patients' daily participation through a meta-analysis. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Embase, and web science databases were searched for studies published through September 2020. Thirty-five randomized controlled trials of virtual reality (VR) training compared with conventional treatment, Other electronic rehabilitation systems, usual care for various types of patients were included. All of the studies were available in English. Standardized mean differences (SMD), 95% confidence intervals (CI), publication bias, and heterogeneity were calculated. RESULTS: The Virtual reality (VR) training group is better than the control group in daily participation improvement on all types of patients. There was a small, significant effect(p<0.001; SMD = 0.25[95%CI,0.14 to 0.36], I2 = 0.00% ). Observing only the type of Stroke, the VR training group is still better than the control group in improving patients' daily participation (p<0.001, SMD = 0.24[95%CI, 0.11 to 0.37], I2 = 0.00%). Using the cumulative Meta-analysis method to observe the included literature according to the timeline, Using the cumulative Meta-analysis method to observe the included literature according to the timeline, and it has only achieved positive results since 2015 (Nam-YoNg Lee 2015, p = 0.048, SMD = 0.22[95%CI,0.00 to 0.44]). The heterogeneity of the studies was not detected, but there is obvious publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Because of controversy over obvious publication bias, we need to be cautious about the conclusion that VR is better than the control group in promoting the patient's daily participation.

4.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgens excess results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is an important cause of ß cells dysfunction. Here, we investigated the molecular regulation of androgens excess, ER stress, and ß-cell function in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: PCOS mouse model was established by injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Primary cultured mouse islets were used to detect testosterone (TE)-induced ER stress. The response of ER stress, apoptosis, and hyperinsulinemia were analyzed in INS-1 cells with or without TE exposure. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonist and ER stress inhibitor treatment was performed to evaluate the role of TE in ER stress and proinsulin secretion of PCOS mice. RESULTS: PCOS mice had higher ER stress in islets. TE exposure induced ER stress and apoptosis significantly through sustaining insulin overexpression in ß cells, which in turn impaired proinsulin maturation and secretion. Blocking this process could significantly relieve ER stress and apoptosis and improve insulin homeostasis. CONCLUSION: ER stress activated by androgens excess in PCOS contributes to ß cell dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia.

5.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 49, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) can be life-threatening due to the progressive weakening and dilatation of the aortic wall. Once the aortic wall has ruptured, no effective pharmaceutical therapies are available. However, studies on TAA at the gene expression level are limited. Our study aimed to identify the driver genes and critical pathways of TAA through gene coexpression networks. METHODS: We analyzed the genetic data of TAA patients from a public database by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Modules with clinical significance were identified, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were intersected with the genes in these modules. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed. Finally, hub genes that might be driving factors of TAA were identified. Furthermore, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of these genes and analyzed the composition of immune cells using the CIBERSORT algorithm. RESULTS: We identified 256 DEGs and two modules with clinical significance. The immune response, including leukocyte adhesion, mononuclear cell proliferation and T cell activation, was identified by functional enrichment analysis. CX3CR1, C3, and C3AR1 were the top 3 hub genes in the module correlated with TAA, and the areas under the curve (AUCs) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of all the hub genes exceeded 0.7. Finally, we found that the proportions of infiltrating immune cells in TAA and normal tissues were different, especially in terms of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. CONCLUSION: Chemotaxis and the complement system were identified as crucial pathways in TAA, and macrophages with interactive immune cells may regulate this pathological process.

6.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 8883962, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532509

