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2.
Science ; 383(6682): eadj9198, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300992

RESUMO

Mapping single-neuron projections is essential for understanding brain-wide connectivity and diverse functions of the hippocampus (HIP). Here, we reconstructed 10,100 single-neuron projectomes of mouse HIP and classified 43 projectome subtypes with distinct projection patterns. The number of projection targets and axon-tip distribution depended on the soma location along HIP longitudinal and transverse axes. Many projectome subtypes were enriched in specific HIP subdomains defined by spatial transcriptomic profiles. Furthermore, we delineated comprehensive wiring diagrams for HIP neurons projecting exclusively within the HIP formation (HPF) and for those projecting to both intra- and extra-HPF targets. Bihemispheric projecting neurons generally projected to one pair of homologous targets with ipsilateral preference. These organization principles of single-neuron projectomes provide a structural basis for understanding the function of HIP neurons.


Assuntos
Axônios , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo , Neurônios , Animais , Camundongos , Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Rede Nervosa , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 77: 102628, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116166

RESUMO

Perception is internally constructed by integrating brain states with external sensory inputs, a process depending on the topdown modulation of sensory representations. A wealth of earlier studies described task-dependent modulations of sensory cortex corroborating perceptual and behavioral phenomena. But only with recent technological advancements, the underlying circuit-level mechanisms began to be unveiled. We review recent progress along this line of research. It begins to be appreciated that topdown signals can encode various types of task-related information, ranging from task engagement, and category knowledge to decision execution; these signals are transferred via feedback pathways originating from distinct association cortices and interact with sensory cortical circuits. These plausible mechanisms support a broad range of computations from predictive coding to inference making, ultimately form dynamic percepts and endow behavioral flexibility.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebral
4.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 42(12): 2303-2317, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999817

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation affects cognitive functions and increases the risk of dementia. This phenomenon is thought to be mediated in part by cytokines that promote neuronal survival, but the continuous exposure to which may lead to neurodegeneration. The effects of systemic inflammation on cerebral blood vessels, and their provision of adequate oxygen to support critical brain parenchymal cell functions, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neurovascular coupling is profoundly disturbed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced systemic inflammation in awake mice. In the 24 hours following LPS injection, the hyperaemic response of pial vessels to functional activation was attenuated and delayed. Concurrently, under steady-state conditions, the capillary network displayed a significant increase in the number of capillaries with blocked blood flow, as well as increased duration of 'capillary stalls'-a phenomenon previously reported in animal models of stroke and Alzheimer's disease pathology. We speculate that vascular changes and impaired oxygen availability may affect brain functions following acute systemic inflammation and contribute to the long-term risk of neurodegenerative changes associated with chronic, systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Microcirculação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Capilares , Oxigênio
5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(6): nwab218, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769233

RESUMO

Multiple cortical areas including the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) are activated during itch signal processing, yet cortical representation of itch perception remains unknown. Using novel miniature two-photon microscopic imaging in free-moving mice, we investigated the coding of itch perception in S1. We found that pharmacological inactivation of S1 abolished itch-induced scratching behavior, and the itch-induced scratching behavior could be well predicted by the activity of a fraction of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons, suggesting that a subpopulation of S1 pyramidal neurons encoded itch perception, as indicated by immediate subsequent scratching behaviors. With a newly established optogenetics-based paradigm that allows precisely controlled pruritic stimulation, we found that a small fraction of S1 neurons exhibited an ignition-like pattern at the detection threshold of itch perception. Our study revealed the neural mechanism underlying itch perceptual coding in S1, thus paving the way for the study of cortical representation of itch perception at the single-neuron level in freely moving animals.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(4): 515-529, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361973

