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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127487, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688178

RESUMO

Biodegradable films poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) incorporated with nano-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS(epoxy)8) as a reactive compatibilizer were developed by melt processing. Structural, morphological, mechanical, and gas permeability properties of the films were determined. 1H NMR and GPC demonstrated that the POSS(epoxy)8 was chemically bound at the PBAT/PLA boundary phase via an epoxide ring opening reaction. SEM micrographs of impact fracture surfaces demonstrated the POSS(epoxy)8 improved interfacial adhesion between PBAT and PLA matrix. The mechanical properties of the PBAT/PLA films containing POSS(epoxy)8 were enhanced relative to pristine PBAT/PLA films. The water vapor, CO2 and O2 permeability of the PBAT/PLA films were improved by POSS(epoxy)8 addition. PBAT/PLA films containing POSS(epoxy)8 were shown to be superior to pristine PBAT/PLA films and polyethylene films in food storage tests. Results suggest that POSS(epoxy)8 addition during PBAT/PLA film production offers a simple strategy for the production of high performance biodegradable plastic packaging films.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Poliésteres/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxigênio/química , Permeabilidade , Resistência à Tração
2.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 57-71, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038488

RESUMO

Despite the growing recognition of metabolic reprogramming as an important hallmark of cancer in the past few years, the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic alterations during tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we identified a critical role of Her4 in rewiring cancer metabolism toward tumor-promoting metabolic processes, including increased glycolysis, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, which may in part cooperate to promote tumorigenesis. We found that overexpression of Her4 promoted the stabilization of c-Myc through a CIP2A-mediated increase in c-MycS62 phosphorylation and GSK3ß-mediated decrease in c-MycT58 phosphorylation, both of which decreased c-Myc degradation. Furthermore, Her4 was found to increase glucose uptake and tumor growth in an osteosarcoma xenograft model. Overall, these findings provide a better understanding of the involvement of Her4 in tumorigenesis and document its potential role in metabolic reprogramming for the first time. We believe that our study might lead to promising opportunities for targeted metabolic therapy for cancer.

3.
Biomaterials ; 266: 120469, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120200

RESUMO

Exploring the interactions between the immune system and nanomaterials (NMs) is critical for designing effective and safe NMs, but large knowledge gaps remain to be filled prior to clinical applications (e.g., immunotherapy). The lack of databases on interactions between the immune system and NMs affects the discovery of new NMs for immunotherapy. Complement activation and inhibition by NMs have been widely studied, but the general rules remain unclear. Biomimetic nanocoating to promote the clearance of NMs by the immune system is an alternative strategy for the immune response mediation of the biological corona. Immune response predictions based on NM properties can facilitate the design of NMs for immunotherapy, and artificial intelligences deserve much attention in the field. This review addresses the knowledge gaps regarding immune response and immunotherapy in relation to NMs, effective immunotherapy and material design without adverse immune responses.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 118994, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038862

RESUMO

In this study, a novel analytical approach is proposed for the identification of pesticide residues in tea by combining surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a deep learning method one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D CNN). First, a handheld Raman spectrometer was used for rapid on-site collection of SERS spectra. Second, the collected SERS spectra were augmented by a data augmentation strategy. Third, based on the augmented SERS spectra, the 1D CNN models were established on the cloud server, and then the trained 1D CNN models were used for subsequent pesticide residue identification analysis. In addition, to investigate the identification performance of the 1D CNN method, four conventional identification methods, including partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), were also developed on the basis of the augmented SERS spectra and applied for pesticide residue identification analysis. The comparative studies show that the 1D CNN method possesses better identification accuracy, stability and sensitivity than the other four conventional identification methods. In conclusion, the proposed novel analytical approach that exploits the advantages of SERS and a deep learning method (1D CNN) is a promising method for rapid on-site identification of pesticide residues in tea.

5.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophages (Mφ) represent the major components of tumor tissues and play an important role in both tumor progression and therapeutic response. Although tumor Mφ are generally considered to be derived from circulating monocytes, emerging evidence indicates that tissue Mφ pools can be maintained by self-renewal. We aimed to elucidate the contribution, phenotype, and regulatory mechanisms of proliferating Mφ in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Flow cytometry analyses were performed to examine the presence and phenotype of proliferating Mφ in fresh HCC tissues. Dual immunofluorescence staining was applied to analyze the prognostic value of proliferating Mφ. The underlying regulatory mechanisms were examined using human monocyte-derived Mφ. RESULTS: Tumor-infiltrating Mφ exhibited a significantly higher proliferative capacity than Mφ in non-tumor tissues. A higher level of Mφ proliferation was positively correlated with Mφ density in the tumor and a poor prognosis in HCC patients. Proliferating Mφ were less-differentiated with increased CD206 expression and induced by the tumor cell-derived soluble small molecule, adenosine, but not proteins, lipids, or large peptides. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that autocrine GM-CSF released by tumor-stimulated Mφ could enhance A2A receptor expression on Mφ and function synergistically with adenosine to elicit Mφ proliferation in HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Local Mφ proliferation is an important mechanism for Mφ accumulation in HCC tissues. Tumor-derived adenosine functions synergistically with autocrine GM-CSF released from activated Mφ, which promotes Mφ proliferation. Thus, selective modulation of Mφ accumulation at the source may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138756

