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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3328-3337, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212658

RESUMO

At present, there are few reports about how impervious surface microstructure characteristics affect the runoff output process of street dust. Based on field observations of 12 rainfall events, this study quantified the microstructure characteristics of impervious surfaces by structural depth (roughness) and analyzed the correlation between roughness and accumulation characteristics of street dust on sunny days as well as scouring characteristics in rainy days. The results show that the roughness of the underlying surface notably affects dust accumulation on sunny days and scouring in rainy days. The correlation between roughness and street dust accumulation (r=0.664, P<0.01) was enhanced on sunny days, and the correlation between roughness and street dust erosion (r=0.527, P<0.01) was enhanced by rainfall. The correlation of street dust accumulation and roughness of each particle size segment increased as particle size increased (0.529 ≤ r<0.757), and the correlation between street dust scouring amount and roughness decreased as particle size increased (0.603 > R > 0.209). By establishing the linear regression model of roughness and rainfall, the cumulative pollution load of TSS in rainfall runoff can be well predicted. The effects of roughness and rainfall on the cumulative load of grain sizes<20 µm and >250 µm are significant. These results elucidate the role of roughness and rainfall analysis in predicting surface runoff pollution load characteristics, which can provide new information for predicting and evaluating urban non-point source pollution.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2303, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common disease in men and has a relatively high mortality rate. However, the interventional medical equipment used for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy has always been a social concern. METHODS: To understand interventional medical equipment for prostate cancer, the structure of manual, semi-automatic and automatic medical equipment were considered as the mainline, while the corresponding research on these structures were the auxiliary lines. The characteristics and corresponding research status have been discussed. RESULTS: Interventional medical equipment for prostate cancer with different degrees of automation and its characteristics were determined, and the imaging principles and characteristics of computed tomography, transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been briefly described. CONCLUSION: Certain feasible research suggestions have been proposed for future development from the perspective of structure, accuracy and safety. These include flexible and compact robot structures, high-precision image recognition and guidance, accurate dose planning and monitoring, real-time imaging monitoring without delay, high-precision needle insertion strategy, master-slave control, virtual reality and remote control.

