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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 167, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels is a predictor for cardiovascular outcomes has currently been controversial. No data is currently available regarding the relation of PCSK9 to cardiovascular metabolic markers (CVMMs) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes or without diabetes. METHODS: A total 1225 untreated patients with stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and their baseline plasma PCSK9 levels were determined by ELISA. Patients were divided into high and low PCSK9 groups according to PCSK9 median. All patients followed up for the occurrence of MACEs and received standard therapy after admission. The associations of PCSK9 with CVMMs and MACEs were evaluated. RESULTS: PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with multiple CVMMs including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c at baseline (all p < 0.05). During a median follow-up of 3.3 years, 103 (8.4%) events occurred. PCSK9 levels were higher in patients with events compared to those without (p < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed that patients in high PCSK9 group had lower event-free survival than that in low group (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that PCSK9 levels were independently associated with MACEs in diabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.361, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.037-1.785, p < 0.05). When added the combination of PCSK9 levels and diabetic status to stratifying factors, patients in high PCSK9 group appeared to have extremely high risk of subsequent MACEs with diabetes (adjusted HR: 5.233, 95% CI: 2.546-10.757, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly showed that elevated PCSK9 levels were related to multiple CVMMs and MACEs in stable CAD with diabetes, suggesting that plasma PCSK9 measurement could help to identify diabetic patients with CAD at higher cardiovascular risk. More studies may be needed to confirm our findings.

2.
Langmuir ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035425

RESUMO

The vicinity of the droplet three-phase contact line can be divided into four regions depending on the dominant forces and the liquid film thickness: the absorbed film region, the transition region, the intrinsic meniscus region, and the microconvection region, wherein the transition region has the largest evaporation rate for smaller thermal resistance and weaker intermolecular force between the liquid-vapor interface and the solid surface. On the basis of this perception, micro/nanostructured surfaces (ZnO nanowire surface (ZnO-NW) and copper inverse opal surface (CIO)) were fabricated to enhance the droplet evaporation rate. The precursor film, which can be regarded as the greatly enlarged transition region, was observed on the structured surfaces and promoted the droplet evaporation rate dramatically. The mechanisms of the formation and evolution of the precursor film were studied. Moreover, the second fast spreading of the droplet resulting from vigorous boiling on the structured surfaces enhanced the heat transfer between the droplet and the surface and also promoted the Leidenfrost temperature of the impact droplet.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037615

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8), a Ca2+ -permeable nonselective cation channel activated by cold and cooling agents, mediates allodynia. Dysfunction or abnormal expression of TRPM8 has been found in several human cancers. The role of ubiquitination in the regulation of TRPM8 function remains poorly understood. Here, we identified the ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase E3, tripartite motif-containing 4 (TRIM4), as a novel interaction partner of TRPM8 and confirmed that the TRIM4-TRPM8 interaction was mediated through the SPRY domain of TRIM4. Patch-clamp assays showed that TRIM4 negatively regulates TRPM8-mediated currents in HEK293 cells. Moreover, TRIM4 reduced the expression of TRPM8 on the cell surface by promoting the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRPM8. Further analyses revealed that the TRPM8 N-terminal lysine residue at 423 was the major ubiquitination site that mediates its functional regulation by TRIM4. A Ub-activating enzyme E1, Ub-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1), was also found to interact with TRPM8, thereby regulating its channel function and ubiquitination. In addition, knockdown of UBA1 impaired the regulation of TRPM8 ubiquitination and function by TRIM4. Thus, this study demonstrates that TRIM4 downregulates TRPM8 via K423-mediated TRPM8 ubiquitination and requires UBA1 to regulate TRPM8.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 19597-19617, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052135

