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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1602-1610, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621945

RESUMO

This study explored the mechanism of the ultrafiltration extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Hedysari Radix in ameliorating renal fibrosis in the rat model of diabetic kidney disease(DKD) based on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and HIF-1α/platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor(PDGFR) signaling pathways in the DKD rats. After 1 week of adaptive feeding, 50 male SPF-grade Wistar rats were randomized into a blank group(n=7) and a modeling group. After 24 h of fasting, the rats in the modeling group were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin and fed with a high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish a DKD model. After modeling, the rats were randomly assigned into model(n=7), low-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=7), medium-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=7), irbesartan(n=8), and high-dose ultrafiltration extract(n=8) groups. After intervention by corresponding drugs for 12 weeks, the general conditions of the rats were observed. The body weights and blood glucose levels of the rats were measured weekly, and the 24 h urinary protein(24hUP) was measured at the 6th and 12th weeks of drug administration. After the last drug administration, the renal function indicators were determined. Masson staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of the renal tissue. The expression of prolyl hydroxylase domain 2(PHD2) and HIF-1α in the renal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC). Real-time qPCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of PHD2, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR in the renal tissue. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR in the renal tissue. The results showed that compared with the model group, drug administration lowered the levels of glycosylated serum protein(GSP), aerum creatinine(Scr), and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and mitigated the pathological changes in the renal tissue. Furthermore, drug administration up-regulated mRNA level of PHD2(P<0.05 or P<0.01), down-regulated the mRNA levels of VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and the protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PDGF, and PDGFR(P<0.01) in the renal tissue, and increased the rate of PHD2-positive cells(P<0.01). In conclusion, the ultrafiltration extract of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Hedysari Radix effectively alleviated the renal fibrosis in DKD rats by inhibiting the expression of key proteins in the HIF-1α signaling pathway mediated by renal hypoxia and reducing extracellular matrix(ECM) deposition.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ultrafiltração , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isquemia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Fibrose , Hipóxia , Transdução de Sinais , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
2.
Redox Biol ; 72: 103158, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631121

RESUMO

Exposure to PM2.5 is correlated with cardiac remodeling, of which cardiac hypertrophy is one of the main clinical manifestations. Ferroptosis plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy. However, the potential mechanism of PM2.5-induced cardiac hypertrophy through ferroptosis remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy caused by PM2.5 and the intervention role of MitoQ involved in this process. The results showed that PM2.5 could induce cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice. Meanwhile, the characteristics of ferroptosis were observed, such as iron homeostasis imbalance, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage and abnormal expression of key molecules. MitoQ treatment could effectively mitigate these alternations. After treating human cardiomyocyte AC16 with PM2.5, ferroptosis activator (Erastin) and inhibitor (Fer-1), it was found that PM2.5 could promote ferritinophagy and lead to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction as well as the accumulation of intracellular and mitochondrial labile iron. Subsequently, mitophagy was activated and provided an additional source of labile iron, enhancing the sensitivity of AC16 cells to ferroptosis. Furthermore, Fer-1 alleviated PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity and iron overload in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of AC16 cells. It was worth noting that during the process of PM2.5 caused ferroptosis, abnormal iron metabolism mediated the activation of ferritinophagy and mitophagy in a temporal order. In addition, NCOA4 knockdown reversed the iron homeostasis imbalance and lipid peroxidation caused by PM2.5, thereby alleviating ferroptosis. In summary, our study found that iron homeostasis imbalance-mediated the crosstalk of ferritinophagy and mitophagy played an important role in PM2.5-induced ferroptosis and cardiac hypertrophy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632039

RESUMO

The mutant strain H. bluephagenesis (TDH4A1B5P) was found to produce PHA under low-salt, non-sterile conditions, but the yield was low. To improve the yield, different nitrogen sources were tested. It was discovered that urea was the most effective nitrogen source for promoting growth during the stable stage, while ammonium sulfate was used during the logarithmic stage. The growth time of H. bluephagenesis (TDH4A1B5P) and its PHA content were significantly prolonged by the presence of sulfate ions. After 64 hours in a 5-liter bioreactor supplemented with sulfate ions, the dry cell weight of H. bluephagenesis weighed 132 g/l and had a PHA content of 82%. To promote the growth and PHA accumulation of H. bluephagenesis (TDH4A1B5P), a feeding regimen supplemented with nitrogen sources and sulfate ions with ammonium sodium sulfate was established in this study. The dry cell weight was 124 g/L, and the PHA content accounted for 82.3% (w/w) of the dry cell weight, resulting in a PHA yield of 101 g/L in a 30-liter bioreactor using the optimized culture strategy. In conclusion, stimulating H. bluephagenesis (TDH4A1B5P) to produce PHA is a feasible and suitable strategy for all H. bluephagenesis.

