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1.
Popul Space Place ; 29(1): e2640, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721421

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has issued significant challenges to food systems and the food security of migrants in cities. In China, there have been no studies to date focusing on the food security of migrants during the pandemic. To fill this gap, an online questionnaire survey of food security in Nanjing City, China, was conducted in March 2020. This paper situates the research findings in the general literature on the general migrant experience during the pandemic under COVID and the specifics of the Chinese policy of hukou. Using multiple linear regression and ordered logistic regression, the paper examines the impact of migration status on food security during the pandemic. The paper finds that during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, households without local Nanjing hukou were more food insecure than those with Nanjing hukou. The differences related more to the absolute quantity of food intake, rather than reduction in food quality or in levels of anxiety over food access. Migrants in China and elsewhere during COVID-19 experienced three pathways to food insecurity-an income gap, an accessibility gap, and a benefits gap. This conceptual framework is used to structure the discussion and interpretation of survey findings and also has wider potential applicability.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 29, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611131

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), it has been demonstrated that neoadjuvant immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy can improve the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and/or long-term outcome of TNBC. However, there have been no real-world studies reporting on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant checkpoint inhibitors in early TNBC. METHODS: Between November 2019 and December 2021, 63 early TNBC patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab or camrelizumab) or anti-PD-L1 antibody (atezolizumab) in combination with chemotherapy at seven institutions were included. PCR1 defined as ypT0/Tis and ypN0 was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included pCR2 defined as ypT0/Tis, overall response rate (ORR), disease-free survival (DFS), drug-related adverse events (AEs) and biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the patients in the current study, 34.9% of patients were able to achieve pCR1, and 47.6% of patients had achieved pCR2. The ORR was 82.5%. 33 patients with non-pCR2 tumors were found to have a median DFS of 20.7 months (95% CI 16.3 months-not reached). The DFS of patients with pCR2 and non-pCR2 after neoadjuvant therapy was significantly different (HR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.79; P = 0.038). The most common AEs were nausea (63.4%), fatigue (42.7%), leucopenia (30.0%) and elevated transaminase (11.7%). CONCLUSION: It is possible to achieve a meaningful pCR rate and DFS by combining neoadjuvant checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy in patients with high-risk TNBC. Compared to clinical trials, however, there was a slightly lower pCR rate in this multicentered real-world study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(1)2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642414

RESUMO

The proliferation of single-cell multimodal sequencing technologies has enabled us to understand cellular heterogeneity with multiple views, providing novel and actionable biological insights into the disease-driving mechanisms. Here, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end single-cell multimodal analysis framework named Deep Parametric Inference (DPI). DPI transforms single-cell multimodal data into a multimodal parameter space by inferring individual modal parameters. Analysis of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) reveals that the multimodal parameter space can characterize the heterogeneity of cells more comprehensively than individual modalities. Furthermore, comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods on multiple datasets show that DPI has superior performance. Additionally, DPI can reference and query cell types without batch effects. As a result, DPI can successfully analyze the progression of COVID-19 disease in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Notably, we further propose a cell state vector field and analyze the transformation pattern of bone marrow cells (BMC) states. In conclusion, DPI is a powerful single-cell multimodal analysis framework that can provide new biological insights into biomedical researchers. The python packages, datasets and user-friendly manuals of DPI are freely available at https://github.com/studentiz/dpi.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos
4.
Lab Chip ; 23(2): 349-361, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606538

RESUMO

Taking information as material to realize non-electronic physical computing is a promising idea, which facilitates the integration of technologies in different fields such as chemistry, biology, and mechanical control into a new computing platform. Here, we propose a novel, efficient and robust manipulation platform that drives droplet computing by way of inertial force. Combining this with droplet flow path design, we demonstrated multiple basic functions of droplet manipulation, including storage, dosing, interrupts, controllable release and addressing. These basic functions without external control lay the foundation for the realization of droplet calculation. We developed AND, OR, and XOR logic gates of the "liquid circuit" and combined them into a binary adder, which successfully completed the addition of four-digit binary numbers through droplet movement. Moreover, we attempted to perform algorithmic design for biological information under the control of droplets based on synchronous logical operations, developing the possibility of biological applications. This programmable physical computing system exists independently of electronic computing, aiming to supplement and expand the computing methods outside the field of electronic technology and to open a new method for the algorithmic operation of materials after combining new physical computing technologies such as biological or chemical computing.