RESUMO

Objectives: Inflammatory disease characterized by clinical destructive respiratory disorder is called acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Studies have shown that luteolin exerts anti-inflammatory effects by increasing regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of luteolin on ALI/ARDS and Treg differentiation. Methods: In this paper, we used cecal ligation puncture (CLP) to generate an ALI mouse model to determine the effects of luteolin on ALI/ARDS. Lung tissues were stained for interleukin- (IL-) 17A and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by immunohistochemical analysis. The levels of Treg-related cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice were detected. The protein levels of NF-κB p65 in lung tissues were measured. Macrophage phenotypes in lung tissues were measured using immunofluorescence. The proportion of Tregs in splenic mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified. Furthermore, in vitro, we evaluated the effects of luteolin on Treg differentiation, and the effects of IL-10 immune regulation on macrophage polarization were examined. Results: Luteolin alleviated lung injury and suppressed uncontrolled inflammation and downregulated IL-17A, MPO, and NF-κB in the lungs of CLP-induced mouse models. At this time, luteolin upregulated the level of IL-10 in serum and BALF and the frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs in PBMCs and splenic mononuclear cells of CLP mice. Luteolin treatment decreased the proportion of M1 macrophages and increased the proportion of M2 macrophages in lungs of CLP-induced mouse models. In vitro, administration of luteolin significantly induced Treg differentiation, and IL-10 promoted the polarization of M2 macrophages but reduced the polarization of M1 macrophages. Conclusions: Luteolin alleviated lung injury and suppressed uncontrolled inflammation by inducing the differentiation of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs and upregulating the expression of IL-10. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 promoted polarization of M2 macrophages in vitro. Luteolin-induced Treg differentiation from naïve CD4+ T cells may be a potential mechanism for regulating IL-10 production.

7.
Curr Drug Metab ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caesalpinia sappan L. is a traditional medicinal plant that is used to promote blood circulation and treat stroke in China. Protosappanin B (PTB) is a unique homoisoflavone compound isolated from Sappan Lignum (the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L). In a previous study, the metabolic fate of PTB remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether PTB is extensively metabolized, the metabolites of PTB in bile, plasma, urine, feces, and intestinal bacteria samples in rats were investigated. METHOD: The biosamples were investigated by ultraperformance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS/MS) with MetabolitePilot software. RESULT: 28 metabolites were identified in the biosamples: 18 metabolites in rat bile, 8 in plasma, 20 in feces, 7 in urine and 2 in intestinal bacteria samples. Both phase I and phase II metabolites were observed. Metabolite conversion occurred via 9 proposed pathways: sulfate conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, bis-glucuronide conjugation, glucose conjugation, dehydration, oxidation, hydrolysis, methylation and hydroxymethylene loss. The metabolic pathways differed among biosamples and exhibited different distributions. Among these pathways, the most important were sulfate and glucuronide conjugation. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the small intestinal and biliary routes play an important role in the clearance and excretion of PTB. The main sites of metabolism in the PTB chemical structure were the phenolic hydroxyl and the side-chains on the eight-element ring.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To analyze the clinical features and SLC26A3 mutation of one patient in our hospital who had congenital loss of chlorine diarrhea (CLD), and to investigate the treatment of the disease and the prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: By reviewing the literature, analyzing the clinical features and differential diagnosis and investigating the treatment and prognosis, the patient was diagnosed as CLD. RESULTS: Excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid was observed during pregnancy. The patient was born prematurely with normal body weight. The patient was a 4-month old boy admitted for anorexia, watery diarrhea, electrolyte disorders (hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia) and metabolic alkalosis. The patient was also considered to be affected by Batter syndrome. After treating with spironolactone, indomethacin and potassium chloride sustained release tablet, the symptom of watery diarrhea was alleviated, the ingested amount of milk increased gradually and the amount of urine became normal; however, electrolyte imbalance persisted and the frequency of bowel movements remained high. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the patient had a SLC26A3 c.269_270dupAA homozygous mutation in exon 3, leading to a frameshift from 91st amino acid Gly and alteration of the SLC26A3 transmembrane protein sequence, thus resulting in a Cl-/HCO3- exchange barrier. The parents of the patient had normal phenotypes and were all heterozygous carriers of the mutation. Moreover, the patient was diagnosed as CLD. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride rather than spironolactone and indomenthacin were given to the patient to correct the dehydration, so the symptom of watery diarrhea alleviated and the blood gas and electrolyte levels returned to the normal range. In addition, the patients morale was good and the ingested amount of milk was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent diarrhea and electrolyte disorder in pediatrics are easy to misdiagnose as CLD. Furthermore, it is difficult to identify Batter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, renal tubular acidosis and CLD. Blood and stool electrolyte detection and SLC26A3 genetic tests are helpful for diagnosis, and sodium chloride and potassium chloride replacement therapy are critical for the patient prognosis.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6613527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575330

