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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945493

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as a class of RNA molecules with a length of more than 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein, and are known to participate in a variety of biological processes. They have recently been implicated as having roles in viral infections, and several research groups have identified that complex interactions exist between lncRNAs and the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. LncRNAs derived from both the human host and HIV itself are emerging as key regulators of various cellular functions, playing crucial roles in virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. In this review, the roles and associated mechanisms of lncRNAs in HIV infection will be briefly discussed. Moreover, due to the continued lack of effective HIV vaccines or treatments, we provide an insight into the complex interplay between lncRNAs and HIV and suggest innovative therapeutic strategies for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The available data on lncRNAs that have been associated with HIV infection and their potential applications for the treatment of HIV are summarized for the first time, providing a new perspective for the future development of therapeutic strategies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952054

RESUMO

The shear viscosity of liquid Na-K alloys is computed from molecular dynamics simulations using the Green-Kubo formalism. Interatomic interactions are described using effective pair potentials computed from Fiolhais pseudo-potential and self-consistent screening. The composition dependence of the viscosity is first investigated at 373 K, then its temperature dependence at three different compositions, namely Na10-K90, Na50-K50, and Na90-K10. Simulation results are first compared with available experimental data. The evolution of the viscosity of the alloys versus temperature is similar to that of a pure one component fluid. This is discussed in connection with the chemical order of the mixtures.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112577, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953200

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) and Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP) that is used after processing are two well-known traditional Chinese medicines. PMRP is traditionally reported to have lipid-reducing activity as recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to observe the alleviation of Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata water extract (PMRPWE) and Polygoni Multiflori Radix water extract (PMRWE) against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and its potential engaged mechanism and the main active ingredients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contents of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-ß- D-glucoside (TSG), emodin and physcion in PMRWE and PMRPWE were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). NAFLD was induced in rats by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 8 weeks. At the same time, rats were orally given with PMRWE (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) or PMRPWE (70, 140, 280 mg/kg) every day. Serum and liver biochemical parameters, hepatic gene expression and enzymatic activity were detected. Cellular lipids accumulation in human normal liver L-02 cells was induced by 0.5 mM non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA). RESULTS: The results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) observation showed that PMRWE and PMRPWE both alleviated liver injury in HFD-fed rats. The results of liver triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and NEFA amounts, and liver Oil Red O staining evaluation showed that PMRWE and PMRPWE both reduced hepatic lipids accumulation in HFD-fed rats. The results of 4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) fluorescence staining and cellular TG content showed that both PMRWE and PMRPWE reduced NEFA-induced cellular lipids accumulation in L-02 cells. PMRWE and PMRPWE increased liver mRNA expression of some signals involved in mitochondrial ß oxidation, including the key enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Moreover, PMRWE and PMRPWE increased the decreased liver CPT1A enzymatic activity in HFD-fed rats. Etomoxir (ETO), a CPT1A inhibitor, weakened the lipid-lowering activity of PMRWE and PMRPWE in vitro. Additionally, the main compounds in PMRWE and PMRPWE including TSG, emodin, physcion and resveratrol all reduced cellular lipids accumulation induced by NEFA in L-02 cells. CONCLUSIONS: PMRWE and PMRPWE alleviated NAFLD through promoting mitochondrial ß oxidation by enhancing liver CPT1A activity. Stilbenes (including TSG, polydatin and resveratrol) and anthraquinones (including physcion, emodin and rhein) may be the main active compounds contributing to the lipid-lowering activity provided by PMRWE and PMRPWE.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962069

RESUMO

Cellulosic colloidal suspensions present unique opportunities for rheological modification of complex fluids. In this work, the rheological behavior of regenerated cellulose (RC) suspensions, including their oscillating shear and time-dependent behavior, as well as yield stress, were studied. The rheological effects of sodium alginate's addition to aqueous RC solutions subject to shear flow were investigated. The results reveal that the RC suspension exhibited "gel-like" behavior and had a shear-thinning property. At increasing RC concentrations, the suspensions' yield stress and the extent of viscosity recovery after plastic deformation had both increased. The viscoelastic suspensions underwent a transition from "solid-like" to "liquid-like" behavior upon sodium alginate's inclusion. Sodium alginate was found to enhance RC suspensions' viscosity recoverability. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of sodium alginate, the yield stress of RC suspension began to decrease and then vanished, occurring below the 1:1 RC: sodium alginate weight ratio with total solid content fixed at 1 wt%, due to RC's inability to form an extended network RC. This study yields insights into the rheology of RC suspensions and the influence of sodium alginate and supports both their usage as rheological modifies in applications such as coatings, drug delivery systems, and additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing.