Assuntos
Lógica , Tecnologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos
5.
Immunotherapy ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695131

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to examine the effect of FHL1 in the diagnosis and prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer and its relationship with tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Methods: FHL1 expression status and influence on clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer were assessed. Interaction networks of FHL1 were revealed, and a correlation analysis between FHL1 expression and tumor immunity was performed. Results: FHL1 expression was significantly lower in tumors, and downregulated FHL1 predicted a worse prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma. FHL1 expression was correlated with tumor-infiltrating immune cells, immune checkpoints and chemokine levels. Conclusion: FHL1 is a powerful biomarker to evaluate the diagnosis and prognosis and immune infiltration level of lung adenocarcinoma.


The advent of immunotherapy has considerably changed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, allowing a subset of patients to live longer and have a better prognosis. However, not all patients benefit from immunotherapy. Therefore it is urgently necessary to develop universal and effective biomarkers of NSCLC for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation to effectively diagnose the disease and increase the utility of immunotherapy. In this study, a protein called FHL1 was identified as a potential predictive biomarker according to NSCLC databases, and we further investigated the underlying relationship between FHL1 and immunotherapy. In conclusion, FHL1 is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and immune infiltration level of lung adenocarcinoma.

6.
J Dairy Sci ; 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631321

RESUMO

Green hydrophobically modified butyrylated dextrin (BD) was used to modulate casein (CN). The CN/BD complex nanoparticles were formed at different CN-to-BD mass ratios based on a pH-driven technology. The interaction force, stability, and emulsifying properties of complex nanoparticles were investigated. The nanoparticles had a negative charge and a small particle size (160.03, 152.6, 155.9, 206.13, and 231.67 nm) as well as excellent thermal stability and environmental stability (pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.6, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5; ionic strength, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mM). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the successful preparation of complex nanoparticles and their spherical shape. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and dissociation analysis results showed that the main driving forces of formed CN/BD nanoparticles were hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, the CN/BD nanoparticles (CN/BD mass ratio, 1:1; weight/weight) exhibited the lowest creaming index, and optical microscopy showed that it has the most evenly dispersed droplets after 7 d of storage, which indicates that the CN/BD nanoparticles had excellent emulsifying properties. Butyrylated dextrin forms complex nanoparticles with CN through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction to endow CN with superior properties. The results showed that it is possible to use pH-driven technology to form protein-polysaccharide complex nanoparticles, which provides some information on the development of novel food emulsifiers based on protein-polysaccharide nanoparticles. The study provided significant information on the improvement of CN properties and the development of emulsions based on CN.

7.
PeerJ ; 11: e14603, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684670

RESUMO

Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used to treat autoimmune diseases and malignancies in children and adolescents. Growth retardation is a common adverse effect of GC treatment in pediatric patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation (GIGR), but the roles of specific ncRNAs in growth remain largely unknown. Methods: In this study, 2-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats had been treated with 2 mg/kg/d of dexamethasone for 7 or 14 days, after which the growth plate tissues were collected for high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed mRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, and miRNAs in GIGR rats. Results: Transcriptomic analysis identified 1,718 mRNAs, 896 lncRNAs, 60 circRNAs, and 72 miRNAs with different expression levels in the 7d group. In the 14d group, 1,515 mRNAs, 880 lncRNAs, 46 circRNAs, and 55 miRNAs with differential expression were identified. Four mRNAs and four miRNAs that may be closely associated with the development of GIGR were further validated by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR. Function enrichment analysis indicated that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and TGF-ß signaling pathway participated in the development of the GIGR. Moreover, the constructed ceRNA networks suggested that several miRNAs (including miR-140-3p and miR-127-3p) might play an important role in the pathogenesis of GIGR. Conclusions: These results provide new insights and important clues for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying GIGR.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Lâmina de Crescimento/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transtornos do Crescimento/induzido quimicamente
8.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688553