4.
Neurosurgery ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM), mainly induced by the spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, is a congestive spinal cord injury that currently has no appropriate animal model available in preclinical research. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (280-320 g) were used. The rats were divided into 3 groups: (1) Group 1, which underwent renal artery-dorsal spinal venous bypass (AVB group); (2) Group 2, which underwent renal artery-dorsal spinal venous bypass and drainage vein stenosis (AVB/VS group); and (3) Control group, with T13 dorsal vein ligation. The success of the model was assessed using Doppler ultrasound and 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging. Transmission electron microscopy, histochemistry, proteomics, and western blot analysis were used to evaluate ultrastructural, pathological, and molecular features in the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). RESULTS: The success rate of the arteriovenous bypass was 100% at 5 days and 83% at 2 weeks. The locomotor assessment showed decreased lower extremity strength in the AVB/VS group (P = .0067), whereas unremarkable changes were found in the AVB and Control groups. Histochemical staining suggested a 2-fold expansion of the dorsal spinal vein in the AVB/VS group, which was lower than that in the AVB group (P < .05); however, the former displayed greater myelin and neuronal damage (P < .05) and slight dilatation of the central canal (P > .05). Proteomics analysis revealed that the complement and coagulation cascade pathways were upregulated in the CSF of AVB/VS rats, whereas the C3 level was elevated both in the CSF and bilateral spinal cord. Furthermore, overexpression of C3, ITGB2, and CD9 in the spinal cord was confirmed by immunoblotting. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the AVB/VS model can effectively mimic the clinical and molecular characteristics of VHM. Furthermore, they suggest that impaired deep intramedullary venous drainage is the key reason for the VHM.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1383801, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601914

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Crataegus pinnatifida polysaccharide (CPP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. The findings demonstrated that CPP improved free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and effectively reduced liver steatosis and epididymal fat weight in NAFLD mice, as well as decreased serum levels of TG, TC, AST, ALT, and LDL-C. Furthermore, CPP exhibited inhibitory effects on the expression of fatty acid synthesis genes FASN and ACC while activating the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes CPT1A and PPARα. Additionally, CPP reversed disturbances in intestinal microbiota composition caused by HFD consumption. CPP decreased the firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increased Akkermansia abundance, and elevated levels of total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content specifically butyric acid and acetic acid. Our results concluded that CPP may intervene in the development of NAFLD by regulating of intes-tinal microbiota imbalance and SCFAs production. Our study highlights that CPP has a potential to modulate lipid-related pathways via alterations to gut microbiome composition thereby ex-erting inhibitory effects on obesity and NAFLD development.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202405763, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607321

RESUMO

Photocatalytic oxygen reduction reactions and water oxidation reactions are extremely promising green approaches for massive H2O2 production. Nonetheless, constructing effective photocatalysts for H2O2 generation is critical and still challenging. Since the network topology has significant impacts on the electronic properties of two dimensional (2D) polymers, herein, for the first time, we regulated the H2O2 photosynthetic activity of 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by topology. Through designing the linking sites of the monomers, we synthesized a pair of novel COFs with similar chemical components on the backbones but distinct topologies. Without sacrificial agents, TBD-COF with cpt topology exhibited superior H2O2 photoproduction performance (6085 and 5448 µmol g-1 h-1 in O2 and air) than TBC-COF with hcb topology through the O2-O2•--H2O2, O2-O2•--O21-H2O2, and H2O-H2O2 three paths. Further experimental and theoretical investigations confirmed that during the H2O2 photosynthetic process, the charge carrier separation efficiency, O2•- generation and conversion, and the energy barrier of the rate determination steps in the three channels, related to the formation of *OOH, *O21, and *OH, can be well tuned by the topology of COFs. The current study enlightens the fabrication of high-performance photocatalysts for H2O2 production by topological structure modulation.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 400: 130652, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575096

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study is to explore the application of a deep eutectic solvent, synthesized from lactic acid and choline chloride, in combination with a pre-treatment involving ZSM-5 catalytic fast pyrolysis, aimed at upgrading the quality of bio-oil. Characterization results demonstrate a reduction in lignin content post-treatment, alongside a significant decrease in carboxyls and carbonyls, leading to an increase in the C/O ratio and noticeable enhancement in crystallinity. During catalytic fast pyrolysis experiments, the pre-treatment facilitates the production of oil fractions, achieving yields of 54.53% for total hydrocarbons and 39.99% for aromatics hydrocarbons under optimized conditions. These findings validate the positive influence of the deep eutectic solvent pre-treatment combined with ZSM-5 catalytic fast pyrolysis on the efficient production of bio-oil and high-value chemical derivatives. .

