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1.
NPJ Digit Med ; 7(1): 111, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702471

RESUMO

Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is a crucial diagnostic tool for chorioretinal diseases, but its interpretation requires significant expertise and time. Prior studies have used Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based systems to assist FFA interpretation, but these systems lack user interaction and comprehensive evaluation by ophthalmologists. Here, we used large language models (LLMs) to develop an automated interpretation pipeline for both report generation and medical question-answering (QA) for FFA images. The pipeline comprises two parts: an image-text alignment module (Bootstrapping Language-Image Pre-training) for report generation and an LLM (Llama 2) for interactive QA. The model was developed using 654,343 FFA images with 9392 reports. It was evaluated both automatically, using language-based and classification-based metrics, and manually by three experienced ophthalmologists. The automatic evaluation of the generated reports demonstrated that the system can generate coherent and comprehensible free-text reports, achieving a BERTScore of 0.70 and F1 scores ranging from 0.64 to 0.82 for detecting top-5 retinal conditions. The manual evaluation revealed acceptable accuracy (68.3%, Kappa 0.746) and completeness (62.3%, Kappa 0.739) of the generated reports. The generated free-form answers were evaluated manually, with the majority meeting the ophthalmologists' criteria (error-free: 70.7%, complete: 84.0%, harmless: 93.7%, satisfied: 65.3%, Kappa: 0.762-0.834). This study introduces an innovative framework that combines multi-modal transformers and LLMs, enhancing ophthalmic image interpretation, and facilitating interactive communications during medical consultation.

2.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is vital for diagnosing chorioretinal diseases, but its interpretation and patient communication require extensive expertise and time-consuming efforts. We aim to develop a bilingual ICGA report generation and question-answering (QA) system. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 213 129 ICGA images from 2919 participants. The system comprised two stages: image-text alignment for report generation by a multimodal transformer architecture, and large language model (LLM)-based QA with ICGA text reports and human-input questions. Performance was assessed using both qualitative metrics (including Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU), Consensus-based Image Description Evaluation (CIDEr), Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation-Longest Common Subsequence (ROUGE-L), Semantic Propositional Image Caption Evaluation (SPICE), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision and F1 score) and subjective evaluation by three experienced ophthalmologists using 5-point scales (5 refers to high quality). RESULTS: We produced 8757 ICGA reports covering 39 disease-related conditions after bilingual translation (66.7% English, 33.3% Chinese). The ICGA-GPT model's report generation performance was evaluated with BLEU scores (1-4) of 0.48, 0.44, 0.40 and 0.37; CIDEr of 0.82; ROUGE of 0.41 and SPICE of 0.18. For disease-based metrics, the average specificity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and F1 score were 0.98, 0.94, 0.70, 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. Assessing the quality of 50 images (100 reports), three ophthalmologists achieved substantial agreement (kappa=0.723 for completeness, kappa=0.738 for accuracy), yielding scores from 3.20 to 3.55. In an interactive QA scenario involving 100 generated answers, the ophthalmologists provided scores of 4.24, 4.22 and 4.10, displaying good consistency (kappa=0.779). CONCLUSION: This pioneering study introduces the ICGA-GPT model for report generation and interactive QA for the first time, underscoring the potential of LLMs in assisting with automated ICGA image interpretation.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tosse Crônica , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e072542, 2023 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37369426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital ectopia lentis (CEL) is a rare ocular disease characterised by the dislocation or displacement of the lens. Patients with mild lens dislocations can be treated with conservative methods (eg, corrective eyeglasses or contact lenses). In contrast, patients with severe CEL usually require surgical management. However, few studies have focused on the visual prognosis and complications in conservative and surgical management of patients. This study aims to investigate the prognosis and complications in patients with CEL with conservative and surgical management, which is vital for CEL management, especially the choice of surgical timing and surgical method. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cohort study will be conducted at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. We plan to recruit 604 participants diagnosed with CEL and aged ≥3 years old. Patients with mild lens subluxation and stable visual conditions will be included in the non-surgical group and follow-up at 1, 2 and 3 years after enrolment. Patients with severe lens subluxation who accept CEL surgery will be included in the surgical group. Different surgical techniques, including phacoemulsification, in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (with or without capsular tension ring) and trans-scleral fixation, will be used depending on the severity of dislocation. Patients will be followed up at 3 months, and 1, 2 and 3 years postoperatively. Over a 5-year follow-up period, patients will receive a detailed ocular examination, including optometry, biological measurement, specular microscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy, anterior segment and posterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, echocardiography and questionnaires on vision-related quality of life. The primary outcome is the change of best-corrected visual acuity and the incidence of complications in both groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (number: 2022KYPJ207). Study findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05654025.