3.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232054

RESUMO

Corydalis acuminata Franch., C. edulis Maxim. and C. racemosa (Thunb.) Pers. of family Papaveraceae are rich in multiple alkaloids and widely used as Chinese medicinal herbs, for treating cough, pruritus, sores tinea and snake venom (Zhang et al. 2008, Iranshahy et al. 2014). In April 2021, orange rust pustules were observed on C. acuminata, C. edulis and C. racemosa in Shaanxi Province (34°4'56'' N, 108°2'9'' E, alt. 770 m), China. Samples were collected and voucher specimens were preserved in the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae (nos. HMAS249947-HMAS249949), China. Consequent geospatial investigations revealed that diseased plants can be observed at an altitude of 400-1000 m, and show an incidence from 40% to 80% varied by altitude. Spermogonia epiphyllous, subcuticular, densely grouped, oval or round, 0.14-0.36 × 0.09-0.30 mm, pale orange-yellow, and type 3 of Cummins and Hiratsuka (1963). Aecia mostly hypophyllous, subepidermal without peridia, Caeoma-type, erumpent, densely grouped, oval or round, 0.27-0.85 × 0.15-0.43 mm, and orange-yellow; hyaline peridial cells produced in a periphery of the sorus under the ruptured epidermis of host plants. Aeciospores globoid or broadly ellipsoid, catenulate with intercalary cells, 15.7-20.1 × 10.8-15.7 µm, yellow to pale orange; walls hyaline, verrucose, 1.7-3.1 µm thick. This fungus was morphologically identified as Melampsora (Melampsoraceae). The rDNA-28S and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified using primers NL1/NL4 and ITS1/ITS4 (Ji et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2020). Bi-directional sequences were assembled and deposited in GenBank (accession nos. MW990091-MW990093 and MW996576-MW996578). Phylogenetic trees were constructed with the ITS+rDNA-28S dataset based on maximum-likelihood (ML), maximum-parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI). ML and MP bootstrap values were calculated by bootstrap analyses of 1,000 replicates using MEGA-X (Kumar et al. 2018), while BI posterior probabilities (Bpps) were calculated using MrBayes ver. 3.1.2 (Ji et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2020). Phylogenetic analyses grouped our specimens and Melampsora ferrinii Toome & Aime into one clade, highly supported by bootstrap values of ML, MP, and Bpps of 100%/100%/1. Inoculations were conducted with 1-year-old plants of original host, Salix babylonica L. (Toome & Aime 2015). Aeciospores suspension with a concentration of 106 spores/ml were sprayed on 20 healthy leaves, with another 20 healthy leaves sprayed with sterile water as the control. The inoculated plants were kept in darkness at 20-25 °C for 2 days and then transferred into greenhouse at 23°C with 16 h light per day. After 8-10 days of inoculation, yellow pustules of uredinia appeared on abaxial surfaces of the inoculated leaves, which were identical to Toome & Aime (2015) reported, while the control leaves remained healthy. Inoculations with the same method were conducted by spraying urediniospores, and the same rust symptoms developed after 8 days. Genus Corydalis was verified as the alternate host of M. chelidonii-pierotii Tak. Matsumoto, M. coleosporioides Dietel, M. idesiae Miyabe and M. yezoensis Miyabe & T. Matsumoto (Shinyama & Yamaoka 2012; Okane et al. 2014; Yamaoka & Okane 2019), and C. incisa (Thunb.) Pers. was speculated as the potential alternate host of M. ferrinii (Toome & Aime 2015). Based on morphology, phylogeny and pathogenicity, we firstly report M. ferrinii in mainland China and verify C. acuminata, C. edulis and C. racemosa instead of C. incisa as its alternate hosts.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its advanced stage, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other end-stage liver disease. However, the potential mechanism and therapeutic strategies have not been clarified. This study aimed to identify potential roles of miRNA/mRNA axis in the pathogenesis and drug combinations in the treatment of NASH. METHODS: Microarray GSE59045 and GSE48452 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus and analyzed using R. Then we obtained differentially expressed genes (DE-genes). DAVID database was used for Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were used for the identification of hub genes. We found upstream regulators of hub genes using miRTarBase. The expression and correlation of key miRNA and its targets were detected by qPCR. Drug Pair Seeker was employed to predict drug combinations against NASH. The expression of miRNA and hub genes in HCC was identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas database and Human Protein Atlas database. RESULTS: Ninety-four DE-genes were accessed. GO and KEGG analysis showed that these predicted genes were linked to lipid metabolism. Eleven genes were identified as hub genes in PPI networks, and they were highly expressed in cells with vigorous lipid metabolism. hsa-miR-335-5p was the upstream regulator of 9 genes in the 11 hub genes, and it was identified as a key miRNA. The hub genes were highly expressed in NASH models, while hsa-miR-335-5p was lowly expressed. The correlation of miRNA-mRNA was established by qPCR. Functional verification indicated that hsa-miR-335-5p had inhibitory effect on the development of NASH. Finally, drug combinations were predicted and the expression of miRNA and hub genes in HCC was identified. CONCLUSIONS: In the study, potential miRNA-mRNA pathways related to NASH were identified. Targeting these pathways may be novel strategies against NASH.

5.
Phytomedicine ; 89: 153599, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic disease. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC IIs) is increasingly thought to be a critical mechanism. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of citrus alkaline extracts (CAE) on AEC IIs and elucidated the underlying mechanism for their possible use in ameliorating pulmonary fibrosis (PF). METHODS: A bleomycin-induced mouse model of PF, and an in vitro tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress model in A549 cells were successfully established. Accumulation of collagen in lung tissues in vivo was assessed using histological analysis and western blotting. The expression levels of the ER-stress marker BiP and other related proteins were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed to evaluate mitochondrial homeostasis. RESULTS: CAE mitigated collagen deposition to ameliorate PF in vivo. CAE suppressed the bleomycin or TM-induced increases in ER-stress biomarker, BiP, and PERK pathway proteins, resulting in a decrease in ER stress in mouse lung tissues and A549 cells, respectively. Additionally, CAE treatment suppressed the bleomycin or TM-induced increase in the ER-stress downstream proteins, activating ATF3 and increased the levels of PINK1 in AEC IIs, both in vivo and in vitro. The reduced mitochondrial homeostasis induced by TM was restored by CAE-treatment in A549 cells. Furthermore, conditioned media from TM-treated A549 cells increased collagen deposition in MRC5 cells mainly via TGF-ß1. The increased collagen deposition was not seen using conditioned media from CAE-treated A549 cells. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights into the potential mechanism of CAE in inhibiting ER stress in AEC IIs, and suggests that it has great potential to ameliorate PF via the ATF3/PINK1 pathway.