RESUMO

The tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation proteins (14-3-3) participate in the tumorigenesis and progression of numerous malignances, but their precise prognostic values in breast cancer (BrCa) remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression profiles and prognostic roles of 14-3-3 isoforms by employing multiple online databases. The transcriptional levels of most 14-3-3 isoforms in BrCa tissues were significantly higher than those in normal tissues. High mRNA expression of 14-3-3 beta/sigma/theta/zeta was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) in BrCa patients, while high mRNA expression of 14-3-3 epsilon was notably related to favorable OS. High mRNA expression of 14-3-3 beta/gamma/sigma/theta/zeta was significantly associated with poor relapse-free survival (RFS) in BrCa patients. A high mutation rate of 14-3-3 was determined to be associated with poor clinical outcomes. In addition, 14-3-3 expression was correlated with the infiltration of specific immune cells types. Analysis of the breast-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) network suggested that 14-3-3 proteins were involved in several potential oncogenic mechanisms in BrCa. Finally, we performed experimentally validated their oncogenic roles in BrCa. Overall, our findings systematically elucidate the expression and distinct prognostic value of 14-3-3 isoforms in BrCa, which may provide potential therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for BrCa.

5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 373, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and fibrinogen (Fib) are both associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The atherogenicity of Lp(a) can be partly due to the potentially antifibrinolytic categories. We hypothesize that patients with higher Lp(a) and Fib may have worse outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 8,417 Chinese patients with stable CAD from March 2011 to March 2017. All subjects were divided into 9 groups according to Lp(a) (Lp(a)-Low, Lp(a)-Medium, Lp(a)-High) and Fib levels (Fib-Low, Fib-Medium, Fib-High) and followed up for CVEs, including nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and C-statistic analyses were performed. RESULTS: During a median of 37.1 months' follow-up, 395 (4.7%) CVEs occurred. The occurrence of CVEs increased by Lp(a) (3.5 vs. 5.3 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and Fib (4.0 vs. 4.4 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) categories. When further classified into 9 groups by Lp(a) and Fib levels, the CVEs were highest in the 9th (Lp(a)-High and Fib-High) compared with the 1st (Lp(a)-Low and Fib-Low) group (7.2 vs. 3.3%, p < 0.001). The highest risk of subsequent CVEs was found in the 9th group (HRadjusted 2.656, 95% CI 1.628-4.333, p < 0.001), which was more significant than Lp(a)-High (HRadjusted 1.786, 95% CI 1.315-2.426, p < 0.001) or Fib-High (HRadjusted 1.558, 95% CI 1.162-2.089, p = 0.003) group. Moreover, adding the combined Lp(a) and Fib increased the C-statistic by 0.013. CONCLUSION: Combining Fib and Lp(a) enhance the prognostic value for incident CVEs beyond Lp(a) or Fib alone.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2004529, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006175

RESUMO

While microbial-based therapy has been considered as an effective strategy for treating diseases such as colon cancer, its safety remains the biggest challenge. Here, probiotics and prebiotics, which possess ideal biocompatibility and are extensively used as additives in food and pharmaceutical products, are combined to construct a safe microbiota-modulating material. Through the host-guest chemistry between commercial Clostridium butyricum and chemically modified prebiotic dextran, prebiotics-encapsulated probiotic spores (spores-dex) are prepared. It is found that spores-dex can specifically enrich in colon cancers after oral administration. In the lesion, dextran is fermented by C. butyricum, and thereby produces anti-cancer short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Additionally, spores-dex regulate the gut microbiota, augment the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria (e.g., Eubacterium and Roseburia), and markedly increase the overall richness of microbiota. In subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models, drug-loaded spores-dex inhibit tumor growth up to 89% and 65%, respectively. Importantly, no obvious adverse effect is found. The work sheds light on the possibility of using a highly safe strategy to regulate gut microbiota, and provides a promising avenue for treating various gastrointestinal diseases.

7.
Endocrinology ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068422

RESUMO

Estrogen is an important modulator of reproductive activity through nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Here, we observed that both estradiol and the GPER-specific agonist G1 rapidly induced cAMP production in cumulus cells, leading to transient stimulation of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which was conducive to the transcription of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors, amphiregulin, epiregulin, and betacellulin. Inhibition of GPER by G15 significantly reduced estradiol-induced CREB phosphorylation and EGF-like factor gene expression. Consistently, the silencing of GPER expression in cultured cumulus cells abrogated the estradiol-induced CREB phosphorylation and EGF-like factor transcription. In addition, the increase in EGF-like factor expression in the cumulus cells is associated with EGFR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GPER-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 was involved in reduced gap junction communication, cumulus expansion, increased oocyte mitochondrial activity and first polar body (PBΙ) extrusion. Overall, our study identified a novel function for estrogen in regulating EGFR activation via GPER in cumulus cells during oocyte maturation.

