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1.
Environ Technol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945429

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to verify the effect of bioaugmentation by the bacterial consortium YS with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPCD) in a soil slurry. The bacterial consortium YS was enriched from a petroleum-polluted soil using pyrene as sole carbon resource. After 3 weeks, the degradation rate of phenanthrene in CK increased from 22.58% to 55.23 and 78.21% in bioaugmentation (B) and HPCD + bioaugmentation (MB) respectively. The degradation rate of pyrene in CK increased from 17.33% to 51.10% and 60.32% in B and MB respectively in the slurry. The augmented YS persisted in the slurry as monitored by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and outcompeted some indigenous bacteria. Enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation was observed in the addition of HPCD due to the enhanced bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene. Additionally, the amount of PAH-degrading bacteria and enzymatic activity in bioaugmentation with HPCD were higher than that in the CK group. The results indicated that bioaugmentation with a bacterial consortium and HPCD is an environmentally friendly method for the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soil.

2.
Cell Prolif ; : e13045, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous wound healing is one of the major medical problems worldwide. Epigenetic modifiers have been identified as important players in skin development, homeostasis and wound repair. SET domain-containing 2 (SETD2) is the only known histone H3K36 tri-methylase; however, its role in skin wound healing remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To elucidate the biological role of SETD2 in wound healing, conditional gene targeting was used to generate epidermis-specific Setd2-deficient mice. Wound-healing experiments were performed on the backs of mice, and injured skin tissues were collected and analysed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining. In vitro, CCK8 and scratch wound-healing assays were performed on Setd2-knockdown and Setd2-overexpression human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). In addition, RNA-seq and H3K36me3 ChIP-seq analyses were performed to identify the dysregulated genes modulated by SETD2. Finally, the results were validated in functional rescue experiments using AKT and mTOR inhibitors (MK2206 and rapamycin). RESULTS: Epidermis-specific Setd2-deficient mice were successfully established, and SETD2 deficiency resulted in accelerated re-epithelialization during cutaneous wound healing by promoting keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the loss of SETD2 enhanced the scratch closure and proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. Mechanistically, the deletion of Setd2 resulted in the activation of AKT/mTOR signalling pathway, while the pharmacological inhibition of AKT and mTOR with MK2206 and rapamycin, respectively, delayed wound closure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that SETD2 loss promoted cutaneous wound healing via the activation of AKT/mTOR signalling.

3.
Biosystems ; 206: 104432, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933524

RESUMO

Both DNA molecules and AuNPs are promising materials in Nanotechnology due to their special properties and also their interaction between each other. In this article, we present a series of methods via combining the DNA strand displacement reaction with the interaction of thiolated DNA and AuNPs to construct several logic gates, such as NOT, YES, NAND, XOR gates. The results demonstrate the computing power in nanoscale molecules and reactions.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9927498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954204

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis is a potentially lethal complication for both flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). This study is aimed at comparing the sepsis rate after fURS and PCNL and the risk factors for sepsis in patients with solitary proximal ureteral stone. Methods: We reviewed the data of patients with calculi between 10 mm to 20 mm who underwent fURS or PCNL surgery from Tongji Hospital's database. A total of 910 patients were eligible with 412 fURS cases and 498 PCNL cases. We used univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for sepsis. Subgroup analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the cohort, 27 (6.6%) and 19 (3.8%) patients developed sepsis after fURS and PCNL, respectively. Multivariate analysis shows that the risk factors for sepsis are fURS (OR = 3.160, P = 0.004), serum WBC ≥ 10,000 cells/µL (OR = 3.490, P = 0.008), albumin - globulin ratio < 1.2 (OR = 2.192, P = 0.029), positive urine culture (OR = 6.145, P < 0.001), and prolonged operation time (OR = 1.010, P = 0.046). Subgroup analysis was conducted using potential risk factors: stone size, serum WBC, urine culture, and albumin-globulin ratio (AGR). In subgroup of positive urine culture, patients were more likely to develop sepsis after fURS than PCNL. Conclusions: PCNL may be a better choice than fURS to reduce postoperative sepsis, especially for patients with positive urine culture.