5.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate (1) the probability to achieve normal pelvic radiographs in children with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treated by closed reduction and (2) the amount of time needed to achieve normal pelvic radiographs and to assess what factors influence both probability and time to achieve normal radiographic parameters following CR and spica cast immobilization for DDH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 436 patients (393 girls, 43 boys; 507 hips) with DDH treated by closed reduction (CR). Tönnis grade, AVN, acetabular index (AI), centre-edge angle (CEA), and Severin radiographic grade were evaluated on plain radiographs. Criteria to rate pelvis radiographs as normal were established. Cox regression was used to evaluate the factors influencing the probability and the time to achieve normal radiographs. RESULTS: According to our criteria, 167 hips (32.9%) achieved normal radiographic parameters during follow-up. The overall amount of time to achieve normal pelvis radiographs was 36.1 ± 15.5 months. Patients older than 24 months of age at the time of CR needed longer time to achieve normal radiographic parameters (55.2 ± 28 months) compared with other age groups. Cox regression analysis suggested the overall cumulative probability of recovery increased by 46% at five years following CR, then it tended to plateau with an annual increase less than 5%. Age older than 24 months, bilateral dislocation, pre-operative AI greater than 40°, and AVN were risk factors for reduced probability of achieving normal radiographic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative probability of achieving normal pelvis radiographs increases linearly during the first five years following CR, then it tends to plateau. Age older than 24 months and Tönnis grade III and IV are associated with longer time to achieve normal radiographic parameters. Age older than 24 months, bilateral dislocation, pre-operative AI greater than 40°, and AVN are risk factors for reduced probability of achieving normal radiographic parameters in children with DDH treated by closed means.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968214

RESUMO

Phase change materials (PCMs), widely used in thermal management filed, can store or release thermal energy during phase-changing processes, but the inherent low thermal conductivity and leakage problem restrict their practical applications. Herein, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) doped cellulosic scaffolds (CS) were used as novel support materials to construct shape-stabilized PCM with enhanced thermal conductivity. The composite PCM exhibits excellent shape stability against pressure, tension and bending (90°) even at high loading of the solid-liquid PCM polyethylene glycol (PEG) (95.6 wt%). The resulting composite PCMs have enthalpy capacity (ΔHm/ΔHc) ranged from 165.3 J g-1/169.3 J g-1 to 169.1 J g-1/176.1 J g-1 with stable cycling reliability. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of the composite PCM could increase by 42.8% at a low loading of BNNSs (1.9 wt%), without affecting its electrical insulation properties (over 107 Ω cm). The thermally-conductive shape-stabilized PCM composite prepared by this feasible method have great potential in thermal management of electronics.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917978

RESUMO

Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TFP) is an important bioactive substance in Tremella, that contributes to its use as medicine and food. In this study, a novel fungus Tremella fuciformis XY was isolated and introduced to produce macromolecule polysaccharides (TFPB). The fermentation conditions were optimized and results demonstrates that the initial pH, optimal temperature and liquid volume were 6.0, 26 °C and 80 mL in a 500 mL flask, respectively. The maximum yield of TFPB was 9.05 ±â€¯0.05 g/L, which is 59.05% higher than the basic yield (5.69 ±â€¯0.02 g/L). The TFPB, purified by DEAE column, had a molecular weight (Mw) of 1.14 × 103 kDa and consisted mainly of mannose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose at a molar ratio of 3.5:1.2:2:1.6:1.4:3. The structure of TFPB was preliminarily investigated by methylation analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The main linkage types were identified as 1,4-xylp, 1,4-manp, 1-xylp, 1-manp, 1,4-glcp, and 1,3,4-galp. Moreover, the antioxidant assays showed that TFPB could scavenge reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radicals.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 7, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911587

RESUMO

The deposition of pathological tau is a common feature in several neurodegenerative tauopathies. Although equal ratios of tau isoforms with 3 (3R) and 4 (4R) microtubule-binding repeats are expressed in the adult human brain, the pathological tau from different tauopathies have distinct isoform compositions and cell type specificities. The underlying mechanisms of tauopathies are unknown, partially due to the lack of proper models. Here, we generate a new transgenic mouse line expressing equal ratios of 3R and 4R human tau isoforms (6hTau mice). Intracerebral injections of distinct human tauopathy brain-derived tau strains into 6hTau mice recapitulate the deposition of pathological tau with distinct tau isoform compositions and cell type specificities as in human tauopathies. Moreover, through in vivo propagation of these tau strains among different mouse lines, we demonstrate that the transmission of distinct tau strains is independent of strain isoform compositions, but instead intrinsic to unique pathological conformations.