RESUMO

Transiliac-transsacral screw fixation is challenging in clinical practice as the screws need to break through six layers of cortical bone. Transiliac-transsacral screws provide a longer lever arm to withstand the perpendicular vertical shear forces. However, the screw channel is so long that a minor discrepancy can lead to iatrogenic neurovascular injuries. The development of medical robots has improved the precision of surgery. The present protocol describes how to use a new teleoperated robotic system to execute transiliac-transacral screw fixation. The Robot was operated remotely to position the entry point and adjust the orientation of the sleeve. The screw positions were evaluated using postoperative computed tomography (CT). All the screws were safely implanted, as confirmed using intraoperative fluoroscopy. Postoperative CT confirmed that all the screws were in the cancellous bone. This system combines the doctor's initiative with the Robot's stability. The remote control of this procedure is possible. Robot-assisted surgery has a higher position-retention capacity compared with conventional methods. In contrast to active robotic systems, surgeons have full control over the operation. The robot system is fully compatible with operating room systems and does not require additional equipment.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Parafusos Ósseos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Materials (Basel) ; 16(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676233

RESUMO

Temperature control is needed in the construction process of massive concrete and it can avoid the concrete cracks. Prediction of temperature development based on a hydration kinetics model can reduce the need for adiabatic temperature rise tests for concrete. However, the existing hydration kinetics model cannot accurately describe the hydration process of cement, thereby limiting the ability to further accurately predict the temperature rise of concrete based on the hydration kinetics model. This paper aims to establish a new hydration kinetics model, which is based on nucleation and growth model, and to predict the temperature development of concrete with set-controlling admixture based on this model. In this paper, the nucleation and growth of hydration products and the diffusion of free water by the modified boundary of nucleation and growth (BNG) model and the modified Fuji and Kondo's model are described. The relationship between nucleation rate and apparent activation energy and the relationship between effective diffusion coefficient and apparent activation energy are linear. However, the relationship between growth rate and apparent activation is exponential. Finally, the temperature development of concrete can be calculated by the hydration degree of the cement.

10.
Chem Asian J ; : e202201167, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623942

RESUMO

The development of modern society is closely related to polymer materials. However, the accumulation of polymer materials and their evolution in the environment causes not only serious environmental problems, but also waste of resources. Although physical processing can be used to reuse polymers, the properties of the resulting polymers are significantly degraded. Chemically recyclable polymers, a type of polymer that degrades into monomers, can be an effective solution to the degradation of polymer properties caused by physical recycling of polymers. The ideal chemical recycling of polymers, i. e., quantitative conversion of the polymer to monomers at low energy consumption and repolymerization of the formed monomers into polymers with comparable properties to the original, is an attractive research goal. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the design of recyclable polymers, enabling the regulation of the "polymerization-depolymerization" equilibrium and closed-loop recycling under mild conditions. This review will focus on the following aspects of closed-loop recycling of poly(sulfur) esters, polycarbonates, polyacetals, polyolefins, and poly(disulfide) polymer, illustrate the challenges in this area, and provide an outlook on future directions.

11.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 216, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639690

RESUMO

GPR21 is a class-A orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders. This receptor shows high basal activity in coupling to multiple G proteins in the absence of any known endogenous agonist or synthetic ligand. Here, we present the structures of ligand-free human GPR21 bound to heterotrimeric miniGs and miniG15 proteins, respectively. We identified an agonist-like motif in extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) that occupies the orthosteric pocket and promotes receptor activation. A side pocket that may be employed as a new ligand binding site was also uncovered. Remarkably, G protein binding is accommodated by a flexible cytoplasmic portion of transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) which adopts little or undetectable outward movement. These findings will enable the design of modulators for GPR21 for understanding its signal transduction and exploring opportunity for deorphanization.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Proteica , Ligantes
12.
Tissue Cell ; 81: 102024, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669388

RESUMO

Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a severe condition of the spinal cord caused by chronic compression. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of zonisamide (ZNS) on DCM via the Fas/FasL-mediated pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZNS on a DCM rat model and to explore the potential mechanisms. First, 40 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish the DCM rat model and were individually divided into four groups: the Sham group, DCM model group (DCM), ZNS group (DCM model rats treated with ZNS, 30 mg/kg/day), and ZNS + CD95 group (DCM model rats treated with ZNS and CD95). Histopathology injury and cell apoptosis, Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression and Fas/FasL relative protein levels were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL assay, and immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results of our study demonstrated that ZNS could promote motor recovery while reversing histopathological injury and cell apoptosis in DCM rats. Moreover, Iba-1, Fas and FasL expression in DCM rats was decreased, accompanied by a decrease in cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8/caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-9, cleaved caspase-10/caspase-10 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) levels. All these results revealed that ZNS attenuates DCM injury in a rat model via the regulation of Fas and FasL signaling. Our study indicated that ZNS had beneficial effects on DCM and thus provided a novel theoretical approach for subsequent academic and clinical research on DCM injury.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640205