RESUMO

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cognitive center that integrates and regulates global brain activity. However, the whole-brain organization of PFC axon projections remains poorly understood. Using single-neuron reconstruction of 6,357 mouse PFC projection neurons, we identified 64 projectome-defined subtypes. Each of four previously known major cortico-cortical subnetworks was targeted by a distinct group of PFC subtypes defined by their first-order axon collaterals. Further analysis unraveled topographic rules of soma distribution within PFC, first-order collateral branch point-dependent target selection and terminal arbor distribution-dependent target subdivision. Furthermore, we obtained a high-precision hierarchical map within PFC and three distinct functionally related PFC modules, each enriched with internal recurrent connectivity. Finally, we showed that each transcriptome subtype corresponds to multiple projectome subtypes found in different PFC subregions. Thus, whole-brain single-neuron projectome analysis reveals organization principles of axon projections within and outside PFC and provides the essential basis for elucidating neuronal connectivity underlying diverse PFC functions.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Axônios , Encéfalo , Interneurônios , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
7.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): e63-e67, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy allows for the monitoring of all brain neurons with single-cell and single-action potential accuracy. This study aimed to investigate the neural responses of the primary auditory cortex to sound stimuli in awake and propofol-anesthetized mice using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy. METHODS: Twelve healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were used in the present study. In each mouse, the scalp was removed over the entire dorsal skull, and the right primary auditory cortex (A1) located. The test stimulus, used in the awake and propofol-induced anesthetic state, was a group of tones with a random combination of 3 sound intensities and 8 sound frequencies. The calcium indicator GCaMP6s was virally expressed in cortical neurons and neuronal activity was recorded using 2-photon imaging. RESULTS: Calcium responses to sound stimuli in two thirds of the neuronal population of the A1 layer were significantly inhibited by propofol anesthesia. In a single neuron, the calcium responses were also inhibited by propofol anesthesia. In the waking state, △F/F (where F is the time series of fluorescence intensity) of all single neurons was significantly higher than that in the propofol-induced anesthetic state (n=669, P<0.001). Finally, in one example session and averaged across different fields of views (n=6 sessions), the response events to sound stimuli were also inhibited by propofol anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Anesthetic doses of propofol inhibited calcium transients and neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex of mice.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Propofol , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Propofol/farmacologia , Som
8.
J Neurosci ; 41(50): 10330-10340, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716234

RESUMO

The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) plays a critical role in processing multiple somatosensations, but the mechanism underlying the representation of different submodalities of somatosensation in S1 remains unclear. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging that simultaneously monitors hundreds of layer 2/3 pyramidal S1 neurons of awake male mice, we examined neuronal responses triggered by mechanical, thermal, or pruritic stimuli. We found that mechanical, thermal, and pruritic stimuli activated largely overlapping neuronal populations in the same somatotopic S1 subregion. Population decoding analysis revealed that the local neuronal population in S1 encoded sufficient information to distinguish different somatosensory submodalities. Although multimodal S1 neurons responding to multiple types of stimuli exhibited no spatial clustering, S1 neurons preferring mechanical and thermal stimuli tended to show local clustering. These findings demonstrated the coding scheme of different submodalities of somatosensation in S1, paving the way for a deeper understanding of the processing and integration of multimodal somatosensory information in the cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cortical processing of somatosensory information is one of the most fundamental aspects in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies mainly focused on mechanical sensory processing within the rodent whisking system, but mechanisms underlying the coding of multiple somatosensations remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the representation of mechanical, thermal, and pruritic stimuli in S1 by in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of awake mice. We revealed a multiplexed representation for multiple somatosensory stimuli in S1 and demonstrated that the activity of a small population of S1 neurons is capable of decoding different somatosensory submodalities. Our results elucidate the coding mechanism for multiple somatosensations in S1 and provide new insights that improve the present understanding of how the brain processes multimodal sensory information.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Animais , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2727, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976124

RESUMO

Survival in a dynamic environment requires animals to plan future actions based on past sensory evidence, known as motor planning. However, the neuronal circuits underlying this crucial brain function remain elusive. Here, we employ projection-specific imaging and perturbation methods to investigate the direct pathway linking two key nodes in the motor planning network, the secondary motor cortex (M2) and the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), in mice performing a memory-dependent perceptual decision task. We find dynamic coding of choice information in SC-projecting M2 neurons during motor planning and execution, and disruption of this information by inhibiting M2 terminals in SC selectively impaired decision maintenance. Furthermore, we show that while both excitatory and inhibitory SC neurons receive synaptic inputs from M2, these SC subpopulations display differential temporal patterns in choice coding during behavior. Our results reveal the dynamic recruitment of the premotor-collicular pathway as a circuit mechanism for motor planning.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Colículos Superiores/metabolismo , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Camundongos , Córtex Motor/metabolismo
10.
Neuron ; 109(12): 2009-2024.e6, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957065