5.
Pharm Stat ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942469

RESUMO

The primary objective of a multi-regional clinical trial is to investigate the overall efficacy of the drug across regions and evaluate the possibility of applying the overall trial result to some specific region. A challenge arises when there is not enough regional sample size. We focus on the problem of evaluating applicability of a drug to a specific region of interest under the criterion of preserving a certain proportion of the overall treatment effect in the region. We propose a variant of James-Stein shrinkage estimator in the empirical Bayes context for the region-specific treatment effect. The estimator has the features of accommodating the between-region variation and finiteness correction of bias. We also propose a truncated version of the proposed shrinkage estimator to further protect risk in the presence of extreme value of regional treatment effect. Based on the proposed estimator, we provide the consistency assessment criterion and sample size calculation for the region of interest. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimators in comparison with some existing methods. A hypothetical example is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794602

RESUMO

Objective:To summarize and analyze the feasibility, safety and efficacy of parapharyngeal space surgery assisted by coblation and endoscopic system with transoral approach. Methods:The data of 20 patients with parapharyngeal space tumors were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients underwent CT and/or MRI examination before surgery, and all underwent transoral approach assisted by coblation and endoscopic systems. The patients were followed up strictly after the operation, with a follow-up time of 8-56 months and the median follow-up time of 28 months. Results:Among the 20 patients, 18 (90%) were pathologically benign tumors and 2 (10%) were malignant tumors. The maximum tumor diameter was (4.4±1.6) cm, the operative time was (79.00±30.03) min, the intraoperative blood loss was (23.63±22.20) mL, and the postoperative pain VAS score was 2.8±1.4. There were 17 cases complete resection, and 3 cases of relapse, including 1 patient who died after distant metastasis of synovial sarcoma postoperative complications occurred in 2 cases, hoarseness in 1 case of neurofibroma and tongue extension deflection in 1 case of schwannoma. Conclusion:Coblation assisted endoscopic system for the treatment of parapharyngeal space tumors with transoral approach has no cervical scar, which is a satisfaction for the patients, less intraoperative bleeding, short operative time, mild postoperative reaction and quick recovery. However, external approach is still recommended for primary malignant lesions, extensive or highly vascularized lesions, tumors located on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, less than 2 cm from the skull base, or lateral invasion of the deep lobe of the parotid gland, or a pleomorphic adenoma is considered or is found to be too large to be completely resected preoperatively or intraoperatively.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo , Neoplasias Faríngeas , Endoscópios , Humanos , Espaço Parafaríngeo , Neoplasias Faríngeas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 3000605211007322, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As first-line treatments for newly diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) and conventional-dose prednisone achieve good initial responses, but their long-term efficacy is poor. To improve the long-term outcome of newly diagnosed ITP, we explored the efficacy and safety of HD-DXM with sequential prednisone maintenance therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study in a real-world setting assessed 72 consecutive newly diagnosed ITP patients administered first-line HD-DXM with sequential prednisone maintenance therapy from 1 June 2016 to 31 December 2019. RESULTS: Seventy patients obtained response (97.2%), and 55 achieved sustained response (SR) (76.4%). Fifty-three obtained complete remission (CR) (73.6%), and 39 achieved continuous CR at 6 months (54.2%). Among 36 anti-nuclear antibody-positive patients, 100% achieved response, and 28 achieved CR (77.8%). Among 24 antithyroid antibody-positive patients, 23 (95.8%) achieved response, and 20 achieved CR (83.3%). For patients with initial response, the 12-month probability of SR was 78.6%. For patients with initial CR, the 12-month probability of continuous CR was 64.2%. At 12 months, 21.4% of patients with initial response and 11.3% of patients with initial CR showed loss of treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: HD-DXM with sequential prednisone as the first-line treatment for newly diagnosed ITP patients may achieve good clinical efficacy.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879569