RESUMO

Microcycle conidiation commonly exists in filamentous fungi and has great potential for mass production of mycoinsecticides. L-Arginine metabolism is essential for conidiation and conditional growth and virulence, but its role in microcycle conidiation has not been explored. Here, a unique putative arginase (MaAGA) was characterized in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Conidial germination and thermotolerance were facilitated by the disruption of MaAGA. Despite little impact on fungal growth and virulence, the disruption resulted in normal conidiation after a 60-h incubation on microcycle conidiation medium (SYA) under normal culture conditions. In the MaAGA-disruption mutant (ΔMaAGA), intracellular arginine accumulation was sharply increased. Replenishment of the direct metabolites of arginase, namely ornithine and/or urea, was unable to restore the disruption mutant's microcycle conidiation on SYA. Interestingly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) levels of the ΔMaAGA strain were markedly decreased in the 60-h-old SYA cultures. Finally, adding Nω-nitro-L-arginine, an inhibitor of NOS, into the SYA converted the microcycle conidiation of the wild-type strain to normal conidiation. In contrast, adding sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, into the SYA recovered the mutant's microcycle conidiation. The results indicate that arginine metabolism controls microcycle conidiation by changing the content of NO. KEY POINTS: • The MaAGA-disruption led to normal conidiation on microcycle conidiation medium SYA. • Nitric oxide (NO) level of the ΔMaAGA strain was markedly decreased. • Adding an NO donor into the SYA recovered the microcycle conidiation of ΔMaAGA.

14.
Plant Dis ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607328

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum and F. asiaticum have been found as a major cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), especially in Henan Province of China (Zhang et al. 2014; Xu et al. 2021). In May 2021, a survey to determine the composition of Fusarium species infecting wheat heads was conducted in commercial fields in Henan. A total of 395 diseased spikes with premature whitening symptom were collected from 31 commercial fields in Henan. Symptomatic spikelets were excised, surface-sterilized for 10 s in 70% ethanol followed by 1 min in 3% sodium hypochlorite, rinsed three times with autoclaved distilled water, and then plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Isolated colonies that resembled Fusarium species were transferred to fresh PDA plates and purified using a single spore method. Species were identified based on sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF) and trichothecene 3-Oacetyltransferase (Tri 101) gene (Proctor et al. 2009). The results indicated that F. graminearum (43.3%), F. asiaticum (47.8%), F. pseudograminearum (6.6%) were the main causal agents of FHB in Henan. However, nine isolates (2.3%) were found to be identical to F. meridionale by sequence comparison in GenBank, and eight isolates of which came from three fields with 1% to 2% diseased spikes near Reservoir Luhun (34.1255° N, 112.1111° E, altitude: 388 m above sea level), Songxian County of Henan. The isolates of F. meridionale were transferred onto carnation leaf agar (CLA) and incubated at 20℃ under black light blue illumination. Macroconidia were abundant, relatively slender, curved to almost straight, commonly six- to seven-septate, and 27.0 to 61.0 (average 44.0) µm × 3.2 to 6.8 (average 5.3) µm. Microconidia were not observed. The TEF sequences (Accession nos. OM460748 to OM460756) and the Tri 101 sequences (OM460759 to OM460767) of the nine isolates showed 99 to 100% similarity with the TEF and Tri 101 sequences of F. meridionale NRRL 28436 and NRRL 28723 (AF212435 and AF212436 (TEF); AF212582 and AF212683 (Tri 101)). To complete Koch's postulates, the pathogenicity of the fungus was tested by using the single floret inoculation method by injecting 20-µl conidial suspension (5 × 105 conidia per milliliter) into healthy inflorescences of wheat cultivar Bainong 207 at anthesis in the field. Another 30 healthy inflorescences were injected with sterile distilled water. The heads were covered with polyethylene bags that were removed after 2 days. Twenty days after inoculation, while control inflorescences were asymptomatic, the F. meridionale-inoculated inflorescences showed 12% bleached spikelets per spike. By using the methodology described above, the fungus was re-isolated from infected spikelets of inoculated wheat heads but not from the controls. Although F. meridionale has frequently been reported in association with Fusarium ear rot (FER) of maize in Chongqing City and Gansu Province (Zhang et al. 2014; Zhou et al. 2018), and rice FER in Sichuan Province (Dong et al. 2020), to our knowledge, this is the first report of F. meridionale from diseased wheat heads in Henan, China. Further investigation is needed to gain a better understanding of this species by collecting isolates from different cropping system in Henan, which maize-wheat and rice-wheat rotation fields have coexisted in the region.