8.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 176, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) needs a combination of ophthalmic examinations. An efficient assay is urgently needed for a timely POAG diagnosis. We aim to explore differential expressions of circulating microRNAs (miRNA) and provide novel miRNA biomarkers for POAG diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 180 POAG patients and 210 age-related cataract (ARC) patients were enrolled. We collected aqueous humor (AH) and plasma samples from the recruited patients. The expressions of candidate miRNAs were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic ability of candidate miRNAs was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The expressions of miR-21-5p and miR-29b-3p were downregulated significantly in AH and plasma of POAG and miR-24-3p expression was significantly increased in AH and plasma of POAG, comparing with those of ARC. A three-miRNA panel was constructed by a binary logistic regression. And the panel could differentiate between POAG and ARC with an area under the curve of 0.8867 (sensitivity = 78.0%, specificity = 83.3%) in aqueous humor and 0.7547 (sensitivity = 73.8%, specificity = 81.2%) in plasma. Next, we verified the three-miRNA panel working as a potential diagnostic biomarker stable and reliable. At last, we identified related function and regulation pathways in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we built and identified a circulating three-miRNA panel as a potential diagnostic biomarker for POAG. It may be developed into an efficient assay and help improve the POAG diagnosis in the future.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Humor Aquoso , Biomarcadores
9.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 153, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is critical for individualized management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients to avoid unnecessary overtreatment as well as undesired under-treatment. Artificial intelligence (AI) trained by thyroid ultrasound (US) may improve prediction performance. METHODS: From September 2017 to December 2018, patients with suspicious PTC from the first medical center of the Chinese PLA general hospital were retrospectively enrolled to pre-train the multi-scale, multi-frame, and dual-direction deep learning (MMD-DL) model. From January 2019 to July 2021, PTC patients from four different centers were prospectively enrolled to fine-tune and independently validate MMD-DL. Its diagnostic performance and auxiliary effect on radiologists were analyzed in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, areas under the ROC curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 488 PTC patients were enrolled in the pre-training cohort, and 218 PTC patients were included for model fine-tuning (n = 109), internal test (n = 39), and external validation (n = 70). Diagnostic performances of MMD-DL achieved AUCs of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.89) in the test and validation cohorts, respectively, and US radiologists significantly improved their average diagnostic accuracy (57% vs. 60%, P = 0.001) and sensitivity (62% vs. 65%, P < 0.001) by using the AI model for assistance. CONCLUSIONS: The AI model using US videos can provide accurate and reproducible prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients preoperatively, and it can be used as an effective assisting tool to improve diagnostic performance of US radiologists. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry website with the number ChiCTR1900025592.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202404886, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563659

RESUMO

The ion extraction and electro/photo catalysis are promising methods to address environmental and energy issues. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of promising template to construct absorbents and catalysts because of their stable frameworks, high surface areas, controllable pore environments, and well-defined catalytic sites. Among them, ionic COFs as unique class of crystalline porous materials, with charges in the frameworks or along the pore walls, have shown different properties and resulting performance in these applications with those from charge-neutral COFs. In this review, current research progress based on the ionic COFs for ion extraction and energy conversion, including cationic/anionic materials and electro/photo catalysis is reviewed in terms of the synthesis strategy, modification methods, mechanisms of adsorption and catalysis, as well as applications. Finally, we demonstrated the current challenges and future development of ionic COFs in design strategies and applications.

11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600044

RESUMO

Two new triterpene fatty acid esters, 3ß-palmityloxy-12,27-cyclofriedoolean-14-en-11α-ol (1) and 3ß-palmityloxy-19α-hydroxyursane (2), together with 3ß-hydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-enyl palmitate (3) were isolated from the potent anti-inflammatory active fraction of the petroleum ether-soluble part of Cirsium setosum ethanol extract. Compound 1 was found to be a rare 12,27-cyclopropane triterpenoid. Their structures were determined through spectral data analysis combined with literature reports. Furthermore, in vitro experiment, compounds 1-3 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages.