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) constitutes the second most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood. The etiology of SRNS remains largely unknown and no standardized treatment exists. Recent advances in genomics have helped to build understanding about the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of the disease. The genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins which are involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glucocorticoids (GCs) partially account for the different responses between patients with nephrotic syndrome. More importantly, single-gene causation in podocytes-associated proteins were found in approximately 30% of SRNS patients. Some potential biomarkers have been tested for their abilities to discriminate against pediatric patients who are sensitive to GCs treatment and patients who are resistant to the same therapy. This article reviews the recent findings on genetic mechanisms, predictive biomarkers and current therapies for SRNS with the goal to improve the management of children with this syndrome.

7.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104331, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142407

RESUMO

Inflammation, especially chronic inflammation, has been found to be closely related to the pathology of many diseases and the discovery of bioactive natural products to inhibit NO production is one of strategies to treat inflammation. In our continuous search for bioactive natural substances as potential anti-inflammatory agents, five new compounds (1-5) were extracted and purified from Patrinia heterophylla. The NMR and MS data analysis, along with electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, led to the identification of these isolates, which were new iridoids. Using cell and zebrafish models, the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were conducted to evaluate the potency of anti-inflammation of these compounds. The preliminary mechanism was explored using molecular docking and Western blotting experiments.

8.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185519

RESUMO

Maize [Zea mays L.] is an important food and feed crops in northeast of China. In 2019, maize seedling blight with an incidence of up to 25% was found at the field in Fushun city of Liaoning Province. Typical symptoms of seedlings were yellow, thin, wilt and die. The leaves gradually became yellow from the base of the plant to the top. Root system was poorly developed. The primary roots were usually discolored and rotted. And faintly pink or puce-coloured mould was found on seeds of the rotted seedings. Symptomatic roots of diseased seedling were collected and surface-disinfested with 70% ethanol for 1 min and then in 2% NaClO for 3 min, rinsed with sterilized water three times, cut into small pieces and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium for 5 days at 25 °C. Colonies on PDA were pink to dark red with fluffy aerial mycelium and red to aubergine pigmentation with the age. The causal agent was transferred to carnation leaf agar (CLA) medium and incubated at 25°C under a 12-h light-dark cycle. 12 Pure cultures were obtained from single conidia with an inoculation needle under stereomicroscope. The harvested macroconidia were hyaline, falcate with single foot cells, 3-5 septate and 28.2- 43.5 µm × 3.7 - 4.9 µm. Chlamydospores were globose to subglobose (5 to 13.5 µm). No microconidia were found. The perithecia were black, ostiolate subglobose. Asci were hyaline, clavate, measuring 58.1- 83.9 µm × 7.7- 11.9 µm and contained eight ascospores. Morphological characters of the pathogen agreed well with descriptions of Fusarium asiaticum (O'Donnell et al.2004; Leslie and Summerell 2006). To confirm the identity, partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1-a) gene and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of isolate MSBL-4 were amplified and sequenced (O'Donnell et al. 2015; White et al.1990). BLASTn analysis of both TEF sequence (MT330257) and ITS sequence (MT322117), revealed 100% sequence identity with F. asiaticum KT380116 and KX527878, respectively. The isolate MSBL-4 was NIV chemotype as determined by Tri13F/DON, Tri13NIV/R (Chandler et al, 2003) assays. Pathogenicity studies were conducted on maize hybrid "Liaodan 565". Inoculum of F. asiaticum was prepared from the culture of MSBL-4 incubate in 2% mung beans juice on a shaker (150 rpm) at 25°C for 48 hours. The five liter pots (10 pots) were filled with sterilized field soil and five of them were mixed with conidial suspension (300mL in each pot) at 2 × 105 conidia per ml. Ten kernels per pot were surface disinfected in 2% sodium hypochlorite for 5 min, rinsed with sterilized water and planted. Five pots were inoculated and another uninoculated five pots served as controls. The pots were maintained in a greenhouse at 22-26°C for 40 days. Leaves of the plants in inoculated pots were yellowing and the roots became discolored or necrotic rot at 4 weeks after seedling emergence. All characteristics of the disease were similar to those observed in field. Non-inoculated control plants had no symptoms. Fusarium asiaticum was reisolated from inoculated plants and was identical to the original isolate. The experiment was repeated once with similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seedling blight caused by F. asiaticum on maize in northeast China, and it has posed a threat to maize production of China. References: Leslie J F and Summerell BA. 2006. The Fusarium laboratory manual. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 176-179. O'Donnell et al.2004. Fungal Genetics and Biology 41: 600-623. O' Donnell et al. 2015. Phytoparasitica 43:583-595. White T J et al. 1990. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 315-322. Chandler E A et al. 2003. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 62(6): 355-367.