RESUMO

Making flexible decisions based on prior knowledge about causal environmental structures is a hallmark of goal-directed cognition in mammalian brains. Although several association brain regions, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), have been implicated, the precise neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying knowledge-based decision-making remain elusive. Here, we established an inference-based auditory categorization task where mice performed within-session flexible stimulus re-categorization by inferring the changing task rules. We constructed a reinforcement learning model to recapitulate the inference-based flexible behavior and quantify the hidden variables associated with task structural knowledge. Combining two-photon population imaging and projection-specific optogenetics, we found that auditory cortex (ACx) neurons encoded the hidden task rule variable, which requires feedback input from the OFC. Silencing OFC-ACx input specifically disrupted re-categorization behavior. Direct imaging from OFC axons in the ACx revealed task state-related feedback signals, supporting the knowledge-based updating mechanism. Our data reveal a cortical circuit mechanism underlying structural knowledge-based flexible decision-making.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cognição/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica , Optogenética , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reforço Psicológico
11.
Neuron ; 105(2): 209-211, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972143

RESUMO

Axonal projection patterns are increasingly recognized as a defining feature for neuronal classification. How could such structural distinctions be linked to functions? In this issue of Neuron, Tang and Higley (2020) disambiguate behavior-level functions of two projection-defined subtypes of cortical projection neurons.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Células Piramidais , Axônios , Interneurônios
12.
Neuron ; 103(5): 909-921.e6, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296412

RESUMO

The ability to group physical stimuli into behaviorally relevant categories is fundamental to perception and cognition. Despite a large body of work on stimulus categorization at the behavioral and cognitive levels, little is known about the underlying mechanisms at the neuronal level. Here, combining mouse auditory psychophysical behavior and in vivo two-photon imaging from the auditory cortex, we investigate how sensory-to-category transformation is implemented by cortical neurons during a stimulus categorization task. Distinct from responses during passive listening, many neurons exhibited emergent selectivity to stimuli near the category boundary during task performance, reshaping local tuning maps; other neurons became more selective to category membership of stimuli. At the population level, local cortical ensembles robustly encode category information and predict trial-by-trial decisions during task performance. Our data uncover a task-dependent dynamic reorganization of cortical response patterns serving as a neural mechanism for sensory-to-category transformation during perceptual decision-making.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(6): 963-973, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036942

RESUMO

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been implicated in perceptual decision-making and categorization, but whether its activity plays a causal role remains controversial. Here we examined the population dynamics of PPC activity during an auditory-guided decision task in mice. We found that silencing of PPC activity impaired several aspects of decision-making. First, categorization of new, but not well-learned, stimuli was impaired. Second, re-categorization of previously experienced stimuli based on newly learned categories was also impaired. Third, the bias on behavioral choices created by preceding trials significantly increased. In vivo two-photon imaging of PPC activity during stimulus categorization revealed differential dynamics in representations of new stimuli and learned categories, consistent with rapid incorporation of new sensory information during categorization. At the circuit level, inactivation of PPC axonal projections to the auditory cortex also significantly reduced categorization performance. Thus, PPC circuits play a causal role in decision-making during stimulus categorization.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(11): 1583-1590, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349100

RESUMO

Animals strategically scan the environment to form an accurate perception of their surroundings. Here we investigated the neuronal representations that mediate this behavior. Ca2+ imaging and selective optogenetic manipulation during an active sensing task reveals that layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the vibrissae cortex produce a diverse and distributed representation that is required for mice to adapt their whisking motor strategy to changing sensory cues. The optogenetic perturbation degraded single-neuron selectivity and network population encoding through a selective inhibition of active dendritic integration. Together the data indicate that active dendritic integration in pyramidal neurons produces a nonlinearly mixed network representation of joint sensorimotor parameters that is used to transform sensory information into motor commands during adaptive behavior. The prevalence of the layer 5 cortical circuit motif suggests that this is a general circuit computation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dendritos/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e88678, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24520413

RESUMO

The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research, particularly in non-human primates, to facilitate precise stimulus control, behavioral monitoring and neural recording. However, choice-based, perceptual decision tasks by head-fixed mice have only recently been introduced. Training mice relies on motivating mice using water restriction. Here we describe procedures for head-fixation, water restriction and behavioral training for head-fixed mice, with a focus on active, whisker-based tactile behaviors. In these experiments mice had restricted access to water (typically 1 ml/day). After ten days of water restriction, body weight stabilized at approximately 80% of initial weight. At that point mice were trained to discriminate sensory stimuli using operant conditioning. Head-fixed mice reported stimuli by licking in go/no-go tasks and also using a forced choice paradigm using a dual lickport. In some cases mice learned to discriminate sensory stimuli in a few trials within the first behavioral session. Delay epochs lasting a second or more were used to separate sensation (e.g. tactile exploration) and action (i.e. licking). Mice performed a variety of perceptual decision tasks with high performance for hundreds of trials per behavioral session. Up to four months of continuous water restriction showed no adverse health effects. Behavioral performance correlated with the degree of water restriction, supporting the importance of controlling access to water. These behavioral paradigms can be combined with cellular resolution imaging, random access photostimulation, and whole cell recordings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Etologia/métodos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Discriminação Psicológica , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Recompensa , Sacarose , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Água , Privação de Água
17.
J Neurosci ; 33(45): 17631-40, 2013 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24198355