9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(2): 57, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912318

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of alanine-proline-arginine-proline-glycine (APRPG) peptide-conjugated PEGylated cationic liposomes-encapsulated zoledronic acid (ZOL) (APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs) in achieving vascular normalization. Cisplatin (diamminedichloroplatinum, DDP) was used to improve anticancer efficacy. The present study showed that APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs increased anticancer efficacy, which was regarded as vascular normalization. Our results demonstrated that the viability, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evidently repressed by APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs. Moreover, APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs could decrease vessel density, as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and increase thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) expression of tumors. Therefore, the anticancer efficacy of APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs combined with DDP was superior to that of PEG-ZOL-CLP or ZOL treatment combined with DDP schemes, as demonstrated by the obviously evident reduction in tumor volume. These results indicated that APRPG-PEG-ZOL-CLPs were most effective in normalizing tumor vasculature to elevate the therapeutic effect of antitumor drugs.

10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113797, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926936

RESUMO

BX795, a small molecule with an aminopyrimidine backbone, is a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). BX795 has significant functions in various immune responses and cancer. Few reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of BX795 are available, and its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), luciferase reporter gene assay, knock-down and overexpression strategies, kinase assay, protein chip, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses were employed to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BX795. BX795 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Luciferase assay and immunoblotting analysis with nuclear fractions showed that activator protein-1 (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are targeted by BX795 rather than nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Moreover, TBK1 and AKT, transforming growth factor activated kinase (TAK)-1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) for AP-1 activation, and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT1 were inhibited by BX795. Consistent with these findings, BX795 strongly ameliorated inflammatory symptoms in colitis models. These results suggest that BX795 can suppress inflammatory responses triggered by Gram-positive bacteria by suppressing multiple pathways.

11.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 230: 118051, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958601

RESUMO

Accurate real-time determination of each dye in combination dyeing is critical to the control of dyeing process, which plays an important role in upgrading the dyeing techniques of textile. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was applied to dyeing baths containing multiple dye species of varying structures to quantitatively monitor the dyeing process of each individual dye. Quantitative models were successfully established by partial least squares (PLS) for all combinations of the nine commonly used reactive dyes studied. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99, the root mean squared errors of calibration (RMSEC) were less than 0.2650 and the root mean squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) were less than 0.1340, even for the three-component mixture of Reactive Red 239 (RR239), Reactive Yellow 176 (RY176) and Reactive Blue 194 (RB194), which are similar in structures. The model was shown to be valid in the presence of added electrolytes (sodium sulfates). Real-time adsorption monitoring based on the model revealed that the dyes interacted with one another and competed for active sites. The adsorption kinetics obtained by Raman analysis shed light on dye compatibility and could be used to guide the design of dyeing recipe and dyeing process for optimum color reproduction. In addition, in situ monitoring by Raman spectroscopy maybe integrated with real-time on line control of dyeing parameters for fully automated production of dyed fabrics.