9.
Food Funct ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185634

RESUMO

The fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus can be eaten raw or processed into jams, preserves and vinegar. They provide not only vitamin and protein nutrients, but also pharmacologically active compounds, among which polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a major class. According to the literature, PPAPs exhibited good anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the antitumor effects and the underlying mechanism of S1 (the regioisomeric mixture of xanthochymol and guttiferone E) and S2 (the regioisomeric mixture of isoxanthochymol and cycloxanthochymol) isolated from the fruits of G. xanthochymus. In an H22 allograft mouse model, S1 and S2 could suppress the liver tumor growth and phosphorylation of STAT3. Computational modeling showed that S1 and S2 could form hydrogen bonds with the SH2 domain of STAT3. In HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, S1 and S2 downregulated the expression of p-STAT3Tyr705. Moreover, S1 and S2 inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and Src, which are the upstream kinases of STAT3, and the expression of various STAT3-regulated genes, including anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL, Mcl-1 and survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1) and angiogenic (VEGF) genes. As a result, S1 and S2 arrested the cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis, which were proved by the activation of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results demonstrated that S1 and S2 from G. xanthochymus exhibited antitumor effects through the inactivation of STAT3, and could be promising candidates for cancer treatment.

10.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190347

RESUMO

Cysteine is implicated in important biological processes. It is synthesized through two different pathways. Cystathionine ß-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase participate in the reverse transsulfuration pathway, while serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase function in the de novo pathway. Two evolutionarily related pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, cystathionine ß-synthase TtCBS1 (TTHERM_00558300) and cysteine synthase TtCSA1 (TTHERM_00239430), were identified from a freshwater protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. TtCbs1 contained the N-terminal heme binding domain, catalytic domain, and C-terminal regulatory domain, whereas TtCsa1 consisted of two α/ß domains. The catalytic core of the two enzymes is similar. TtCBS1 and TtCSA1 showed high expression levels in the vegetative growth stage and decreased during the sexual developmental stage. TtCbs1 and TtCsa1 were localized in the cytoplasm throughout different developmental stages. His-TtCbs1 and His-TtCsa1 were expressed and purified in vitro. TtCbs1 catalyzed the canonical reaction with the highest velocity and possessed serine sulfhydrylase activity. TtCsa1 showed cysteine synthase activity with high Km for O-acetylserine and low Km for sulfide and also had serine sulfhydrylase activity toward serine. Both TtCbs1 and TtCsa1 catalyzed hydrogen sulfide producing. TtCBS1 knockdown and TtCSA1 knockout mutants affected cysteine and glutathione synthesis. TtCbs1 and TtCsa1 are involved in cysteine synthesis through two different pathways in T. thermophila.

11.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(12): 1795-1807, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159537

RESUMO

SUMOylation has long been recognized to regulate multiple biological processes in pancreatic beta cells, but its impact on proinsulin disulfide maturation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains elusive. Herein, we conducted comparative proteomic analyses of SUMOylated proteins in primary mouse/human islets following proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. Cytokine challenge rendered beta cells to undergo a SUMOylation turnover manifested by the changes of SUMOylation substrates and SUMOylation levels for multiple substrates. Our data support that SUMOylation may play a crucial role to regulate proinsulin misfolding and ER stress at least by targeting Protein Disulfide Isomerase a3 (Pdia3). SUMOylation regulates Pdia3 enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, and protein binding ability. Furthermore, SUMOylation of Pdia3 exacerbated proinsulin misfolding and ER stress, and repressed Stat3 activation. In contrast, disruption of Pdia3 SUMOylation markedly rescued the outcomes. Collectively, our study expands the understanding how SUMOylation regulates ER stress in beta cells, which shed light on developing potential strategies against beta cell dysfunction.