6.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236989

RESUMO

This article considers the security-based passivity problem for a class of discrete-time Markov jump systems in the presence of deception attacks, where the deception attacks aim to change the transmitted signal. Considering the impact of deception attacks on network disruption, it causes the existence of time-varying delays in signal transmission inevitably, which makes the controlled system and the controller work asynchronously. The asynchronous control method is employed to overcome the nonsynchronous phenomenon between the system mode and controller mode. On the other hand, to reduce the frequency of data transmission, a resilient asynchronous event-triggered control scheme taking deception attacks into account is designed to save communication resources, and the proposed controller can cover some existing ones as special examples. Moreover, different triggering conditions corresponding to different jumping modes are developed to decide whether state signals should be transferred. A new stability criterion is derived to ensure the passivity of the resultant system although there exist deception attacks. Finally, a simulation example is given to verify the theoretical analysis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270434

RESUMO

The issue of finite-time state estimation is studied for discrete-time Markovian bidirectional associative memory neural networks. The asymmetrical system mode-dependent (SMD) time-varying delays (TVDs) are considered, which means that the interval of TVDs is SMD. Because the sensors are inevitably influenced by the measurement environments and indirectly influenced by the system mode, a Markov chain, whose transition probability matrix is SMD, is used to describe the inconstant measurement. A nonfragile estimator is designed to improve the robustness of the estimator. The stochastically finite-time bounded stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Finally, an example is used to clarify the effectiveness of the state estimation.

8.
J BUON ; 26(3): 889-896, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of different perioperative regimens using network meta-analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hepatic/portal vein thrombosis. The interested modalities included neoadjuvant three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), post-operative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). post-operative transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and surgery alone. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases were systematically searched for eligible studies published up to November 2020. Data related to treatment efficacy including overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted and compared using a Bayesian approach. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed and compared. RESULTS: Four studies published between 2005 and 2020 involving a total of 422 patients were enrolled in this network meta-analysis. The comparison showed that surgery with IMRT ranked relatively higher in prolonging OS in advanced HCC patients, followed by neoadjuvant 3DCRT and surgery plus TACE. Postoperative IMRT appeared better choice in terms of DFS. The rate of AEs did not significantly differ. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant IMRT showed more favorable treatment responses compared with other regimens in HCC patients with hepatic/portal vein thrombosis.

9.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242038

RESUMO

MnBi8Te13 is an intrinsic ferromagnetic (FM) topological insulator with different complex surface terminations. Resolving the electronic structures of different termination surfaces and manipulation of the electronic state are important. Here, by using micrometer spot time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (µ-TrARPES), we resolve the electronic structures and reveal the ultrafast dynamics upon photoexcitation. Photoinduced filling of the surface state hybridization gap is observed for the Bi2Te3 quintuple layer directly above MnBi2Te4 accompanied by a nontrivial shift of the surface state, suggesting light-tunable interlayer interaction. Relaxation of photoexcited electrons and holes is observed within 1-2 ps. Our work reveals photoexcitation as a potential control knob for tailoring the interlayer interaction and surface state of MnBi8Te13.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26666, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility of using cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws for bridging fixation in revision surgery for lumbar adjacent segment degeneration and to provide a reference for clinical practice. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of the lumbar spines of 36 patients in our hospital were used. Sixteen males and 20 females with an average age of 65.5 ±â€Š10.5 years (range: 46 to 83 years) were included. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using computer software. Screws with appropriate sizes were selected for the L1 to L5 vertebral segments, and traditional pedicle screws were placed using the standard method. After completing screw placement, simulated placement of CBT screws was performed separately. No overlap occurred between the two screws in the process of CBT screw placement, and the placement point and direction were adjusted until screw placement completion. After all screw placement simulations were complete, according to the contact area of the cortical bone of the screw trajectory and the screw puncture position and distance through the trajectory, the screw placement results were categorized as excellent, good, general, and failure. Excellent and good ratings were considered successful, while a general rating was regarded as acceptable. Then, the success rate and acceptable rate of each segment of the lumbar spine were calculated. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty screw placement simulations were performed in lumbar pedicles, and 72 CBT screws were implanted in each vertebral body of the lumbar spine. The success rates in the L1 to L5 segments were 73.6%, 80.6%, 83.3%, 88.9%, and 77.8%, respectively, and the acceptable rates were 91.7%, 97.2%, 97.2%, 100%, and 91.7%, respectively. The overall success rate and acceptable rate of CBT screw placement in the lumbar spine were 80.8% and 95.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: CBT screws are feasible for bridging fixation in lumbar adjacent segment degeneration revision surgery, and the accuracy of screw placement in different lumbar vertebrae varies.