12.
Org Lett ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971809

RESUMO

We have presented a unique example of dehydrogenative acylation of enamides with aldehydes enabled by an earth-abundant iron catalyst. The protocol provides the straightforward access to valuable ß-ketoenamides with ample substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance. Notably, distinct C-H acylation of enamide rather than at N-H moiety site occurs with absolute Z-selectivity was observed. Late-stage modifications of complex molecules and versatile synthetic utility of ß-ketoenamides further highlight the practicability of this transformation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoprevention of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer remains an important public health goal. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical potential and safety of berberine for prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in seven hospital centres across six provinces in China. Individuals aged 18-75 years who had at least one but no more than six histologically confirmed colorectal adenomas that had undergone complete polypectomy within the 6 months before recruitment were recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive berberine (0·3 g twice daily) or placebo tablets via block randomisation (block size of six). Participants were to undergo a first follow-up colonoscopy 1 year after enrolment, and if no colorectal adenomas were detected, a second follow-up colonoscopy at 2 years was planned. The study continued until the last enrolled participant reached the 2-year follow-up point. All participants, investigators, endoscopists, and pathologists were blinded to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the recurrence of adenomas at any follow-up colonoscopy. Analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat, with the full analysis set including all randomised participants who received at least one dose of study medication and who had available efficacy data. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02226185; the trial has ended and this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Nov 14, 2014, and Dec 30, 2016, 553 participants were randomly assigned to the berberine group and 555 to the placebo group. The full analysis set consisted of 429 participants in the berberine group and 462 in the placebo group. 155 (36%) participants in the berberine group and 216 (47%) in the placebo group were found to have recurrent adenoma during follow-up (unadjusted relative risk ratio for recurrence 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91; p=0·001). No colorectal cancers were detected during follow-up. The most common adverse event was constipation (six [1%] of 446 patients in the berberine group vs one [<0·5%] of 478 in the placebo group). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Berberine 0·3 g twice daily was safe and effective in reducing the risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma and could be an option for chemoprevention after polypectomy. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 252, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937837

RESUMO

As a new plant biostimulant, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) may be an effective anti-drought agent that can efficiently alleviate the damage to plants under drought stress. In this study, the effects of γ-PGA on the physiological responses of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under drought stress were investigated using hydroponics. Growth and development of the rape seedlings were significantly inhibited in a polyethylene glycol-simulated drought environment. However, 12 d after application of γ-PGA under drought stress, the fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and relative water content of rape seedlings all markedly increased. Moreover, proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity were all markedly enhanced, and the malondialdehyde content was significantly reduced in rape seedlings treated with γ-PGA. Furthermore, the content of the important anti-drought response hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), as well as the expression levels of the ABA metabolism regulation genes BnNCED3, BnZEP, and BnAAO4, significantly increased. These results indicate that γ-PGA may induce elements of a tolerance system to drought stress by promoting ABA accumulation in B. Napus.

15.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the participation rate between CT colonography (CTC) and colonoscopy in screening population in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A search was performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. RCTs that included screening populations and reported participation number were assessed. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the bias and quality. Risk ratio (RR) was used to present the results. The non-participation rate was analyzed to verify the results of participation rate. RESULTS: Five of 760 studies, with a total of 15,974 invitees, were included. The participation rate was higher at CTC (28.8%) than colonoscopy (20.8%), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.26; p = 0.070; I2 = 90.3%). The non-participation rate at CTC was significantly lower than colonoscopy (RR = 0.92; p = 0.012; I2 = 86.7%). Subgroup analysis suggested both the participation and non-participation rate were with significant difference between reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC and colonoscopy. Cumulative meta-analysis showed both the participation rate and non-participation rate exhibited a trend over time and sample size. CONCLUSION: The participation rate was higher at CTC than colonoscopy, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. But the non-participation rate was with statistical difference. Screening population seemed more likely to participate the reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC. Statistical evidence was provided for more large RCTs are needed in the future. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The screening populations seem more likely to participate in the CTC, especially the reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC. The statistical evidence was provided for more large RCTs are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 373-380, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional status and the quality of life in patients with gastric cancer has become one of the important goals of current clinical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status in hospitalized gastric cancer patients by using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to analyze the influence of nutritional status on the patients' quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We reviewed the pathological diagnosis of gastric cancer for 2322 hospitalized patients using PG-SGA to assess their nutritional status and collected data on clinical symptoms, the anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), and hand-grip strength (HGS). We also collected laboratory data (prealbumin, albumin, hemoglobin) within 48 h after the patient was admitted to the hospital. The 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used for QOL assessment in all patients. RESULTS: By using PG-SGA, we found 80.4% of the patients were malnourished (score ≥ 4) and 45.1% of the patients required urgent nutritional support (score ≥ 9). In univariate analysis, old age (> 65 years, p < 0.001), female (p = 0.007), residence in a village (p = 0.004), a lower level of education (p < 0.001), and self-paying (p < 0.001) were indicated as risk factors of patients with gastric cancer to be suffering from severe malnutrition. There was a negative correlation between PG-SGA and various nutritional parameters (p < 0.05). The quality of life was significantly different in gastric cancer patients with different nutritional status (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition of hospitalized patients with gastric cancer in China is common and seriously affects the patients' quality of life. The nutritional status should be evaluated in a timely manner and reasonable nutritional intervention should be provided as soon as possible. The PG-SGA was fit for using as a clinical nutrition assessment method, being worthy of clinical application.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809031