8.
Cell Res ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051594

RESUMO

Activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) through sensing cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity against exogenous infection as well as cellular regulation under stress. Aberrant activation of cGAS induced by self-DNA is related to autoimmune diseases. cGAS accumulates at chromosomes during mitosis or spontaneously in the nucleus. Binding of cGAS to the nucleosome competitively attenuates the dsDNA-mediated cGAS activation, but the molecular mechanism of the attenuation is still poorly understood. Here, we report two cryo-electron microscopy structures of cGAS-nucleosome complexes. The structures reveal that cGAS interacts with the nucleosome as a monomer, forming 1:1 and 2:2 complexes, respectively. cGAS contacts the nucleosomal acidic patch formed by the H2A-H2B heterodimer through the dsDNA-binding site B in both complexes, and could interact with the DNA from the other symmetrically placed nucleosome via the dsDNA-binding site C in the 2:2 complex. The bound nucleosome inhibits the activation of cGAS through blocking the interaction of cGAS with ligand dsDNA and disrupting cGAS dimerization. R236A or R255A mutation of cGAS impairs the binding between cGAS and the nucleosome, and largely relieves the nucleosome-mediated inhibition of cGAS activity. Our study provides structural insights into the inhibition of cGAS activity by the nucleosome, and advances the understanding of the mechanism by which hosts avoid the autoimmune attack caused by cGAS.

9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2877-2880, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018607

RESUMO

Error-related potentials (ErrPs) can reflect the brain's response to errors. Recently, it has been used in the studies on neural mechanisms of human cognition, such as error detection and conflict monitoring. Moreover, ErrPs have provided technical support for the development of brain-computer interface (BCI). However, the different effects of visual stimulation modes (dynamic or static) on ErrPs have not been revealed. This may seriously affect the recognition accuracy of the ErrPs in practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how people respond to different types of visual stimulations. Nineteen participants were recruited in the ErrPs-based tasks with two visual stimulation modes (dynamic and static). The ErrPs were analyzed and the feature values (N1, P2, P3, N6 and P8, named by the occurrence time) were statistically compared. The results showed that the difference between correctness and error was reflected in P3, N6, P8 in dynamic stimulation; and N1, P3, N6 and P8 in static stimulation. In the event-related potential based on error, the differences between dynamic and static tasks were reflected in N1 and P2. In conclusion, this study found that the features with later occurrence were significantly affected by correctness and error in both cases, while the error-related change in N1 only existed under the static stimulation. We also found that the recognition of stimulation modes came earlier within about 300 ms after the start of visual stimulation.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Encéfalo , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa
10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091956

RESUMO

Evidence links the liver to development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it remains unknown how liver function may influence CRC risk in the general population. We conducted a prospective cohort study in the UK Biobank of 375,693 participants who provided blood samples in 2006-2010. Circulating levels of liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB)] were measured. Incident cancer cases were identified through linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2019. Repeated biomarker measurements were available from a subset of 11,320 participants who were re-assessed in 2012-2013. After a median follow-up of 10.0 years, we documented 2,662 cases of CRC. Circulating levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, GGT, TP, and ALB at baseline were inversely associated with CRC risk (P<.01), with multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing decile 10 versus 1 of 0.62 (0.51-0.75), 0.63 (0.53-0.75), 0.85 (0.72-1.02), 0.74 (0.61-0.89), 0.70 (0.59-0.84), and 0.66 (0.55-0.79), respectively. Strengthened associations were found after recalibration for repeated measurements. The associations appeared stronger for proximal colon cancer than distal colon cancer and rectal cancer, but consistent for early-, mid-, and late-onset CRC. In a large cohort of general population, the UK Biobank, higher circulating levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, GGT, TP, and ALB, largely within the normal range, were associated with a lower risk of CRC. The findings support a link between liver function and CRC, and may spur future research on the gut-microbiota-liver axis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 231, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028807

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is an essential electron donor in all organisms, and provides the reducing power for anabolic reactions and redox balance. NADPH homeostasis is regulated by varied signaling pathways and several metabolic enzymes that undergo adaptive alteration in cancer cells. The metabolic reprogramming of NADPH renders cancer cells both highly dependent on this metabolic network for antioxidant capacity and more susceptible to oxidative stress. Modulating the unique NADPH homeostasis of cancer cells might be an effective strategy to eliminate these cells. In this review, we summarize the current existing literatures on NADPH homeostasis, including its biological functions, regulatory mechanisms and the corresponding therapeutic interventions in human cancers, providing insights into therapeutic implications of targeting NADPH metabolism and the associated mechanism for cancer therapy.