15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 169-182, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521982

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) attract continuous attention due to their outstanding carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. In order to investigate the diurnal variations, sources, formation mechanism, and health risk assessment of them in heating season, particulate matter (PM) were collected in Beijing urban area from December 26, 2017 to January 17, 2018. PAHs and NPAHs in PM were quantitatively analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) . Average daily concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were (78 ± 54) ng/m3 and (783 ± 684) pg/m3, respectively. The concentrations of them were significantly higher at nighttime than at daytime, and NPAHs concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than PAHs concentrations. In the heating season, the dominant species of PAHs include benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, while 9-nitroanthracene, 2+3-nitrofluoranthene, and 2-nitropyrene were dominant species for NPAHs. NPAHs were found to have a single peak during heating and to be primarily distributed in the 0.4-0.7 µm particle size. Primary emissions such as biomass burning, coal combustion, and traffic emissions were the major sources of PAHs. NPAHs were produced by the primary source of vehicle emissions and the secondary reaction triggered by OH radicals, as well as biomass burning during daytime. According to the health risk assessment, the total carcinogenic risk was higher in adults than in children. While upon oral ingestion, the carcinogenic risk in children was higher than that of adults, but the risk of adults was higher than children through skin contact and respiratory inhalation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Nitratos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estações do Ano , Calefação , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , China
16.
J Plant Physiol ; 280: 153892, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566671

RESUMO

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays essential roles in modulating drought stress responses. Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is critical for reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in drought stress responses. However, whether ABA signal in concert with AOX to moderate drought stress response remains largely unclear. In our study, we uncover the positive role of AOX in ABA-mediated drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we report that ABA participates in the regulation of alternative respiration, and the increased AOX was found to improve drought tolerance by reducing total ROS accumulation. We also found that transcription factor ABA response element-binding factor 1 (SlAREB1) can directly bind to the promoter of AOX1a to activate its transcription. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of SlAREB1 compromised the ABA-induced alternative respiratory pathway, disrupted redox homeostasis and decreased plant resistance to drought stress, while overexpression of AOX1a in TRV2-SlAREB1 plants partially rescued the severe drought phenotype. Taken together, our results indicated that AOX1a plays an essential role in ABA-mediated drought tolerance partially in a SlAREB1-dependent manner, providing new insights into how ABA modulates ROS levels to cope with drought stress by AOX.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 226: 1-13, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481329

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are extremely hydrophilic proteins imperatively associated with plant growth and development, as well as cell protection from abiotic stress. However, the genome-wide characterization of LEA gene family remains limited, especially in aquatic species such as lotus (Nelumbo spp.). Here, 57 putative LEA genes, including 28 NnLEAs and 29 NlLEAs were identified in the N.nucifera and N.lutea genomes, respectively. A total of 27 homologous LEA gene pairs were identified, indicating high degree of sequence homologies between the two Nelumbo species. Secondary structure prediction indicated high prevalence of alpha (α) helix structure among LEA proteins in the LEA_1, LEA_4, and SMP groups. Screening of putative promoter cis-elements revealed that NnLEA genes were involved in diverse biological processes. Most NnLEA genes were predominantly expressed in the late cotyledons and plumules development stages, suggesting their potential vital roles in lotus seed maturation. In addition, genes co-expressed with NnLEAs were involved in ABA signaling, seed maturation, and development processes. Overall, this study provides new insights for the in-depth understanding of the functions of NnLEA proteins in lotus seed development, and could act as a useful reference for the molecular breeding of seeds with prolonged lifespan.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Filogenia
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 458, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common co-morbidity associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors related pneumonitis (CIP) is a common immune-related adverse event that can be life-threatening. The study aims to evaluate the association of COPD with the incidence and outcome of CIP in NSCLC patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 122 patients diagnosed with NSCLC and treated with ICIs in our department. Baseline pulmonary function was performed in the whole cohort. The incidence, risk factors, treatment and outcome of CIP patients were evaluated. Furthermore, the efficacy of ICIs in patients with COPD was analyzed. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (15.5%, 19/122) developed CIP during ICIs treatment, most patients with CIP were grade 1-2, and the incidence of CIP was comparable in patients with COPD and those without COPD (18.0% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.618). In addition, an increasing trend in the incidence of CIP among patients with pulmonary fibrosis on baseline chest CT scans (27.3% vs. 13.0%, P = 0.093). There is a longer progression-free survival in COPD patients than the non-COPD patients. CONCLUSION: Coexisting COPD did not predict the higher risk of CIP in NSCLC treated with ICIs therapy. Nevertheless, pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on CT scan may increase the risk of CIP, close monitoring is advised in these patients during ICIs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fibrose Pulmonar , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
19.
Plant Dis ; 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471472