12.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 10205-10218, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166374

RESUMO

This study investigated the stability and the in vitro digestion of curcumin nanoemulsions stabilized by three protein hydrolysates: peanut protein isolate (PPI), soybean protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI). After enzymatic hydrolysis, the protein structure became more disordered, and increased antioxidant capacity was also observed for protein hydrolysates. The protein hydrolysates generated curcumin nanoemulsions with considerable stability over 28 days of storage. Moreover, protein hydrolysates more effectively improved the lipolysis rate and bioaccessibility of curcumin nanoemulsions than native proteins, and PPI hydrolysates exhibited the highest lipolysis rate (110.43%) and the highest bioaccessibility (53.24%). This study indicated that protein hydrolysates could be used as emulsifiers for preparing nanoemulsion delivery systems with high stability and bioaccessibility.

13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 157: 359-369, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189056

RESUMO

Leaves are the primary structures responsible for photosynthesis, making leaf morphology one of the most important traits of rice plant architecture. Both plant architecture and nutrient utilization jointly affect rice yield, however, their molecular association is still poorly understood. We identified a rice mutant, leaf width 5 (lw5), that displayed small grains and wide leaves and possesses characteristics typical of a small "sink" and a large "source". Map-based cloning and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing indicated that LW5 affects both the plant architecture and yield. It is an allele of D1, encoding the rice G protein α subunit. The loss of LW5 functioning leads to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, vascular bundles, and chlorophyll content. However, the grain-straw ratio and the rate of grain filling decreased significantly. The detection results of 15N-ammonium nitrate and an expression analysis of genes associated with nitrogen demonstrated that LW5 serves an important role in nitrate uptake and transport. LW5 affects plant architecture and grain size by regulating nitrogen transfer. These results provide a theoretical foundation for further research surrounding the molecular mechanism of "source-sink" balance in rice and suggest novel methods of molecular design for the cultivation of breeding super rice in ideal plant types.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211963

RESUMO

An approach to the design of iridium(III)-contained polytetraphenylethene Pdots that could exhibit highly efficient electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was proposed. The relationships of ECL performance between the iridium complex-embedded and end-capped aggregation-induced emission (AIE) active Pdots in aqueous media were investigated for the first time. The iridium complexes with cyclometalated ligand 6-phenylphenanthridine (pphent) were incorporated into the copolymers by either embedding (P0, P2-P5) or end-capping (P1) into the backbone via an ancillary 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Subsequently, the corresponding Pdots of P0-P5 encapsulated with poly(styrene-co-maleicanhydride) could be obtained by the nanoprecipitation method. Compared to Pdots0, Pdots2-Pdots5 with (pphent)2Ir(bpy) (M1) complex embedding, as the iridium complex content increases, ECL signals were decreased in the order of Pdots0 > Pdots2 > Pdots3 > Pdots4 > Pdots5; whereas among these Pdots of P0-P5, Pdots1 with M1 complex end-capping exhibited the highest ECL efficiency (relative to a Ru(bpy)32+ system of 18.9%) and 4.7-fold enhancement of the ECL signal compared to the parent Pdots of P0, which was mainly attributed to the good film conductivity of the completely conjugated architectures, thus prompting the intramolecular electron transfer. This work opened new avenues for designing highly efficient ECL emitters.

15.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520971435, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213237

RESUMO

Intratracheal ectopic thyroid (ITET) is a rare disease, with limited cases reported in the literature. ITET is an unusual congenital abnormality and can be easily mistaken for a respiratory illness. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with a history of slight discontinuous hemoptysis for 2 years. A tracheal mass, which appeared to be connected to the left thyroid gland, was found by chest computed tomography scan. Ultrasound revealed one suspiciously malignant, solid and hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid gland. After the thyroid origin of the mass was confirmed by bronchoscopic biopsy, the patient underwent segmental resection and anastomosis of the trachea, together with left thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the tracheal tumor showed adenomatous hyperplastic ITET, and the orthotopic left thyroid gland showed nodular goiter with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Clinical suspicion is warranted in patients presenting with a tracheal tumor seemingly connected to the thyroid gland, particularly in patients who have imaging features suggestive of a malignant tumor in the orthotopic thyroid but without confirmative histopathology of malignancy before surgery.