RESUMO

There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and an understanding of preclinical causal biomarkers to help target disease pathogenesis in the earliest phases remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether 19 metabolites previously associated with midlife cognition-a preclinical predictor of AD-translate to later clinical risk, using Mendelian randomization (MR) to tease out AD-specific causal relationships. Summary statistics from the largest genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for AD and metabolites were used to perform bidirectional univariable MR. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was additionally performed to address high correlation between metabolites and identify metabolite combinations that may be on the AD causal pathway. Univariable MR indicated four extra-large high-density lipoproteins (XL.HDL) on the causal pathway to AD: free cholesterol (XL.HDL.FC: 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94), total lipids (XL.HDL.L: 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.97), phospholipids (XL.HDL.PL: 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97), and concentration of XL.HDL particles (95% CI = 0.79 to 0.96), significant at an adjusted P < 0.009. MR-BMA corroborated XL.HDL.FC to be among the top three causal metabolites, in addition to total cholesterol in XL.HDL (XL.HDL.C) and glycoprotein acetyls (GP). Both XL.HDL.C and GP demonstrated suggestive univariable evidence of causality (P < 0.05), and GP successfully replicated within an independent dataset. This study offers insight into the causal relationship between metabolites demonstrating association with midlife cognition and AD. It highlights GP in addition to several XL.HDLs-particularly XL.HDL.FC-as causal candidates warranting further investigation. As AD pathology is thought to develop decades prior to symptom onset, expanding on these findings could inform risk reduction strategies.

9.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 140: 107822, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915340

RESUMO

To study the electroporation characteristics of cells under high-frequency nanosecond pulse bursts (HFnsPBs), the original electroporation mathematical model was improved. By setting a threshold value for irreversible electroporation (IRE) and considering the effect of an electric field on the surface tension of a cell membrane, a mathematical model of electroporation considering the effect of IRE is proposed for the first time. A typical two-dimensional cell system was discretized into nodes using MATLAB, and a mesh transport network method (MTNM) model was established for simulation. The dynamic processes of single-cell electroporation and molecular transport under the application of 50 unipolar HFnsPBs with field intensities of 9 kV cm-1 and different frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz and 500 kHz) to the target system was simulated with a 300 s simulation time. The IRE characteristics and molecular transport were evaluated. In addition, a PI fluorescent dye assay was designed to verify the correctness of the model by providing time-domain and spatial results that were compared with the simulation results. The simulation achieved IRE and demonstrated the cumulative effects of multipulse bursts and intraburst frequency on irreversible pores. The model can also reflect the cumulative effect of multipulse bursts on reversible pores by introducing an assumption of stable reversible pores. The experimental results agreed qualitatively with the simulation results. A relative calibration of the fluorescence data gave time-domain molecular transport results that were quantitatively similar to the simulation results. This article reveals the cell electroporation characteristics under HFnsPBs from a mechanism perspective and has important guidance for fields involving the IRE of cells.

10.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(1): 77-85, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834693

RESUMO

The social behavior mechanisms have not been thoroughly reported in the solitary female striped dwarf hamster (Cricetulus barabensis). In this study, the handling bag test and neutral arena measurements were used to detect the changes of aggression in the face of rivals of different genders of wild striped dwarf hamsters. We found that female hamsters had the highest aggressive performance in proestrus, followed by estrus, and the lowest in metestrus and the dioestrus, and the increased aggression during the proestrus or estrus period was low-intensity aggression such as intimidation, shock, boxing and counterattack, or even ritualized non-harmful behaviors to drive away opponents. When confronted with male individuals, aggression in females decreased significantly during estrus. The concentration of plasma estradiol was the highest in estrus and the lowest in metestrus and dioestrus. In contrast, estrogen receptor 2 relative expression in the hypothalamus is the lowest in proestrus and highest in metestrus and dioestrus. Besides, both estradiol levels in plasma and estrogen receptor 2 mRNA in the hypothalamus were associated with aggression. These results will broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanism of how breeding phenotype is an essential driver in changing the social behavior of female Cricetulus barabensis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the genomic features of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST34 isolate, CFSA629, which carried a novel mcr-1 variant, designated as mcr-1.19, mapped to an ESBL-encoding IncHI2 plasmid. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility assays as well as WGS were carried out on isolate CFSA629. The complete closed genome was obtained and then explored to obtain genomic features. Plasmid sequence comparison was performed for pCFSA629 with similar plasmids and the mcr-1 genetic environment was analysed. RESULTS: S. Typhimurium ST34 CFSA629 expressed an MDR phenotype to six classes of compound and consisted of a single circular chromosome and one plasmid. It possessed 11 resistance genes including 2 ESBL genes that mapped to the chromosome and the plasmid; an IS26-flanked composite-like transposon was identified. A novel mcr-1 variant (mcr-1.19) was identified, which had a unique SNP (G1534A) that gave rise to a novel MCR-1 protein containing a Val512Ile amino acid substitution. Plasmid pCFSA629 possessed a conjugative plasmid transfer gene cluster as well as an antimicrobial resistance-encoding gene cluster-containing region that contained two IS26 composite-like transposonal modules, but was devoid of any plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The background of mcr-1.19 consisted of an ISApl1-mcr-1-PAP2-ter module. CONCLUSIONS: We report on an MDR S. Typhimurium ST34 CFSA629 isolate cultured from egg in China, harbouring an mcr-1.19 variant mapped to an IncHI2 plasmid. This highlights the importance of surveillance to mitigate dissemination of mcr-encoding genes among foodborne Salmonella. Improved surveillance is important for tackling the dissemination of mcr genes among foodborne Salmonella around the world.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804512