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a widespread inflammatory disease whose clinical manifestations are joint swelling, pain, and disability, affecting approximately 1% of individuals worldwide. Conventional anti-RA drugs currently used in clinic have severe side effects. The present study is aimed at investigating the antiarthritic effects of total saponins from Nigella glandulifera seeds (TSNGS) in rats with adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis (AIA). Arthritis score, paw swelling, and body weight were monitored throughout the period of TSNGS treatment. The histopathological features and levels of cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A, and OPG/RANKL signaling, were measured to determine the amelioration by TSNGS and its potential mechanisms on the inflammatory response and bone erosion. The differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in serum was assessed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrate that TSNGS at 10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg inhibited AIA-induced clinical score, paw swelling, and histological changes. TSNGS reduced the immune-inflammatory reaction by restoring the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and elevating the proportion of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs, accompanied by an increase in transcription factor Foxp3 levels. TSNGS also displayed bone protection by upregulation of the OPG/RANKL pathway. Collectively, TSNGS inhibited arthritis in AIA rats and so represents a potential novel treatment for RA.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 590: 114-124, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524711

RESUMO

The intrinsic faradic reactivity is the uppermost factor determining the charge storage capability of battery material, the construction of p-n junction composing of different faradic components is a rational tactics to enhance the faradic activity. Herein, a reduced graphene oxide@cobalt nickle sulfide@nickle cobalt layered double hydroxide composite (rGO@CoNi2S4@NiCo LDH) with p-n junction structure is designed by deposition of n-type nickle cobalt layered double hydroxide (NiCo LDH) around p-type reduced graphene oxide@cobalt nickle sulfide (rGO@CoNi2S4), the charge redistribution across the p-n junction enables enhanced faradic activities of both components and further the overall charge storage capacity of the resultant rGO@CoNi2S4@NiCo LDH battery electrode. As expected, the rGO@CoNi2S4@NiCo LDH electrode can deliver high specific capacity (Cs, 1310 ± 26 C g-1 at 1 A g-1) and good cycleability (77% Cs maintaining ratio undergoes 5000 charge-discharge cycles). Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) based on the rGO@CoNi2S4@NiCo LDH p-n junction battery electrode exports high energy density (Ecell, 57.4 Wh kg-1 at 323 W kg-1) and good durability, showing the prospect of faradic p-n junction composite in battery typed energy storage.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390004

RESUMO

Guided by the self-assembled process and mechanism, the strategy of in situ Schiff base reaction would be capable of bringing a feasible method to construct and synthesize lanthanide compounds with distinct structures and magnetic properties. A mononuclear Dy(III) compound was synthesized through a multidentate Schiff base ligand and a chelating ß-diketonate ligand, which was named as [Dy(L)(bppd)]·CH3OH [1; H2L = N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-formylbenzyl)-N,N'-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine and bppd = 3-bis(pyridin-2-yl)propane-1,3-dione]. Furthermore, a new binuclear Dy(III) compound, [Dy2(H2Lox)(bppd)3]·8CH3OH [2; H4Lox = N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(hydroxyiminomethyl)benzyl]-N,N'-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine], was obtained via an in situ synthetic process. Under similar synthetic conditions, [Dy(L)(ctbd)] [3; ctbd = 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-butanedione] and [Dy2(H2Lox)(ctbd)3]·CH3OH·C4H10O (4) were synthesized by modifying the ß-diketonate ligand and in situ Schiff base reaction. Compound 3 is a mononuclear configuration, while compound 4 exhibits a binuclear Dy(III) unit. Therein, formylbenzyl groups of H2L in 1 and 3 were changed to (hydroxyiminomethyl)benzyl groups in 2 and 4, respectively. In isomorphous 2 and 4, two Dy(III) centers are connected through two phenol O- atoms of the H2Lox2- ligand to form a binuclear structure. Eight-coordinated Dy(III) ions with different distortions can be observed in 1-4. The crystals of 1 and 3 suffered dissolution/precipitation to obtain 2 and 4, respectively. The relationship between the structure and magnetism in compounds 1-4 was discussed through the combination of structural, experimental, and theoretical investigations. Especially, the rates of quantum tunneling of magnetization of 1-4 were theoretically predicted and are consistent with the experimental results. For 2 and 4, the theoretically calculated dipolar parameters Jdip are consistent with the experimental observation of weak ferromagnetic coupling.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 921-928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456349