12.
Biomaterials ; 266: 120429, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035717

RESUMO

The normal chemotherapy only induces the intracellular apoptosis pathway to promote primary tumor cells death, while not inhibit tumor metastasis. Herein, we proposed a kind of heparanase (HPSE)-driven sequential released nanoparticles, which modified with ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) grafted heparin (NLC/H(D + F + S) NPs) co-loading with doxorubicin (DOX), ferrocene (Fc), and TGF-ß receptor inhibitor (SB431542). NLC/H(D + F + S) NPs successfully inhibited breast cancer metastasis by intracellular and extracellular hybrid mechanism. DOX and Fc loaded in NLC/H(D + F + S) NPs effectively enhanced intracellular ROS level to activate ferroptosis pathway, the enhanced ROS also induced the apoptosis pathway and decreased MMP-9 expression to synergize with ferroptosis for tumor therapy. In extracellular site, SB431542 was sequentially released by HPSE-driven, which blocked tumor metastasis by modulating tumor microenvironment, decreasing TAFs activation, and reducing the secretion of TGF-ß. In addition, anti-tumor immune response induced by ferroptosis further strengthened the effect of tumor therapy. Finally, under the help of intracellular and extracellular mechanisms launched by NLC/H(D + F + S) NPs, the satisfactory anti-tumor metastasis effect was obtained in the in vivo anti-tumor assays. Therefore, NLC/H(D + F + S) NPs was a novel dosage regimen for breast cancer therapy through intracellular and extracellular mechanisms, in which ferroptosis induced by ROS played an important role.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 2684672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101585

RESUMO

Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction or apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important cause of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although phillyrin has been shown to exert significant antioxidant effects, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of phillyrin on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced oxidative stress damage in RPE cells and the potential mechanism involved. It was found that phillyrin significantly protected RPE cells from H2O2 cytotoxicity. Furthermore, phillyrin alleviated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endogenous and exogenous apoptotic pathways. Compared with the H2O2-treated group, the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved polymerase (PARP), death receptor Fas, and cleaved caspase-8, as well as Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were decreased in RPE cells after the phillyrin intervention. In addition, phillyrin reversed the oxidative stress-induced reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and annulled the elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), thereby restoring oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Phillyrin treatment upregulated the expressions of cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and cyclin A and downregulated the expressions of p21 and p-p53, thereby reversing the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in H2O2-treated RPE cells. Pretreatment with phillyrin also increased the expressions of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), total Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductases-1 (NQO-1) in RPE cells and inhibited the formation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/Nrf2 protein complex. Thus, phillyrin effectively protected RPE cells from oxidative stress through activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e2004111, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103318

RESUMO

Halide perovskites are revolutionizing the renewable energy sector owing to their high photovoltaic efficiency, low manufacturing cost, and flexibility. Their remarkable mobility and long carrier lifetime are also valuable for information technology, but fundamental challenges like poor stability under an electric field prevent realistic applications of halide perovskites in electronics. Here, it is discovered that valleytronics is a promising route to leverage the advantages of halide perovskites and derivatives for information storage and processing. The synthesized all-inorganic lead-free perovskite derivative, Cs3 Bi2 I9 , exhibits strong light-matter interaction and parity-dependent optically addressable valley degree of freedom. Robust optical helicity in all odd-layer-number crystals with inversion symmetry breaking is observed, indicating excitonic coherence extending well beyond 11 layers. The excellent optical and valley properties of Cs3 Bi2 I9 arise from the unique parallel bands, according to first principles calculations. This discovery points to new materials design principles for scalable valleytronic devices and demonstrates the promise of perovskite derivatives beyond energy applications.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901513