Assuntos
Ectopia do Cristalino , Subluxação do Cristalino , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Ectopia do Cristalino/complicações , Ectopia do Cristalino/cirurgia , Subluxação do Cristalino/etiologia , Subluxação do Cristalino/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Acuidade Visual
5.
Ann Transl Med ; 11(6): 244, 2023 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37082674

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of a modified transscleral suture through ex vivo tests. Methods: Ex vivo tests were performed in full-thickness porcine scleral pieces using modified knotless transscleral zigzag-shaped suture (Z-suture) fixation technology. The minimum traction force required to loosen or rupture the suture was assessed. The effects of different polypropylene sutures (10-0, 8-0), different suture spans (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 mm), different passes (3, 4, 5 passes), and scleral grooves were investigated. Results: The average minimum traction forces required to loosen 10-0 polypropylene sutured for 3.0 mm with a suture span of 3, 4, and 5 passes, were 0.18 (0.15-0.18), 0.22 (0.21-0.22), and 0.37 (0.37-0.37) N, respectively. The maximum traction force to prevent the suture from rupturing for the 10-0 polypropylene suture was 0.37-0.41 N in the sclera. The average of the minimum traction forces required to loosen the 8-0 polypropylene sutured with 5 passes and spanning 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mm were 0.37 (0.3 -0.39), 0.42 (0.42-0.45), and 0.50 (0.50-0.51) N, respectively, which were 14-28% higher than that of the 10-0 polypropylene suture under same conditions (all P values <0.01). In addition, there was no statistical difference (P=0.3258) for the 8-0 polypropylene suture used with a 3.0-mm suture span and 5 passes between conditions with or without scleral grooves. Conclusions: The minimum traction force required to loosen or rupture the suture in the sclera was associated with suture specification, suture span, and the number of passes, but was uncorrelated with double scleral grooves. The 8-0 polypropylene suture with double scleral grooves may be a more favorable choice for knotless transscleral fixation.

6.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics and associated factors of choroidal thickness (ChT) and choriocapillaris flow deficit percentage (CC FD%) in children with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. The ChT of the subfoveal area and other areas 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm away from the fovea were assessed. The CC FD% of quadrant and circular regions with diameters of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mm were assessed with 3×3 mm macular choriocapillaris images. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and cardiac function factor such as Z score were measured to analyse the associations with ChT and CC FD%. RESULTS: 51 MFS children and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Compared with the healthy controls, the ChT in the MFS group was thinner in the subfoveal area, temporal 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mm (all p<0.001). The CC FD% was higher in circle 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mm (all p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that CC FD% in the circle 2.5 mm when the Z score ≥2 was associated with BCVA (ß=9.08 (95% CI 3.96 to 14.20); p=0.005) and Z score (ß=4.19 (95% CI 1.28 to 12.00); p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Thinner ChT and a higher CC FD% were observed in children with MFS, and an increased CC FD% in circle 2.5 mm was significantly associated with worse BCVA and cardiac function. These findings may help identify future visual impairment and early cardiac events in MFS children.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(9): 3624-3632, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245630