12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105836, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582598

RESUMO

The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), a notorious pest infesting rice, has evolved a high level of resistance to many commonly used insecticides. In this study, we investigate whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is required for larval development and cuticle tanning in many insects, could be a potential target for the control of C. suppressalis. We identified and characterized the full-length cDNA (CsTH) of C. suppressalis. The complete open reading frame of CsTH (MW690914) was 1683 bp in length, encoding a protein of 560 amino acids. Within the first to the sixth larval instars, CsTH was high in the first day just after molting, and lower in the ensuing days. From the wandering stage to the adult stage, levels of CSTH began to rise and reached a peak at the pupal stage. These patterns suggested a role for the gene in larval development and larval-pupal cuticle tanning. When we injected dsCsTH or 3-iodotyrosine (3-IT) as a TH inhibitor or fed a larva diet supplemented with 3-IT, there were significant impairments in larval development and larval-pupal cuticle tanning. Adult emergence was severely impaired, and most adults died. These results suggest that CsTH might play a critical role in larval development as well as larval-pupal tanning and immunity in C. suppressalis, and this gene could form a potential novel target for pest control.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Oryza , Animais , Larva/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Pupa , Mariposas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo
13.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 9(2): 277-284, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496318

RESUMO

Aspergillus niger is an efficient cell factory for organic acids production, particularly l-malic acid, through genetic manipulation. However, the traditional method of collecting A. niger spores for inoculation is labor-intensive and resource-consuming. In our study, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to replace the promoter of brlA, a key gene in Aspergillus conidiation, with a xylose-inducible promoter xylP in l-malic acid-producing A. niger strain RG0095, generating strain brlAxylP. When induced with xylose in submerged liquid culture, brlAxylP exhibited significant upregulation of conidiation-related genes. This induction allowed us to easily collect an abundance of brlAxylP spores (>7.1 × 106/mL) in liquid xylose medium. Significantly, the submerged conidiation approach preserves the substantial potential of A. niger as a foundational cellular platform for the biosynthesis of organic acids, including but not limited to l-malic acid. In summary, our study offers a simplified submerged conidiation strategy to streamline the preparation stage and reduce labor and material costs for industrial organic acid production using Aspergillus species.

14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 269, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507095

RESUMO

Microalgae are rich in fatty acids, proteins, and other nutrients, which have gained the general attention of researchers all over the world. For the development of Chlorella vulgaris in food and feed industry, this study was conducted to investigate the differences in C. vulgaris' growth and nutritional components under different culture conditions (autotrophic, heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic) and the internal factors through cell counting in combination with transcriptome and nutrient analyses. The results showed that, under the photoheterotrophic condition, Chlorella's growth and the contents of lipid and protein were significantly higher than that under the heterotrophic condition, and the moisture content was lower than that under the heterotrophic condition. The saturated fatty acid content under the photoheterotrophic condition was the lowest, while the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was significantly higher than those under the other two conditions. There were 46,583 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 33,039 up-regulated DEGs (70.93%) and 13,544 down-regulated DEGs (29.07%), under the photoheterotrophic condition in comparison with the autotrophic condition. The fold change between the two conditions of samples of up-regulated genes was higher than that of the down-regulated genes. The KEGG enrichment showed that the up-regulated DEGs in the photoheterotrophic condition were significantly enriched in 5 pathways, including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway, photosynthesis pathway, photosynthesis-antenna protein pathway, endocytosis pathway, and phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathway. DEGs related to fatty acid metabolic pathways were significantly enriched in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathway. The qPCR analysis showed that the expression pattern of the selected genes was consistent with that of transcriptome analysis. The results of this study lay a theoretical foundation for the large-scale production of Chlorella and its application in food, feed, and biodiesel. KEY POINTS: • Nutrient levels under photoheterotrophic condition were higher than other conditions. • Six important pathways were discovered that affect changes in nutritional composition. • Explored genes encode important enzymes in the differential metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Nutrientes/análise , Biomassa , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise
15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 665: 100-108, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518422