RESUMO

A new meroterpene, chrysomutanin (1), two new meroterpenoids (4 and 5) together with nine known ones were isolated from the diethyl sulphate (DES) mutant 3d10-01 of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum S-3-25. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by their spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by Rh2-induced electrical circular dichroism (ECD) analysis or by comparison of the measured ECD with that of the known compounds. The cytotoxic activity was preliminarily evaluated against five human cancer cell lines. HPLC-UV analysis showed that compounds 1-12 were all newly produced by the mutant, and were not detected from the initial strain S-3-25. Chrysomutanin (1) is a new member with a chain sesquiterpene unit to the family of meroterpenes. Present results confirm that DES mutagenesis strategy is an effective method to exploit the dormant metabolites of fungi.

16.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited susceptibility accounts for nearly one-third of colorectal cancer (CRC) predispositions and has an 80%-100% lifetime risk of this disease. However, there are few data about germline mutations of hereditary CRC-related genes in Chinese patients with CRC. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of gene mutations related to cancer susceptibility among Chinese patients with CRC, differences between Chinese and Western patients, and the phenotype-genotype correlation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected tumor samples from 526 patients with CRC under 70 years old who underwent hereditary CRC genetic testing. A series of bioinformatic analyses, as well as statistical comparisons, were performed. RESULTS: We found that 77 patients (14.6%) harbored functional variants of the 12 genes. The mutation frequencies of the top 5 mutated genes were 6.5% for MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), 5.1% for MutS homolog 2 (MSH2), 1.0% for MSH6, 0.8% for PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2), and 0.8% for APC regulator of the WNT signaling pathway (APC). Our data showed much higher rates of mutations of MSH6 and PMS2 genes among all mismatch repair (MMR) genes as compared with those in Western populations. Mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 were found to be mutually exclusive. Patients with MLH1 or MSH2 mutations had higher frequencies of personal history of cancer (MLH1: 20.6% vs. 8.7%; MSH2: 25.9% vs. 8.6%) and family history of cancer than those without these mutations (MLH1: 73.5% vs. 48.4%; MSH2: 70.4% vs. 48.9%), and the lesions were more prone to occur on the right side of the colon than on the left side (MLH1: 73.5% vs. 29.3%; MSH2: 56.0% vs. 31.0%). The proportion of stage I/II disease was higher in patients with MLH1 mutations than in those without MLH1 mutations (70.6% vs. 50.7%), and the rate of polyps was higher in patients with APC mutations than in those with wild-type APC (75.0% vs. 17.4%). CONCLUSION: These results provide a full-scale landscape of hereditary susceptibility over 12 related genes in CRC patients and suggest that a comprehensive multi-gene panel testing for hereditary CRC predisposition could be a helpful analysis in clinical practice.

17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23574, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) remains challenging due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and biomarkers. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have proved to be potential biomarkers for numerous cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to quantitatively analyze the expression of plasma miRNA-190 and miRNA-197 in patients with PTE and to evaluate the diagnostic value for PTE. METHODS: Thirty patients diagnosed with PTE by computed tomographic pulmonary angiography at the emergency department were enrolled in this study, and plasma was collected immediately. For comparison, myocardial infarction (MI, n = 45) and healthy participants (NC, n = 45) were recruited as the control groups. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to reveal the relative expression levels of miRNA-190 and miRNA-197 in each group. The plasma concentrations of D-dimer were measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. The diagnostic value was evaluated by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: The relative expression levels of miRNA-190 and miRNA-197 in the PTE group were both significantly higher than in the MI group (t = 3.602 t = 4.791, P < .05, respectively) and the healthy control group (t = 5.814, t = 5.886, P < .05, respectively). As diagnostic indicator, the sensitivity and specificity of miRNA-190 were 75.56% and 80%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.7844 (95%CI: 0.6858-0.8831, P < .001). The sensitivity and specificity of miRNA-197 were 73.33% and 86.67%, respectively, with an AUC value of 0.7931 (95%CI: 0.6870-0.8991, P < .001). Combining miRNA-190 and miRNA-197 with D-dimer levels significantly increased the diagnostic power, improving the AUC to 0.9536 (95% CI: 0.9083-0.9989, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The relative expression levels of miRNA-190 and miRNA-197 in PTE patients were significantly higher than in the MI and healthy control groups, indicating that (a) both may be involved in the pathophysiological process of PTE and (b) both may serve as potential noninvasive diagnostic markers for PTE. The combination of miRNA-190, miRNA-197, and D-dimer levels showed better sensitivity and specificity, which is more conducive to the diagnosis of PTE.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115429, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866870