11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) belongs to the lipid transfer glycoprotein family. Studies have shown that it is closely related to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the exact effect and mechanism remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of PLTP overexpression on behavioral dysfunction and the related mechanisms in APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mice. METHODS: AAV-PLTP-EGFP was injected into the lateral ventricle to induce PLTP overexpression. The memory of 3×Tg-AD mice and wild type (WT) mice aged 10 months were assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) and shuttle-box passive avoidance test (PAT). Western blotting and ELISA assays were used to quantify the protein contents. Hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and immunochemistry staining were utilized in observing the pathological changes in the brain. RESULTS: 3×Tg-AD mice displayed cognitive impairment in WMW and PAT, which was ameliorated by PLTP overexpression. The histopathological hallmarks of AD, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, were observed in 3×Tg-AD mice and were improved by PLTP overexpression. Besides, the increase of amyloid-ß42 (Aß 42) and Aß 40 were found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice and reversed by PLTP overexpression through inhibiting APP and PS1. PLTP overexpression also reversed tau phosphorylation at the Ser404, Thr231 and Ser199 of the hippocampus in 3×Tg-AD mice. Furthermore, PLTP overexpression induced the glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) inactivation via upregulating GSK3ß (pSer9). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PLTP overexpression has neuroprotective effects. These effects are possibly achieved through the inhibition of the Aß production and tau phosphorylation, which is related to GSK3ß inactivation.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197326

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition is an inherently prolonged process, whose acceleration has long been the subject of research. This is commonly achieved by obtaining multiple undersampled images, simultaneously, through parallel imaging. In this article, we propose the dual-octave network (DONet), which is capable of learning multiscale spatial-frequency features from both the real and imaginary components of MR data, for parallel fast MR image reconstruction. More specifically, our DONet consists of a series of dual-octave convolutions (Dual-OctConvs), which are connected in a dense manner for better reuse of features. In each Dual-OctConv, the input feature maps and convolutional kernels are first split into two components (i.e., real and imaginary) and then divided into four groups according to their spatial frequencies. Then, our Dual-OctConv conducts intragroup information updating and intergroup information exchange to aggregate the contextual information across different groups. Our framework provides three appealing benefits: 1) it encourages information interaction and fusion between the real and imaginary components at various spatial frequencies to achieve richer representational capacity; 2) the dense connections between the real and imaginary groups in each Dual-OctConv make the propagation of features more efficient by feature reuse; and 3) DONet enlarges the receptive field by learning multiple spatial-frequency features of both the real and imaginary components. Extensive experiments on two popular datasets (i.e., clinical knee and fastMRI), under different undersampling patterns and acceleration factors, demonstrate the superiority of our model in accelerated parallel MR image reconstruction.

13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2035-2044, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212609

RESUMO

Engraulis japonicus, an important fishery resource, is a key species in ecosystem trophodynamics studies. In this study, we examined stomach content of E. japonicusby stable isotope analyses, with samples collected from the East China Sea in 2008-2009 and 2020. The aim of this study was to demonstrate their diet composition, diel and ontogenetic changes in feeding habits and trophic level. Results of the stomach content analysis showed that E. japonicus mainly fed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish. The main prey species were Euphausia pacifica [index of relative importance (IRI)=87.6%; frequency(F)=57.6%], Paracalanus parvus (IRI=3.2%, F=15.3%), and Themisto gracilipes (IRI=2.1%, F=13.1%). Results of the stable isotope analysis showed that Copepoda were the main food source of E. japonicus, followed by Euphausiacea, and the contribution rate of Amphipoda was the least, which was less than 1%. There was significant diel change in diet composition. Feeding intensity was higher in the daytime than at night, with the highest in the dusk and the lowest at midnight. Ontogenetic change in feeding habit occurred when fork length reached 90 mm, over which the fish fed both zooplankton and small fishes. The δ13C of E. japonicus was between -21.66‰ and -18.14‰, with an average of (-19.92±0.86)‰. The δ15N of E. japonicus ranged from 4.07‰ to 10.78‰, with an average of (8.14±2.48)‰. Both δ13C and δ15N values were positively correlated with fork length. Trophic level of the fish was 3.4 with stomach content analysis and 2.7 with stable isotope analysis. The results would provide important reference for understanding nutritional status of pelagic small fish, and offer some basic data to establish ecopath model.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
14.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6652297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221209