RESUMO

Vibration analysis is an effective tool for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrains. It enables the defect location of mechanical subassemblies and health indicator construction for remaining useful life prediction, which is beneficial to reducing the operation and maintenance costs of wind farms. This paper analyzes the structure features of different drivetrains of mainstream wind turbines and introduces a vibration data acquisition system. Almost all the research on the vibration-based diagnosis algorithm for wind turbines in the past decade is reviewed, with its effects being discussed. Several challenging tasks and their solutions in the vibration-based fault detection of wind turbine drivetrains are proposed from the perspective of practicality for wind turbines, including the fault detection of planetary subassemblies in multistage wind turbine gearboxes, fault feature extraction under nonstationary conditions, fault information enhancement techniques and health indicator construction. Numerous naturally damaged cases representing the real operational features of industrial wind turbines are given, with a discussion of the failure mechanism of defective parts in wind turbine drivetrains as well.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809435

RESUMO

In this research, the feasibility of using nano-montmorillonite (MMT) in asphalt binders was investigated in terms of rheological properties, thermomechanical properties, and chemical structure composition. Different doses of MMT were added to the base asphalt and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt as test subjects. The effect of nanomaterials on the high-temperature resistance of asphalt binders to permanent deformation was analyzed from dynamic mechanical rheology using the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test. The sessile drop method test based on surface free energy (SFE) theory was employed and thermodynamic parameters such as surface free energy, cohesive work, and adhesion work were calculated to analysis the change in energy of the asphalt binder. In addition, changes in the chemical structure and composition of the asphalt binder were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) tests. The results showed that MMT can effectively enhance the high-temperature elastic recovery and plastic deformation resistance of the asphalt binder. The intercalation structure produced in the asphalt binder enhanced the overall cohesive power and adhesion to the aggregate. The anchoring effect of the intercalation structure resulted in an increase in the macromolecular weight of the binder was demonstrated, indicating that MMT enhanced the overall intermolecular forces of the binder. In addition, the molecular crystal structure was characterized by characteristic functional groups in the infrared spectra, while demonstrating that no chemical reaction occurs during the modification of the binder by the nanomaterials.

14.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811207

RESUMO

Uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas are known for their morphologic plasticity. In addition to a multiplicity of metaplasias, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas may also undergo high-grade divergent differentiation in the form of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroectodermal differentiation or carcinosarcoma; others may dedifferentiate completely. Here we describe 5 cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas with high-grade divergent differentiation showing a striking morphologic and immunophenotypic resemblance to cutaneous pilomatrix carcinoma. Specifically, the high-grade component in all cases exhibited solid, basaloid morphology with conspicuous tumor cell necrosis and the presence of shadow cells, accompanied by diffusely aberrant (nuclear and cytoplasmic) ß-catenin expression as well as variably diffuse CDX2 expression. In addition, the high-grade component in all cases showed loss of ER and PAX8 expression, retained MMR expression, wild-type p53 expression, patchy p16 expression, and diffusely positive cytokeratin expression (AE1/AE3 and CK7); at least focal neuroendocrine marker expression was present in all cases. CK20 was negative in all cases, with the exception of very focal staining in a single case (2% of tumor cells). All 5 of our tumors had at least a focal conventional FIGO grade 1 component. In all 4 cases tested, the low-grade component retained both PAX8 and ER expression and had, at best, focally aberrant ß-catenin expression. Two of our cases had molecular analysis performed and both harbored mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 as expected; molecular analysis also revealed that both cases lacked POLE or TP53 mutations and showed no microsatellite instability. The tumors in this series were uniformly aggressive. Four of the 5 patients in our cohort had available follow-up information; of these, 3/4 died of their disease within 14 mo of diagnosis and the fourth patient had distant metastatic disease at presentation and is alive with disease 1 mo following diagnosis. The 1 patient without follow-up information also had distant metastatic disease at presentation and was lost to follow-up 17 mo later. The cases described in this series (1) represent a highly aggressive CTNNB1-mutated subset of the "no specific molecular profile" category of endometrioid adenocarcinomas; (2) illustrate a form of high-grade divergent differentiation resembling cutaneous pilomatrix carcinoma already described in carcinomas at other anatomic sites; and (3) underscore the difficulty in recognizing this phenotype at distant metastatic sites, which are frequent even at the time of presentation, given the consistent loss of ER and PAX8 expression and concurrent CDX2 expression.