RESUMO

Construction of inorganic/organic heterostructures has been proven to be a very promising strategy to design highly efficient photocatalysts for solar driven hydrogen evolution from water. Herein, we report the preparation of a direct Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst by in situ growth of cadmium sulfide on a triazine-based covalent organic framework (COF). The triazine based-COF was synthesized by condensation reaction of precursors 1,3,5-tris-(4-formyl-phenyl) triazine (TFPT) and 2,5-bis-(3-hydroxypropoxy) terephthalohydrazide (DHTH), termed as TFPT-DHTH-COF. Widely distributed nitrogen atoms throughout TFPT-DHTH-COF skeletons serve as anchoring sites for strong interfacial interactions with CdS. The CdS/TFPT-DHTH-COF composite showed a hydrogen evolution rate of 15.75 mmol h-1 g-1, which is about 75 times higher than that of TFPT-DHTH-COF (0.21 mmol h-1 g-1) and 3.4 times higher than that of CdS (4.57 mmol h-1 g-1). With the properly staggered band alignment and strong interfacial interaction between TFPT-DHTH-COF and CdS, a Z-scheme charge transfer pathway is achieved. The mechanism has been systematically analyzed by steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements as well as in situ irradiated X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(4): e0000824, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506527

RESUMO

Currently, the L-malic acid titer achieved through Aspergillus niger fermentation reaches 201 g/L, meeting industrial demands satisfactorily. However, the co-presence of structurally similar fumaric acid and succinic acid in fermentation products suggests a theoretical potential for further improvement in L-malic acid production. In the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fumarate reductase mediates the conversion of succinic acid to fumaric acid. Subsequently, fumarase catalyzes the conversion of fumaric acid to L-malic acid. Notably, both enzymatic reactions are reversible. Our investigation revealed that A. niger contains only one mitochondria-located fumarase FumA. Employing CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we performed a replacement of the fumA promoter with a doxycycline-induced promoter Tet. Under non-inducing condition, the conditional strain exhibited increased levels of fumaric acid and succinic acid. It strongly suggests that FumA mainly promotes the flow of fumaric acid to L-malic acid. Furthermore, a promoter PmfsA that is exclusively activated in a fermentation medium by calcium carbonate was identified through RNA-sequencing screening. Utilizing PmfsA to regulate fumA expression led to a 9.0% increase in L-malic acid titer, an 8.75% increase in yield (glucose to L-malic acid), and an 8.86% enhancement in productivity. This research serves as a significant step toward expediting the industrialization of L-malic acid synthesis via biological fermentation. Additionally, it offers valuable insights for the biosynthesis of other organic acids.IMPORTANCEThis study focuses on enhancing L-malic acid synthesis by modifying the tricarboxylic acid cycle within the mitochondria of Aspergillus niger. We emphasize the significant role of fumarase in converting fumaric acid into L-malic acid, enhancing our understanding of metabolic pathways in A. niger. The precise regulation of fumA is highlighted as a key factor in enhancing L-malic acid production. Furthermore, this research introduces a stringent conditional promoter (PmfsA), exclusively activated by CaCO3. The utilization of PmfsA for fumA expression resulted in heightened L-malic acid titers. The progress in metabolic engineering and bioprocess optimization holds promise for expediting industrial L-malic acid synthesis via biological fermentation. Moreover, it carries implications for the biosynthesis of various other organic acids.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Fumarato Hidratase , Fumaratos , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(3): 37, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551584

RESUMO

Purpose: Early metastasis, in which immune escape plays a crucial role, is the leading cause of death in patients with uveal melanoma (UM); however, the molecular mechanism underlying UM immune escape remains unclear, which greatly limits the clinical application of immunotherapy for metastatic UM. Methods: Transcriptome profiles were revealed by RNA-seq analysis. TALL-104 and NK-92MI-mediated cell killing assays were used to examine the immune resistance of UM cells. The glycolysis rate was measured by extracellular acidification analysis. Protein stability was evaluated by CHX-chase assay. Immunofluorescence histochemistry was performed to detect protein levels in clinical UM specimens. Results: Continuous exposure to IL-6 induced the expression of both PD-L1 and HLA-E in UM cells, which promoted UM immune escape. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of most metabolic enzymes in the glycolysis pathway, especially the rate-limiting enzymes, PFKP and PKM, was upregulated, whereas enzymes involved in the acetyl-CoA synthesis pathway were downregulated after exposure to IL-6. Blocking the glycolytic pathway and lactate production by knocking down PKM and LDHA decreased PD-L1 and HLA-E protein, but not mRNA, levels in UM cells treated with IL-6. Notably, lactate secreted by IL-6-treated UM cells was crucial in influencing PD-L1 and HLA-E stability via the GPR81-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Conclusions: Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which UM cells acquire an immune-escape phenotype by metabolic reprogramming and reinforce the importance of the link between inflammation and immune escape.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Melanoma , Neoplasias Uveais , Humanos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Ácido Láctico , 60617 , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118113, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548119