RESUMO

Background: Although COVID-19 pneumonia is spreading internationally, knowledge regarding the factors associated with the illness severity of patients remains limited. We aimed to identify the factors associated with the disease severity of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia induced by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: We prospectively enrolled a single-center case series of adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital of Jining, Jining City, Shandong Province, China, from January 24 to March 1, 2020. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings were compared to investigate the risk factors related with the disease severity of COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Results: We included a total of 78 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, of whom 6 had the severe type. As compared to a moderately ill cohort, our analysis showed that shortness of breath, fatigue, longer days from illness onset to diagnosis confirmed, neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3 × 109/L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, lymphocyte counts < 1.0 × 109/L, platelet < 100 × 109/L, C-reactive protein (CRP) > 10 mg/L, neutrophil to platelet ratio (NPR) > 2.3, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 3.9, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 40 U/L, albumin < 40 g/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 245 U/L, and glucose > 6.1 mmol/L were predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 pneumonia. In the sex-, age-, and comorbid illness-matched case-control study, neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3 × 109/L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, NPR > 2.3, NLR > 3.9, albumin < 40 g/L, and LDH > 245 U/L remained associated with the early detection and identification of severe patients. Conclusion: We demonstrated that neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3 × 109/L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, NPR > 2.3, NLR > 3.9, albumin < 40 g/L, and LDH > 245 U/L might predict the severity of illness in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
/sangue , /epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6665563, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506059

RESUMO

Growing experimental and clinical evidence suggests that a chronic inflammatory response induced by gut microbiome critically contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies demonstrated the disturbance of lymphocyte subpopulations in RA patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of gut microbiome and the associations between bacterium and lymphocyte subpopulations as well as cytokines in patients with RA. Fecal samples from 205 RA patients and 199 healthy controls (HCs) were collected for bacterial DNA extraction and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The levels of peripheral lymphocyte subpopulation such as T, B, CD4+T, CD8+T, NK, T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) of these subjects were detected by flow cytometry combined with standard absolute counting beads. The serum levels of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (INF-γ) were tested by flow cytometric bead array (CBA). Alpha and beta diversity of gut microbiome were explored by bioinformatics analysis. Spearman rank correlation test was used to explore the relationships between gut microbiome and lymphocyte subsets as well as serum cytokines. The diversity and relative abundance of intestinal microbiota in patients with RA were significantly different from those in HCs. Detailly, the abundant of phylum Proteobacteria in RA patients was more than that in HCs, while Firmicutes was less than in HCs. There was increased relative abundance of genus Clostridium_XlVa as well as genus Blautia, more abundance of Ruminococcus2 in patients with lower levels of T, B, CD4+T, and Tregs. In addition, the relative abundances of Pelagibacterium, Oxalobacter, ClostridiumXlVb, and ClostridiumXVIII were correlated with cytokines. Gut microbiome of RA patients was clearly different from that of HCs. Abnormal bacteria communities are associated with the altered levels of lymphocyte subpopulation and cytokines, which might be one of the pathogenesis of RA.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507274

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Loss of sleep or disturbance of sleep-wake cycles have been related with metabolic impairments. However, few studies have investigated the association between daily sleep duration and hyperuricemia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated daily sleep duration (daytime napping and nocturnal sleep) with hyperuricemia risk. DESIGN SETTING: We cross-sectionally analyzed data from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC), Yunnan region. A total of 22,038 subjects aged 30-79 years were recruited in 2018. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid (SUA) above 7.0 mg/dL in males and above 6.0 mg/dL in females. OUTCOME: Associations between daily sleep duration and hyperuricemia. RESULTS: We found that the longest daytime napping duration was associated with higher risk of hyperuricemia in the crude model [OR (95%CI) is 2.22 (1.88, 2.61), P < 0.0001] and in a multivariable adjustment model [OR: 1.69; 95%CI: (1.41, 2.01), P < 0.0001] after adjusting for demographic, sleep habits and metabolic risk factors. The association was moderately attenuated with additionally adjusted for serum creatinine [OR: 1.54; 95%CI: (1.28, 1.86), P < 0.0001]. Longer daytime napping duration was also related with higher risk of hyperuricemia combined with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Respondents in the daytime napping duration ≥ 90 min presented higher risk of hyperuricemia combined with MetS [OR: 1.39; 95%CI: (1.06, 1.79); P < 0.001] in fully adjusted model. We did not observe any relation between nocturnal sleep duration and risk of hyperuricemia in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Longer daytime napping duration (but not nocturnal sleep duration) was independently associated with risk of hyperuricemia in Chinese population.