RESUMO

The effects of microplastics pollution on the marine ecosystem have aroused attention. Copepod grazing stimulates dimethylsulfide (DMS) release from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in phytoplankton, but the effect of microplastics exposure on DMS and DMSP production during copepod feeding has not yet been revealed. Here, we investigated the effects of polyethylene (PE) and polyamide-nylon 6 (PA 6) microplastics on ecotoxicity and DMS/DMSP production in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The microplastics had detrimental effects on feeding, egestion, reproduction, survival, and DMS and DMSP production in T. japonicus and presented significant dose-response relationships. The 24 h-EC50 for ingestion rates (IRs) of female T. japonicus exposed to PE and PA 6 were 57.6 and 58.9 mg L-1, respectively. In comparison, the body size of the copepods was not significantly affected by the microplastics during one generation of culture. Ingesting fluorescently labeled microplastics confirmed that microplastics were ingested by T. japonicus and adhered to the organs of the body surface. T. japonicus grazing promoted DMS release originating from degradation of DMSP in algal cells. Grazing-activated DMS production decreased because of reduced IR in the presence of microplastics. These results provide new insight into the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur during feeding in copepods exposed to microplastics.

19.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eabb5820, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923642

RESUMO

How parental histones, the carriers of epigenetic modifications, are deposited onto replicating DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the eSPAN method (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and use it to detect histone deposition onto replicating DNA strands with a relatively small number of cells. We show that DNA polymerase α (Pol α), which synthesizes short primers for DNA synthesis, binds histone H3-H4 preferentially. A Pol α mutant defective in histone binding in vitro impairs the transfer of parental H3-H4 to lagging strands in both yeast and mouse ES cells. Last, dysregulation of both coding genes and noncoding endogenous retroviruses is detected in mutant ES cells defective in parental histone transfer. Together, we report an efficient eSPAN method for analysis of DNA replication-linked processes in mouse ES cells and reveal the mechanism of Pol α in parental histone transfer.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e20875, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of sotagliflozin (SOTA) adjuvant therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Through April 2019, the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were electronically searched to identify randomized controlled trials exploring SOTA adjuvant therapy for T1DM. Strict screening and quality evaluations of the obtained literature were performed independently by 2 researchers. Outcome indexes were extracted, and a meta-analysis of the data was performed using Revman 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 7 randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis results showed that compared with the patients in the placebo group, the patients in the SOTA group had a lower hemoglobin A1c (mean difference [MD] = -0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.34, -0.22], P < .01), lower total daily insulin use (MD = -8.89, 95% CI [-11.64, -6.13], P < .01), faster weight loss (MD = -3.03, 95% CI [-3.79, -2.26], P < .01), better fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose control (MD = -0.75, 95% CI [-1.04, -0.45], P < .01; MD = -2.42, 95% CI [-3.17, -1.67], P < .01), and a higher rate of well-controlled glucose levels (relative risk = 1.75, 95% CI [1.55, 1.99], P < .01), while no significant difference in the incidence of severe hypoglycemic events was found between the SOTA and placebo groups (risk difference [RD] = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.00], P = .13). The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the SOTA group than in the placebo group (RD = 0.03, 95% CI [0.02, 0.04], P < .01). The incidence of genital mycotic infection was higher in the SOTA group than in the placebo group (RD = 0.06, 95% CI [0.05, 0.08], P < .01). No significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infections was detected between the SOTA group and the placebo group (RD = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.01], P = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: SOTA is a potential drug for the treatment of T1DM and is effective for controlling blood sugar. The main adverse reactions to SOTA are genital mycotic infections and diabetic ketoacidosis. We must further assess the severity of diabetic ketoacidosis caused by SOTA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos adversos , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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