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cough is a troublesome clinical problem with long-term impacts at the patient level. However, the burden of chronic cough in China is largely unknown. Thus, we performed a multicenter cross-sectional survey on the current status of chronic cough and its impact on quality of life in Guangdong, south China. Methods: Using a standardized questionnaire, we extracted and analyzed the relevant data on demographics, number of visits to a doctor, previous diagnosis, previous medications used and initial diagnosis. Cough-specific quality of life was measured by the Mandarin Chinese version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-MC). Results: Of 933 patients from 13 tertiary medical centers in Guangdong, 52.2% were female, the median age was 40.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 31.0-52.0] years, and the median duration of chronic cough was 6.0 (IQR, 3.0-24.0) months. Over half (n=452, 54.0%) of the patients had visited physicians ≥3 times for cough. In terms of previous diagnosis, bronchitis (n=432, 46.5%) had been most frequently diagnosed, followed by pharyngitis (n=246, 26.5%) and asthmatic cough (n=98, 10.5%). A majority of patients with chronic cough had used antitussive agents (n=539, 58.5%), antibiotics (n=374, 40.6%) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (n=294, 31.9%). Among the three subscales of the LCQ-MC, we observed lower scores in the mental health domain than in the physical and social domains (both P<0.001). Additionally, lower LCQ-MC scores were found in females and patients who saw the doctor >3 times for both the total and three subscale scores (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment are prevalent in patients with chronic cough and lead to considerable antibiotic abuse. Chronic cough markedly affects suffers' quality of life, especially for women.

8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(10): 1050-1054, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207962

RESUMO

Platelets-related pathophysiological mechanism and clinical research is one of the research hot topics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at home and abroad. Increasing evidence has proved the association between thrombocytosis and COPD. Platelets activation interacts with COPD. Antiplatelet therapy has been shown to have significant effects on both short-term and long-term outcomes in COPD. Platelets inhibition may be an emerging therapeutic target for COPD, and antiplatelet therapy is expected to become an inexpensive and effective treatment for COPD. This article reviewed the research progress in platelets and COPD.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 243, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with variable symptoms, which presents with cough either as the sole or predominant symptom with or without wheezing. We compared the clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of cough predominant asthma (CPA), cough variant asthma (CVA) and classic asthma (CA) in order to determine any differential phenotypic traits. METHODS: In 20 clinics across China, a total of 2088 patients were finally recruited, including 327 CVA, 1041 CPA and 720 CA patients. We recorded cough and wheezing visual analogue scale, Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) and asthma control test scores. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), induced sputum cell counts, and capsaicin cough challenge were also measured and compared. RESULTS: CPA patients more frequently presented with cough as the initial symptom, and laryngeal symptoms (p < 0.001), had less symptoms related with rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux (p < 0.05) than CA patients. Comorbidities including rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux were similar, while the proportion of COPD and bronchiectasis was higher in CA patients. There were no differences in FeNO levels, sputum eosinophil and neutrophil counts, FEV1 (%pred) decreased from CVA to CPA to CA patients (p < 0.001). Cough sensitivity was higher in CVA and CPA compared to CA (p < 0.001), and was positively correlated with LCQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: CVA, CPA and CA can be distinguished by the presence of laryngeal symptoms, cough sensitivity and airflow obstruction. Asthma-associated chronic cough was not associated with airway inflammation or comorbidities in our cohort. Trial registration The Chinese Clinical Trial Registration Center, ChiCTR-POC-17011646, 13 June 2017.