RESUMO

Understanding the neural correlates of behavior in the mammalian cortex requires measurements of activity in awake, behaving animals. Rodents have emerged as a powerful model for dissecting the cortical circuits underlying behavior attributable to the convergence of several methods. Genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with viral-mediated or transgenic tools enable chronic monitoring of calcium signals in neuronal populations and subcellular structures of identified cell types. Stable one- and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in awake, behaving animals is now possible using new behavioral paradigms in head-fixed animals, or using novel miniature head-mounted microscopes in freely moving animals. This mini-symposium will highlight recent applications of these methods for studying sensorimotor integration, decision making, learning, and memory in cortical and subcortical brain areas. We will outline future prospects and challenges for identifying the neural underpinnings of task-dependent behavior using cellular imaging in rodents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ratos
18.
Neuron ; 79(3): 516-29, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23931999

RESUMO

Active dendritic synaptic integration enhances the computational power of neurons. Such nonlinear processing generates an object-localization signal in the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5B cortical pyramidal neurons during sensory-motor behavior. Here, we employ electrophysiological and optical approaches in brain slices and behaving animals to investigate how excitatory synaptic input to this distal dendritic compartment influences neuronal output. We find that active dendritic integration throughout the apical dendritic tuft is highly compartmentalized by voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. A high density of both transient and sustained KV channels was observed in all apical dendritic compartments. These channels potently regulated the interaction between apical dendritic tuft, trunk, and axosomatic integration zones to control neuronal output in vitro as well as the engagement of dendritic nonlinear processing in vivo during sensory-motor behavior. Thus, KV channels dynamically tune the interaction between active dendritic integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons to shape behaviorally relevant neuronal computations.


Assuntos
Dendritos/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/ultraestrutura , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Bário/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Probabilidade , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Valina/análogos & derivados , Valina/farmacologia
19.
Nature ; 492(7428): 247-51, 2012 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23143335

RESUMO

Active dendrites provide neurons with powerful processing capabilities. However, little is known about the role of neuronal dendrites in behaviourally related circuit computations. Here we report that a novel global dendritic nonlinearity is involved in the integration of sensory and motor information within layer 5 pyramidal neurons during an active sensing behaviour. Layer 5 pyramidal neurons possess elaborate dendritic arborizations that receive functionally distinct inputs, each targeted to spatially separate regions. At the cellular level, coincident input from these segregated pathways initiates regenerative dendritic electrical events that produce bursts of action potential output and circuits featuring this powerful dendritic nonlinearity can implement computations based on input correlation. To examine this in vivo we recorded dendritic activity in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the barrel cortex using two-photon calcium imaging in mice performing an object-localization task. Large-amplitude, global calcium signals were observed throughout the apical tuft dendrites when active touch occurred at particular object locations or whisker angles. Such global calcium signals are produced by dendritic plateau potentials that require both vibrissal sensory input and primary motor cortex activity. These data provide direct evidence of nonlinear dendritic processing of correlated sensory and motor information in the mammalian neocortex during active sensation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dendritos/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Nature ; 489(7415): 299-303, 2012 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22922646

RESUMO

Cortical-feedback projections to primary sensory areas terminate most heavily in layer 1 (L1) of the neocortex, where they make synapses with tuft dendrites of pyramidal neurons. L1 input is thought to provide 'contextual' information, but the signals transmitted by L1 feedback remain uncharacterized. In the rodent somatosensory system, the spatially diffuse feedback projection from vibrissal motor cortex (vM1) to vibrissal somatosensory cortex (vS1, also known as the barrel cortex) may allow whisker touch to be interpreted in the context of whisker position to compute object location. When mice palpate objects with their whiskers to localize object features, whisker touch excites vS1 and later vM1 in a somatotopic manner. Here we use axonal calcium imaging to track activity in vM1-->vS1 afferents in L1 of the barrel cortex while mice performed whisker-dependent object localization. Spatially intermingled individual axons represent whisker movements, touch and other behavioural features. In a subpopulation of axons, activity depends on object location and persists for seconds after touch. Neurons in the barrel cortex thus have information to integrate movements and touches of multiple whiskers over time, key components of object identification and navigation by active touch.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Motor/citologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Física , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia
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