16.
Cancer Nurs ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up-to-date research from low- and middle-income countries is needed to inform local pediatric cancer nursing care and share best practices from these settings. Access to all current Chinese-language publications on pediatric oncology nursing research is limited because of a language barrier. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to document the volume, type of research study, and yearly and geographical distribution of published pediatric oncology nursing research in Mainland China and evaluate their content and quality. METHODS: A systematic search was performed for published pediatric oncology research conducted by nurses in Mainland China (2008-2018), using 3 English databases and 3 Chinese databases. Included articles were evaluated using the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Research Evidence Appraisal for strength and quality of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 133 articles were included: 106 in Chinese and 27 in English. Most studies showed level III evidence (88/133) and were rated as good quality (81/133). The most frequently researched topics were psychosocial care, clinical nursing practice, and psychometric testing, which accounted for 63.2% of all publications. CONCLUSIONS: Progress in pediatric oncology nursing research capacity among Mainland China is promising. To gain higher-quality evidence and make existing evidence transferable for nursing practice, optimization of specific research topics is still needed. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In Mainland China, developing interventions to address the symptoms of children with cancer and caregivers' psychosocial issues based on local nursing research should be prioritized. Some synthesized findings of this review may serve as guidance for the future of pediatric oncology nursing science in similar settings.

17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 256, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139693

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection is spreading globally and poses a huge threat to human health. Besides common respiratory symptoms, some patients with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. SARS-CoV-2 might infect the gastrointestinal tract through its viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and there is increasing evidence of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. In addition, there exist multiple abnormalities in liver enzymes. COVID-19-related liver injury may be due to drug-induced liver injury, systemic inflammatory reaction, and hypoxia-ischemia reperfusion injury. The direct toxic attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the liver is still questionable. This review highlights the manifestations and potential mechanisms of gastrointestinal and hepatic injuries in COVID-19 to raise awareness of digestive system injury in COVID-19.

18.
Trials ; 21(1): 910, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine have suggested that electroacupuncture (EA) could improve post-stroke cognitive impairment, based on the clinical evidence. This study protocol is aimed at showing the effectiveness of theta and gamma EA for post-stroke patients on working memory (WM) and electrophysiology. METHODS: After assessing their eligibility, 66 patients with stroke will be enrolled from two Chinese medicine hospitals and randomly divided into theta frequency EA group, gamma frequency EA group, and sham-EA group according to the ratio of 1:1:1. All patients will receive 20 sessions of EA procedures for 4 weeks. Patients in three groups will receive EA at two same acupoints in the head: Baihui (GV20) and Shenting (GV24). The frequency of the three groups of EA is set as follows: 6 Hz (theta-EA group), 40 Hz (gamma-EA group), and no current through the electrodes (sham EA). Patients and assessors will be blinded throughout the entire study. The primary outcome is the performance accuracy of 1-back task which is a frequently used measure of WM in cognitive neuroscience research contexts. Secondary outcome measures will include the response time of 1-back task, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Trail Making Test, Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Scale, modified Barthel Index, and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals during 1-back tasks. A blinding index will be assessed. Data will be statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, at 5% of significance level. DISCUSSION: We expect this double-center, randomized, patient- and assessor-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel, clinical trial to explore the effectiveness of theta and gamma EA therapy, compared with sham EA, for post-stroke WM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031995 . Registered on 17 April 2020.

19.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168275

RESUMO

In this study, the utility of point-of-care lung ultrasound for clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was prospectively assessed. Twenty-seven adult patients with COVID-19 underwent bedside lung ultrasonography (LUS) examinations three times each within the first 2 wk of admission to the isolation ward. We divided the 81 exams into three groups (moderate, severe and critically ill). Lung scores were calculated as the sum of points. A rank sum test and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out to determine the correlation between LUS on admission and clinical classification of COVID-19. There were dramatic differences in LUS (p < 0.001) among the three groups, and LUS scores (r = 0.754) correlated positively with clinical severity (p < 0.01). In addition, moderate, severe and critically ill patients were more likely to have low (≤9), medium (9-15) and high scores (≥15), respectively. This study provides stratification criteria of LUS scores to assist in quantitatively evaluating COVID-19 patients.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(40): 6141-6162, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177790

RESUMO

The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional information interaction system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract, in which gut microbiota plays a key role. The gut microbiota forms a complex network with the enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunity of the CNS, which is called the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the close anatomical and functional interaction of the gut-liver axis, the microbiota-gut-liver-brain axis has attracted increased attention in recent years. The microbiota-gut-liver-brain axis mediates the occurrence and development of many diseases, and it offers a direction for the research of disease treatment. In this review, we mainly discuss the role of the gut microbiota in the irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, functional dyspepsia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy via the gut-liver-brain axis, and the focus is to clarify the potential mechanisms and treatment of digestive diseases based on the further understanding of the microbiota-gut- liver-brain axis.

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