RESUMO

Introduction: The modification of lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is another biological function of histone in addition to modification of lysine acetylation (Kac), which may play a specific regulatory role in diseases. Objectives: This study compared the expression levels of Kcr and proteome between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) combined with type II respiratory failure (RF) to study the relationship between Kcr, proteome, and COPD. Methods: We tested the Kcr and proteome of COPD combined with type II RF and normal control (NC) using croton acylation enrichment technology and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with high resolution. Results: We found that 32 sites of 23 proteins were upregulated and 914 sites of 295 proteins were downregulated. We performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein domain, and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis on crotonylated protein. In proteomics research, we found that 190 proteins were upregulated and 151 proteins were downregulated. Among them, 90 proteins were both modified by differentially expressed crotonylation sites and differentially expressed in COPD combined with type II RF and NC. Conclusion: Differentially expressed crotonylation sites may be involved in the development of COPD combined with type II RF. 90 proteins modified by crotonylation and differentially expressed in COPD combined with type II RF can be used as markers for the study of the molecular pathogenesis of COPD combined with type II RF.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195718

RESUMO

A porous MA-VA-PcNi polymer was prepared by grafting nickel phthalocyanine (PcNi) onto the main chain of a maleic anhydride-vinyl acetate (MA-VA) polymer, and an MA-VA-PcNi electrode is prepared by electrospinning technology to inhibit the agglomeration of the active powder effectively, which produces spherical particles with a diameter of 100-300 nm. The synthesized MA-VA-PcNi polymer is used as the anode for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, exhibiting excellent energy storage behaviors. The MA-VA-PcNi/Li battery displays a high capacity of 610 mA h g-1 and can still remain at 507 mA h g-1 with a retention rate of 83.1% after 400 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Even at a high current density of 2 A g-1, the specific capacity can remain at 195 mA h g-1. In addition, the MA-VA-PcNi/Na battery displays a high capacity of 336 mA h g-1 and can still remain at 278 mA h g-1 with a retention rate of 82.7% after 400 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. A high specific capacity of 164 mA h g-1 can also be achieved at a high current density of 1 A g-1. After nickel phthalocyanine (PcNi) was grafted onto the MA-VA polymer, aggregation between phthalocyanine rings was effectively prevented, and this exposes more active sites. At the same time, the spherical particles obtained by electrospinning technology further improve the dispersion and increase the number of active sites of the active materials. Finally, the electrode materials show excellent energy storage behavior for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, which provides a new idea for designing high-performance energy storage materials for organic electrodes.

16.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 151, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAA) is widely used in pretreatment of lignocellulose because it has a good capability in selective delignification. However, high concentration (more than 60%) of HPAA increases the cost of pretreatment and the risk of explosion. In this work, alkaline post-incubation was employed to decrease the HPAA loading and improve the saccharification of poplar. RESULTS: Pretreatment with 100% HPAA removed 91.0% lignin and retained 89.9% glucan in poplar. After poplar was pretreated by 100% HPAA at 60 °C for 2 h, the glucan conversion in enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase increased to 90.1%. Alkaline incubation reduced the total lignin, surface lignin, and acetyl group of HPAA-pretreated poplar. More than 92% acetyl groups of HPAA-pretreated poplar were removed by alkaline incubation with 1.0% NaOH at 50 °C for 1 h. After incubation of 60% HPAA-pretreated poplar with 1.0% NaOH, the glucan conversion enhanced to 95.0%. About 40% HPAA loading in pretreatment was reduced by alkaline incubation without the decrease of glucose yield. CONCLUSIONS: Alkaline post-incubation had strong ability on the deacetylation and delignification of HPAA-pretreated poplar, exhibiting a strong promotion on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. This report represented alkaline incubation reduced the HPAA loading, improved pretreatment safety, exhibiting excellent potential application in saccharification of poplar.