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in China owing to its high oil and protein content, with approximately 9.88 million ha of production in 2020. In September 2021, soybean plants showing wilting, root necrosis, and brown discoloration were observed, with an average incidence of approximately 36% in seven fields in Yongcheng City and Shangqiu City, Henan, China. Fungi were isolated from small pieces of symptomatic root tissues after being surface-sterilized (70% ethanol for 50 s followed by 3% NaClO for 1.0 min), rinsed three times in sterile distilled water, and then placed on PDA and incubated at 25℃ for 5 days in the dark. Single-spore cultures of twenty isolates were obtained by dilution plating (Leslie and Summerell 2006), and then were cultured on carnation leaf agar at 25℃ for 14 days. Macroconidia were mostly 3-septate, hyaline, falcate, with slightly curved apexes, with well-developed foot cells and blunt apical cells, and measured 29.3 to 45.0 (average 34.7) µm × 4.6 to 8.0 (average 6.0) µm. Microconidia were one to two celled, hyaline, and measured 11.9 to 29.0 (average 20.1) µm × 3.9 to 7.6 (average 5.7) µm. These morphological characteristics were consistent with previous descriptions of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (Leslie and Summerell 2006; Summerell et al. 2003). Partial sequences of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF) and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) gene were PCR amplified using region specific primers as described by O'Donnell et al. (2008). The nucleotide sequences obtained from twenty isolates were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of ON375405-ON375423, ON697187 (TEF) and ON331917-ON331936 (RPB2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the isolates were nested within F. falciforme based on the DNA sequences of the above two genes (Chitrampalam and Nelson 2016). Pathogenicity tests of two representative isolates (21BeanYC3-3 and 21BeanYC7-5) were performed on two-week-old healthy soybean seedlings (cv. Shengdou 101) by injecting and cutting root method with a conidial suspension (1×106 conidia per mL) of F. falciforme (2 mL to one seedling). Control seedlings were inoculated with 2 mL distilled water. After 40 days under 25℃, 16h light/8h dark, the root system of all inoculated soybean plants exhibited dark brown lesions over the entire taproot, while control plants remained healthy. The fungus was reisolated from inoculated plants and identified as F. falciforme based on morphological characteristics and molecular methods described above. To our knowledge, this is the first report of root rot in soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by F. falciforme in Henan, China. The results are important for soybean production and breeding programs.

20.
Food Chem ; 406: 135057, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459800

RESUMO

The structure-activity relationship and inhibitory mechanism of flavonols on α-glucosidase were studied by inhibition kinetics, multispectral study, and molecular docking. The flavonols of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol effectively inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, among which quercetin and rutin showed the strongest and weakest inhibitory abilities, respectively. The inhibitory ability of flavonols was enhanced by hydroxylation at C3' of B ring, while it was weakened by diglycosylation at C3 of C ring. Remarkably, the quenching affinity and inhibitory ability of flavonols were inconsistent, which was different from the conclusions reported by some previous studies. This may be ascribed to the hydroxyl groups of C3' of B ring and C3 of C ring. Furthermore, three flavonols were spontaneously bound to α-glucosidase through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, which caused the structure and hydrophobic microenvironment of α-glucosidase to change, resulting in significant inhibition of α-glucosidase by flavonols.

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