RESUMO

In this study, four in situ hydro(solvo)thermal metal-ligand reactions, including oxidation (H2L1), C-C coupling (H4L2), nitration (H2L3), and condensation (HL4-6), based on bis[3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl]methane (H2L0), in the presence of DyIII ions, were carried out. The in situ metal-ligand reaction gave six new ligands existing in eight novel DyIII coordination complexes, which were characterized by crystal structure, mass spectrometry, and magnetism.

18.
Eye (Lond) ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.1% and cyclosporine 1% on high-risk penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A series of 49 high-risk PKP patients (49 eyes), 20 males, 29 females from the age of 4 months to 74 years of age with the mean of 32.5 from 2012 to 2017 were recruited in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups by receiving either topical tacrolimus 0.1% or cyclosporine 1% respectively. Twenty five patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1% and 24 patients with topical cyclosporine 1%. The traditional baseline management on these two groups were Tobramycin and Dexamethasone eye drops in the first 3 weeks and then tapered off. Clinical procedures and postoperative follow-up were documented. RESULTS: After 6-54 months follow-up, with the average of 24 months, 11 of 24 high-risk patients (11 eyes) had graft rejection, the rejection rate was 45.8% in topical cyclosporine 1% group. The rejections occurred from 35 days to 20 months after PKP. Three patients had irreversible rejection. On topical tacrolimus 0.1% group, the rejection occurred in four patients (four eyes) with rejection rate of 16%, and no irreversible rejection was observed. The graft rejection episodes were documented between 23 days and 24 months. As compared with the topical cyclosporine 1%, topical tacrolimus 0.1%, a key immunosuppressant, significantly decreased corneal graft rejection rate (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Topical tacrolimus 01% on high-risk PKP patients significantly prevented corneal graft rejection, and it had less adverse effects and was very safe to high-risk patients as to topical cyclosporine 1%. Further case controlled randomized clinical trial studies are needed to establish the best management option for these high-risk patients.

19.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813094

RESUMO

Reproductive biology is a uniquely important topic since it is about germ cells, which are central for transmitting genetic information from generation to generation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in mammalian germ cell development, including preimplantation development, fetal germ cell development and postnatal development of oocytes and sperm. We also discuss the etiologies of female and male infertility and describe the emerging technologies for studying reproductive biology such as gene editing and single-cell technologies.

20.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an indolent malignancy and insensitive to systemic chemotherapy. The authors established patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of PMP, and evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in this model. METHODS: Human PMP sample was collected to establish subcutaneous (s.c.) and i.p. MODEL: In vivo study of i.p. injection of 5-FU was performed in i.p. model, with experimental peritoneal cancer index (ePCI) score and pathological examinations for evaluating the efficacy and toxicity. RESULTS: Both s.c. and i.p. models were constructed. The average passage interval of s.c. model was 44.2 ± 5.2 days, and the i.p. model was characterized by disseminated solid tumor nodules in abdominal-pelvic cavity. Both models were diagnosed as peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with signet ring cells (PMCA-S). Immunohistochemical characteristics was similar to human. GNAS mutation was detected in both model and patient. In the in vivo study, average ePCI of treatment group was lower than control and vehicle group (P = .004). Histopathology revealed obvious tumor necrosis in treatment group, and decreased Ki67 positive rate (P = .010). In toxicity study, 5-FU significantly influenced body weight (P = .010) and 1 animal from treatment group died on day 14. Congestive splenomegaly was observed (88.9%). Hepatotoxicity presented as acidophilic body (55.6%), cholestasis (100%), bile canaliculus hyperplasia and obstruction (22.2%), and lymphocyte accumulation (77.8%). CONCLUSIONS: PDX model of PMCA-S was established successfully, and i.p. 5-FU could inhibit tumor proliferation and progression, with decreased Ki67 positive rate and ePCI score. Hepatotoxicity was the main side effect.

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