15.
Mol Immunol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494935

RESUMO

Regulatory T lymphocytes are important targets for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). IL-35 is a newly identified IL-12 cytokine family member that plays an important protective role in a variety of immune system diseases by regulating Treg cell differentiation; however, the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of ARDS is still unclear. Here, we found that IL-35 was significantly elevated in adult patients with ARDS compared to controls. Additionally, IL-35 was positively and significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-10 and the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) but negatively correlated with TNF-α, IL-1ß and APACHE II score during ARDS. Moreover, the proportion of Treg/CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood of ARDS patients and the expression of NF-κB in PMBCs were significantly higher than in healthy individuals. Recombinant IL-35 improved survival in a murine model of CLP-induced ARDS. Additionally, IL-35 administration decreased the inflammatory response, as reflected by lower levels of cytokines (including IL-2, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) and less lung damage in CLP-induced ARDS. Furthermore, recombinant IL-35 reduced the apoptosis of lung tissue and the expression of NF-κB signalling in a CLP-induced ARDS model and increased the proportion of Treg cells in spleen and peripheral blood. In vitro experiments revealed that IL-35 can affect the phosphorylation of STAT5 during differentiation of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes into Foxp3+Helios+ Tregs. Our findings suggest that IL-35 attenuates ARDS by promoting the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Foxp3+Helios+ Tregs, thereby providing a novel tool for anti-ARDS therapy.

16.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470484

RESUMO

The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, is an invasive forest pest that occurs across Eurasia. To further understand the mechanism of insect-host chemical communication and the feeding choices of adult I. typographus, we examined the sensilla on the antennae and mouthparts of I. typographus using scanning electron microscopy. No sexual dimorphism in sensilla type or distribution was observed. Ten subtypes of antennal sensilla were identified: sensilla trichodea Types I-III (TR1 , TR2 , and TR3 ); sensilla chaetica Types I and II (CH1 and CH2 ); sensilla basiconica Types I-III (BA1 , BA2 , and BA3 ); sensilla coeloconica (CO); and Böhm sensilla (BS). BA2 were the most abundant among the antennal sensilla in both sexes. Thirteen mouthpart sensilla subtypes were observed: sensilla trichodea Types I-IV (TR1 , TR2 , TR3 , and TR4 ); sensilla chaetica Types I-III (CH1 , CH2 , and CH3 ); sensilla digitiformia (DI); sensilla basiconica Types I-II (BA1 and BA2 ); and sensilla styloconica Types I-III (ST1 , ST2 , and ST3 ). Among these, TR4 were the most abundant in both sexes. The apex of each maxillary and labial palp carried the same sensilla (BA2 , ST1 , ST2 , and ST3 ), although the apex of the maxillary palp contained more total sensilla. The functional roles of each sensilla type are discussed based on their external structure and distribution. The results provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the olfactory and feeding behaviors and electrophysiology of adult I. typographus.

17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(1): 83-93.e3, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385335

RESUMO

The immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been attributed to a combination of host genetics and intestinal dysbiosis. Previous work in a small cohort of IBD patients suggested that pro-inflammatory bacterial taxa are highly coated with secretory immunoglobulin IgA. Using bacterial fluorescence-activated cell sorting coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing (IgA-SEQ), we profiled IgA coating of intestinal microbiota in a large cohort of IBD patients and identified bacteria associated with disease and treatment. Forty-three bacterial taxa displayed significantly higher IgA coating in IBD compared with controls, including 8 taxa exhibiting differential IgA coating but similar relative abundance. Patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapies exhibited dramatically altered microbiota-specific IgA responses compared with controls. Furthermore, increased IgA coating of Oscillospira was associated with a delay in time to surgery. These results demonstrate that investigating IgA responses to microbiota can uncover potential disease-modifying taxa and reveal improved biomarkers of clinical course in IBD.