15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114559, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872571

RESUMO

Retinoid X receptor beta (RXRß) has been poorly studied in atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the function of RXRß in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism. The protein expression of RXRß in the aorta of atherosclerotic mice was detected. A lentivirus vector for RXRß overexpression and RNA interference for RXRß downregulation were constructed and transfected into human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). The results showed that RXRß protein expression was downregulated in aorta of high fat diet (HFD)-fed LDLr-/- mice and ox-LDL-treated HAECs. The ox-LDL-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activations of TLR9/NF-κB and NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway were significantly decreased by RXRß overexpression but increased by RXRß knockdown in HAECs. The ox­LDL­induced mitochondrial damage indicated as the increased generation of mitochondrial ROS, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial DNA release was abolished by RXRß overexpression but aggravated by RXRß knockdown. Treatment with mito-TEMPO significantly reduced the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activations of TLR9/NF-κB and NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome induced by RXRß knockdown in ox-LDL treated HAECs. Moreover, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α) protein expression was reduced in HFD-fed LDLr-/- mice. RXRß could interact with PGC1α in HAECs. Ox-LDL-induced reduction of PGC1α was significantly inhibited by RXRß overexpression and aggravated by RXRß downregulation. Our further study showed that transfection of PGC1α siRNA abrogated the alleviative effects of RXRß overexpression on mitochondrial damage and inflammation in ox-LDL treated cells. The present study indicates that RXRß exerted protective effects against the ox-LDL-induced inflammation may through regulating PGC1α-dependent mitochondrial homeostasis.

16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871796

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The temporal expression profiles of citrus leaves explain the sink-source transition of immature leaves to mature leaves and provide knowledge regarding the differential responses of mature and immature leaves to biotic stress such as citrus canker and Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Citrus is an important fruit crop worldwide. Different developmental stages of citrus leaves are associated with distinct features, such as differences in susceptibilities to pathogens and insects, as well as photosynthetic capacity. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying these distinctions by comparing the gene expression profiles of mature and immature citrus leaves. Immature (stages V3 and V4), transition (stage V5), and mature (stage V6) Citrus sinensis leaves were chosen for RNA-seq analyses. Carbohydrate biosynthesis, photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, and disaccharide metabolic processes were enriched among the upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the V5 and V6 stages compared with that in the V3 and V4 stages. Glucose level was found to be higher in V5 and V6 than in V3 and V4. Among the four stages, the largest number of DEGs between contiguous stages were identified between V5 and V4, consistent with a change from sink to source, as well as with the sucrose and starch quantification data. The differential expression profiles related to cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and terpenoids, amino acid biosynthesis, and immunity between immature and mature leaves may contribute to their different responses to Asian citrus psyllid infestation. The expression data suggested that both the constitutive and induced gene expression of immunity-related genes plays important roles in the greater resistance of mature leaves against Xanthomonas citri compared with immature leaves. The gene expression profiles in the different stages can help identify stage-specific promoters for the manipulation of the expression of citrus traits according to the stage. The temporal expression profiles explain the sink-source transition of immature leaves to mature leaves and provide knowledge regarding the differential responses to biotic stress.