Assuntos
Asma , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Rinite , Asma/complicações , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Sons Respiratórios , Rinite/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 305, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of patients with chronic cough are reported only in single-center survey in China, being significantly different from that in western countries. Here, we performed a multicenter study to describe the clinical characteristics of chronic cough patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational survey was conducted in thirteen tertiary hospitals of Guangdong, South China. Relevant data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire and analyzed, including demographics, educational attainment, cough features, and concomitant symptoms. RESULTS: Of 933 patients in this study, the median age was 40.0 (IQR 31.0-52.0) years with a peaked age of 30-39 years. The proportion of females (487, 52.2 %) was comparable to that of males (446, 47.8 %). Up to 81.9 % of the patients were non-smokers. More than two-thirds of the subjects with chronic cough had a low educational level. The median cough duration was 6.0 (IQR 3.0-24.0) months, and 73.0 % of chronic cough patients presented with dry cough. Laryngeal paresthesia was the most common concomitant symptom (704, 75.5 %), followed by rhinitis/sinusitis-related (350, 37.5 %) and respiratory symptoms (322, 34.5 %). Rhinitis/sinusitis-related symptoms more frequently occurred in patients with productive cough than in those with dry cough (49.0 % vs. 33.0 %, P < 0.001). Moreover, female patients displayed an older age and a higher prevalence of nocturnal cough compared to male patients (both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show an equal gender, young profile and laryngeal paresthesia in patients with chronic cough, and different clinical features between females and males.


Assuntos
Tosse/epidemiologia , Parestesia/complicações , Rinite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Tosse/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nervos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 68, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough has an important impact on physical, social and psychological aspects. A simple and effective method to assess different aspects of chronic cough severity is required. We aimed to develop a simple, self-completed test, Cough Evaluation Test (CET), to evaluate cough severity and its impact on health. METHOD: The items of preliminary CET were generated based on literature review and clinical practice. Items reduction was conducted by modified Delphi method. Patients with chronic cough were recruited to complete CET, Cough Visual Analog Scales (VAS), Mandarin Chinese version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-MC), and Cough Symptom Score (CSS). Reassessments were performed at 1 week apart before treatment, and after more than 2 weeks treatments. Concurrent validation, internal consistency, repeatability, responsiveness and the minimal important difference (MID) were determined. RESULTS: CET consists of five items with a 5-point Likert scale (1-5 scaling of items, 5-25 score range). The Cronbach's alpha values for CET was 0.80. CET showed a stronger correlation with LCQ-MC (r = - 0.74) compared to that between LCQ-MC with VAS (r = - 0.61). CET also showed a stronger correlation with VAS (r = 0.70) compared to that between VAS with other measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients for CET was 0.84. In patients undergoing treatment, CET scores significantly changed (p < 0.0001). The MID of CET was 2. CONCLUSION: Cough Evaluate Test is a reliable, valid and responsive tool to simply evaluate impact of cough on physical, social and psychological aspects.


Assuntos
Tosse/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , China , Doença Crônica , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Tosse/psicologia , Técnica Delphi , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Microb Pathog ; 111: 446-449, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923604

RESUMO

As a novel antibiotic resistance mobile element, integron was recognized as a primary source of antibiotic genes among Gram-positive organisms for its excision and integration of exogenous genes. In this study, Streptococcus pneumoniae was subjected to investigate the excision and integration of class 1 integron with eight different plasmids. As the results indicated, excision in both att site and gene cassettes were successfully observed, which was further confirmed by integration assays and PCR amplification. The observation of class 1 integron mediated excision and integration of various exogenous antibiotics resistance genes may raise the attention of integrons as novel antibiotic resistance determinant in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in Streptococcus.


Assuntos
Integrons , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo
13.
Microb Pathog ; 109: 183-188, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578093

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assays using bacterial culture or colony for direct detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) had been developed and evaluated, followed by its extensive application on a large scale of clinical MRSA isolated from respiratory origins, including nasal swabs and sputums. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specifically designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on four targets: 16SrRNA, femA, mecA and orfX. Twenty-seven reference strains were used to develop, evaluate and optimize this assay. Then, a total of 532 clinical MRSA isolates were employed for each detected targets. And the results were determined through both visual observation of the color change by naked eye and electrophoresis. The specific of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 40 min. The limit of detections (LOD) of bacteria culture LAMP assays were determined to be 104 CFU/ml for 16S rRNA, femA, as well as orfX and 105 CFU/ml for mecA, respectively. The established novel assays on MRSA detection may provide new strategies for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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