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Tianma-Gouteng Pair (TGP), commonly prescribed as a pair-herbs, can be found in many Chinese medicine formulae to treat brain diseases. However, the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of TGP remained unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the difference between the TgCRND8 and 5 × FAD transgenic mice, the anti-AD effects of TGP, and underlying molecular mechanisms of TGP against AD through the two mouse models. METHODS: Briefly, three-month-old TgCRND8 and 5 × FAD mice were orally administered with TGP for 4 and 6 months, respectively. Behavioral tests were carried out to determine the neuropsychological functions. Moreover, immunofluorescence and western blotting assays were undertaken to reveal the molecular mechanisms of TGP. RESULTS: Although TgCRND8 and 5 × FAD mice had different beta-amyloid (Aß) burdens, neuroinflammation status, and cognition impairments, TGP exerted neuroprotective effects against AD in the two models. In detail, behavioral tests revealed that TGP treatment markedly ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior, attenuated the recognition memory deficits, and increased the spatial learning ability as well as the reference memory of TgCRND8 and 5 × FAD mice. Moreover, TGP treatment could regulate the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by inhibiting the Aß production enzymes such as ß- and γ-secretases and activating Aß degrading enzyme to reduce Aß accumulation. In addition, TGP reduced the Aß42 level, the ratio of Aß42/Αß40, Aß accumulation, and tau hyperphosphorylation in both the 5 × FAD and TgCRND8 mouse models. Furthermore, TGP ameliorated neuroinflammation by decreasing the densities of activated microglia and astrocytes, and inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. TGP upregulated the SIRT1 and AMPK, and downregulated sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) in the brain of TgCRND8 mice and deactivation of the EPhA4 and c-Abl in the brain tissues of 5 × FAD mice. CONCLUSION: Our experiments for the first time revealed the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanism of TGP on 5 × FAD and TgCRND8 transgenic mouse models of different AD stages. TGP decreased the level of Aß aggregates, improved the tauopathy, and reduced the neuroinflammation by regulation of the SIRT1/AMPK/SREBP2 axis and deactivation of EPhA4/c-Abl signaling pathway in the brains of TgCRND8 and 5 × FAD mice, respectively. All these findings unequivocally confirmed that the TGP would be promising in developing into an anti-AD therapeutic pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Sirtuína 1 , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Cognição , Modelos Animais de Doenças
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2315407121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502699

RESUMO

Organic electrodes mainly consisting of C, O, H, and N are promising candidates for advanced batteries. However, the sluggish ionic and electronic conductivity limit the full play of their high theoretical capacities. Here, we integrate the idea of metal-support interaction in single-atom catalysts with π-d hybridization into the design of organic electrode materials for the applications of lithium (LIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). Several types of transition metal single atoms (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) with π-d hybridization are incorporated into the semiconducting covalent organic framework (COF) composite. Single atoms favorably modify the energy band structure and improve the electronic conductivity of COF. More importantly, the electronic interaction between single atoms and COF adjusts the binding affinity and modifies ion traffic between Li/K ions and the active organic units of COFs as evidenced by extensive in situ and ex situ characterizations and theoretical calculations. The corresponding LIB achieves a high reversible capacity of 1,023.0 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 501.1 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1,000 mA g-1. The corresponding PIB delivers a high reversible capacity of 449.0 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 150 cycles and stably cycled over 500 cycles at 1,000 mA g-1. This work provides a promising route to engineering organic electrodes.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(13): 17051-17061, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511856

RESUMO

Luminescent perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), possessing the advantages of low cost, easy detection, and excellent luminescence, are becoming more and more significant in the fields of information encryption and decryption. Most hydrochromic perovskite NCs for information encryption have moderate reversibility and are easily passively decrypted by water in the moist air, limiting their practical applications. Herein, a lyochromic material is synthesized based on reversible phase transition between luminescent CsPbBr3-HBr (pretreating CsPbBr3 with HBr) and nonluminescent Cs4PbBr6, exhibiting excellent reversibility in 50 cycles triggered by CsBr solution. HBr treatment boosts the ion migration of NCs via diminishing surface ligands and passivating Br vacancy, assisting CsBr concentration acting as a crucial factor in dynamic ion exchange equilibrium between the trigger solution and CsPbBr3-HBr. By utilizing CsPbBr3-HBr as a safety ink, the CsBr-triggered photoluminescence switch has been demonstrated to be reproducible, stable, and reliable for information encryption and decryption.

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