17.
Neurosci Lett ; 760: 136072, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction triggers early pathological changes in artery, leading to the formation of intracranial aneurysm (ICA). Increase in plasma homocysteine (Hcy) impairs endothelium and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical in repairing damaged endothelium. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of simvastatin on ICA formation in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). METHODS: ICAs were induced in Male Sprague-Dawley rats after surgical induction in the presence of HHcy induced by a high L-methionine diet with or without oral simvastatin treatment. The size and media thickness of ICAs were evaluated 2 months after aneurysm induction. EPCs and serum vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) were measured be flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. Plasma Hcy levels and expression of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 in aneurysmal walls were examined and correlated with ICA formation. RESULTS: HHcy accelerates ICA formation and rats treated with simvastatin exhibited a significant increase in media thickness and a reduction in aneurysmal size. Simvastatin increased levels of circulating EPCs and decreased iNOS, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA levels, while increased eNOS mRNA in aneurysmal tissue. CONCLUSION: In a rat model, HHcy reduces circulating EPCs and accelerates ICA formation. Simvastatin treatment increases circulating EPCs and inhabits the formation of ICA. We have shown a close association among circulating EPCs, biochemical markers related to vascular remodeling and the formation of ICA.

18.
Water Res ; 201: 117335, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175727

RESUMO

Sustainable seawater brine treatment demands an essential paradigm shift for effective recovery of resources and high value utilization of mixed-salts. Here, a novel hybrid electrodialysis (ED) system was proposed that integrated an innovative hybrid selective ED (HSED) and a developed selective bipolar membrane ED (SBMED). The HSED process allowed simultaneous recovery of major divalent cations and anions from seawater brine when NaCl was selectively enriched. Then, the impure NaCl-rich stream was fed directly into the SBMED process for acid/base preparation without any purification pretreatment. Detailed analysis of the HSED process showed that increasing unit voltage from 2.33 V to 2.67 V would improve the removal ratio of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- from 54.7%, 41.4% and 13.3% to 78.9%, 76.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In addition, the increment of initial concentration of product streams promoted the transport of various ions from the feed and middle compartments. The fine utilization performance, in terms of ionic removal ratio and fractionation ratio of divalent ions in the HSED process, was more limited by the initial concentration of product streams. Furthermore, the SBMED stack was found to have nearly identical performance over five cycles, indicating that the presence of a trace amount of hardness cations did not induce scaling. The current study thus provided a novel suitable strategy with a perspective of fine utilization for practical applications in sustainable disposal of seawater brine.

19.
Food Chem ; 364: 130235, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175625

RESUMO

The effects of brewing water on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of tea infusions made from Chinese teas were investigated. The tea infusions brewed in water with higher pH and total dissolved solids (TDS), generally had a darker color and lower overall sensory acceptability. Moreover, those infusions had less catechins, particularly galloylated-catechins, and lower antioxidant capacity. The teas with less fermentation contained more galloylated-catechins and had higher antioxidant capacity, but were much more susceptible to high mineral brewing water. Green tea was proved to be the most susceptible one, whereas dark tea the most stable one. Green tea infusions prepared with higher pH/TDS water were more rapidly oxidized, resulting in a darker color due to polymerization of catechins, when exposed to the air. These findings suggested that low mineral brewing water was better for Chinese tea, both from the sensory and health benefit perspectives.

20.
Food Chem ; 363: 130322, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147900

RESUMO

Zijuan tea is a representative anthocyanin-rich tea cultivar in China. In this study, Zijuan tea was used to produce a novel kombucha beverage (ZTK). The physicochemical, sensory properties, and antioxidant activity of ZTK were compared with that of black tea kombucha (BTK) and green tea kombucha (GTK). Results indicated that after fermentation, the color of ZTK changed from yellowish-brown to salmon-pink, because its anthocyanins (4.5 mg/L) appeared red in acidic conditions. Meanwhile no significant changes of color were observed in BTK and GTK. The dynamic changes of pH, biomass, and concentrations of sugars, amino acids, and main organic acids were similar in three kombucha beverages, except catechins showing different trends. Moreover, ZTK showed the highest overall acceptability score, antioxidant activity, and concentration of volatiles among the three kombucha beverages. Therefore, Zijuan tea is suitable for the preparation of kombucha beverage with attractive color and health benefits.

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