17.
Virol J ; 18(1): 83, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacbrood is an infectious disease of the honey bee caused by Scbrood virus (SBV) which belongs to the family Iflaviridae and is especially lethal for Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a geographic strain of SBV. Currently, there is a lack of an effective antiviral agent for controlling CSBV infection in honey bees. METHODS: Here, we explored the antiviral effect of a Chinese medicinal herb Radix isatidis on CSBV infection in A. cerana by inoculating the 3rd instar larvae with purified CSBV and treating the infected bee larvae with R. isatidis extract at the same time. The growth, development, and survival of larvae between the control and treatment groups were compared. The CSBV copy number at the 4th instar, 5th instar, and 6th instar larvae was measured by the absolute quantification PCR method. RESULTS: Bioassays revealed that R. isatidis extract significantly inhibited the replication of CSBV, mitigated the impacts of CSBV on larval growth and development, reduced the mortality of CSBV-infected A. cerana larvae, and modulated the expression of immune transcripts in infected bees. CONCLUSION: Although the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CSBV replication by the medicine plant will require further investigation, this study demonstrated the antiviral activity of R. isatidis extract and provides a potential strategy for controlling SBV infection in honey bees.

18.
Science ; 372(6540): 393-397, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888638

RESUMO

Controlling the directionality of emitted far-field thermal radiation is a fundamental challenge. Photonic strategies enable angular selectivity of thermal emission over narrow bandwidths, but thermal radiation is a broadband phenomenon. The ability to constrain emitted thermal radiation to fixed narrow angular ranges over broad bandwidths is an important, but lacking, capability. We introduce gradient epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) materials that enable broad-spectrum directional control of thermal emission. We demonstrate two emitters consisting of multiple oxides that exhibit high (>0.7, >0.6) directional emissivity (60° to 75°, 70° to 85°) in the p-polarization for a range of wavelengths (10.0 to 14.3 micrometers, 7.7 to 11.5 micrometers). This broadband directional emission enables meaningful radiative heat transfer primarily in the high emissivity directions. Decoupling the conventional limitations on angular and spectral response improves performance for applications such as thermal camouflaging, solar heating, radiative cooling, and waste heat recovery.

19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; : 107596, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910037

RESUMO

Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites which lack mitochondria and have highly reduced genomes. Therefore, they are unable to produce ATP via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Instead, they have evolved strategies to obtain and manipulate host metabolism to acquire nutrients. However, little is known about how microsporidia modulate host energy metabolisms. Here, we present the first targeted metabolomics study to investigate changes in host energy metabolism as a result of infection by a microsporidian. Metabolites of silkworm embryo cell (BmE) were measured 48 hours post infection by Nosema bombycis. Thirty metabolites were detected, nine of which were upregulated and mainly involved in glycolysis (glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate) and the TCA cycle (succinate, α-ketoglutarate, cis-aconitate, isocitrate, citrate, fumarate). Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the upregulated metabolites could promote the synthesization of nucleotides, fatty acids, and amino acids by the host. ATP concentration in host cells, however, was not significantly changed by the infection. This ATP homeostasis was also found in Encephalitozoon hellem infected mouse macrophage RAW264.7, human monocytic leukemia THP-1, human embryonic kidney 293, and human foreskin fibroblast cells. These findings suggest that microsporidia have evolved strategies to maintain levels of ATP in the host while stimulating metabolic pathways to provide additional nutrients for the parasite.

20.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910928

RESUMO

Patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are at a high risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, little is known about genetic alterations or changes in signaling pathways during the transition from PKD to RCC. SET domain-containing 2 (SETD2) is a histone methyltransferase which catalyzes tri-methylation of H3K36 (H3K36me3) and has been identified as a tumor suppressor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. Here we report that knockout of Setd2 in a c-MYC-driven PKD mouse model drove the transition to ccRCC. SETD2 inhibited ß-catenin activity at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by competing with ß-catenin for binding promoters of target genes and maintaining transcript levels of members of the ß-catenin destruction complex. Thus, SETD2 deficiency enhanced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis through the hyperactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Our findings reveal previously unrecognized roles of SETD2-mediated competitive DNA binding and H3K36me3 modification in regulating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling during the transition from PKD to ccRCC. The novel autochthonous mouse models of PKD and ccRCC will be useful for pre-clinical research into disease progression.

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