18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405079

RESUMO

Sodium p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) has been previously shown to protect the brain from manganese (Mn)-induced toxicity. However, the efficacy of PAS-Na in protecting other organs from Mn toxicity and the mechanisms associated with this protection have yet to be addressed. Therefore, here, we assessed pancreatic damage in response to Mn treatment and the efficacy of PAS-Na in limiting this effect, along with specific mechanisms that mediate PAS-Na's protection. Mn exposure led to increased blood Mn content in dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, subchronic Mn exposure (20 mg/kg for 8 weeks) led to pancreatic damage in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the elevated Mn levels increased iron and decreased zinc and magnesium content in the pancreas. These effects were noted even 8 weeks after Mn exposure cessation. Mn exposure also affected the levels of amylase, lipase, and inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß). PAS-Na significantly inhibited the increase in Mn concentration in both blood and pancreas, restored Mn-induced pancreatic damage, reversed the Mn-induced alterations in metal levels, and restored amylase and lipase concentrations. Taken together, we conclude that in rats, PAS-Na shows pharmacological efficacy in protecting the pancreas from Mn-induced damage.

19.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 66-70, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dacomitinib is a potent, irreversible and pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, evidence of its activity on brain metastasis is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NSCLC patients diagnosed at Hunan Cancer Hospital between July, 2019 and July, 2020 with enhanced MRI-detected brain metastasis prior to treatment and laboratory-confirmed EGFR mutations were reviewed. In total, 14 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis were treated with first-line dacomitinib. The first radiographic review of chest CT and brain MRI was after one month and thereafter every 2 months. The objective response rate (ORR) and the depth of the brain metastasis response were determined via RECIST 1.1 and RANO-LM criteria. RESULTS: In total, 14 of 59 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients who received first-line dacomitinib therapy had brain metastasis before treatment. Among these patients, 5 were given a dacomitinib starting dose of 45 mg once daily, while 9 received 30 mg daily until disease progression or unbearable toxicity. Eight patients harbored EGFR 19del, 5 had EGFR L858R, and one patient had EGFR G719A and I706 T co-mutations. The median duration of follow-up was 4.5 months. All patients received at least one review. The ORR was 92.9 % (13/14) and the disease control rate (DCR) was 100 %. A measurable response of the intracranial metastases was observed in 12 of 14 patients (85.7 %), including 12 of 13 (92.3 %) with brain parenchymal metastasis, but the one patient with meningeal metastasis did not respond well. All patients (100 %) had grade 1-2 adverse effects, but none discontinued treatment or required a dosage adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: This case series study of 14 patients has shown that dacomitinib has potent efficacy for central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in EGFR-positive NSCLC. More data are required to confirm its advantages and optimize its clinical application.

20.
Micron ; 140: 102976, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221524

RESUMO

The Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, is a severe pest of larches in Northeastern China. The gustatory and olfactory systems of I. subelongatus play important roles in host location, mating, and feeding. In this study, we examined the types, distributions, and abundances of various sensilla associated with the mouthparts and antennae of I. subelongatus using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the mouthparts, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-3), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-2), sensilla twig basiconica (S.tb.1-3), and sensilla placodea (S.p). S.t.3 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the mouthparts in both sexes, while S.b.1 are the least abundant. Most sensilla on the mouthparts are located on the maxillae and labium, and the apex of each maxillary and labial palp carry the same sensilla subtypes (S.b.2 and S.tb.1-3). However, the total number of sensilla on the apex of each maxillary palp is higher than that on the labial palp. On the antennae, five types of sensilla are present: sensilla trichodea (S.t.1-3), sensilla chaetica (S.c.1-2), sensilla basiconica (S.b.1-3), Böhm bristles (B.b), and sensilla coeloconica (S.co). Antennal sensilla are mostly situated on the anterior surface of the antennal club, particularly on the two dense sensory bands. S.b.1 are the most abundant sensilla subtype on the antennae in both sexes, while S.t.1 are the least abundant. No sexual dimorphism in sensilla type or distribution on the mouthparts or antennae is observed between the sexes of I. subelongatus. However, S.t.3 (on mouthparts) and S.c.1 (on antennae) were significantly more abundant in males than in females, while more S.t.1 (on mouthparts) were observed in females than in males. Finally, the putative functions of each kind of sensilla with respect to their fine structures, distributions, and abundances on the mouthparts and antennae are discussed.

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