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1.
Physiol Genomics ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682178

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the expression and mechanism of action of lncRNAs in atherosclerosis are still unclear. We implemented microarray analysis in human advanced atherosclerotic plaques and normal arterial intimae to detect the lncRNA and mRNA expression profile. Gene Ontology functional enrichment and pathway analyses were applied to explore the potential functions and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A total of 236 lncRNAs and 488 mRNAs were selected for further Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Moreover, qRT-PCR tests of most selected lncRNAs and mRNAs with high fold changes were consistent with the microarray data. We also performed ELISA to investigate the corresponding proteins levels of selected genes and showed that serum levels of SPP1, CD36, ATP6V0D2, CHI3L1, MYH11 and BDNF were differentially expressed in patients with coronary heart disease compared with healthy subjects.These proteins correlated with some biochemical parameters used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a favorable diagnostic performance.The microarray profiling analysis and validation of differentially-expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in atherosclerosis not only provide new insights into the pathogenesis of this disease, but may also reveal new biomarkers for its diagnosis and treatment.

2.
Med Phys ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682020

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a new scintillating fiber-based electronic portal imaging device (EPID) with a high quantum efficiency (QE) while preserving an adequate spatial resolution. METHODS: Two prototypes were built: one with a single pixel readout and the other with an active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) for readout. The energy conversion layer of both prototypes was made of scintillating fiber layers interleaved with corrugated lead sheets to form a honeycomb pattern. The scintillating fibers have a diameter of 1 mm and the distance between the centers of neighboring fibers on the same layer is 1.35 mm. The layers have 1.22 mm spacing between them. The energy conversion layer has a thickness of 2 cm. The modulation transfer function (MTF), antiscatter properties and sensitivity of the detector with a single pixel readout were measured using a 6-MV beam on a LINAC machine. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to calculate the zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE(0)) of the proposed detector with an active matrix flat-panel imager for readout. RESULTS: The DQE(0) of the proposed detector can be 11.5%, which is about an order of magnitude higher than that of current EPIDs. The frequency of 50% modulation ( f 50 ) of the measured MTF is 0.2 mm - 1 at 6 MV, which is comparable to that of video-based EPIDs. The scatter to primary ratio (SPR) measured with the detector at 10 cm air gap and 20 × 20 cm 2 field size is approximately 30% lower than that of ionization chamber-based detectors with a comparable QE. The detector noise which includes the x-ray quantum noise and absorption noise is much larger than the electronic noise per pixel of the flat-panel imager at a dose of less than two LINAC pulses. Thus, the proposed detector is quantum noise limited down to very low doses (∼a couple of radiation pulses of the LINAC). A proof-of-concept image has been obtained using a 6-MV beam. CONCLUSIONS: This work indicates that by using scintillating fibers and lead layers it is possible to increase the thickness of the detecting materials, and therefore the QE or the DQE(0) of the detector, while maintaining an adequate spatial resolution for MV x-ray imaging. Due to the use of lead as the spacing material, the new detector also has antiscatter property, which will help improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. Further investigation to optimize the design of the detector and achieve a better combination of DQE and spatial resolution is warranted.

3.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107464, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771933

RESUMO

AIMS: Our aim was to search for clinical predictors of good glycemic control in patients starting or intensifying oral hypoglycemic pharmacological therapy. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort of 499 diabetic subjects was enrolled in this study: patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM group) or poor glycemic control with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (PDM group). All subjects then started or intensified OADs therapy and followed up for 91 days. Glycemic control was determined according to HbA1c at day 91 with HbA1c <7% considered good. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with good glycemic control after follow up for 91 days were 66.9% and 34.8% in NDM group and PDM group respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the change in GA at 28 days was the only predictor of good glycemic control in NDM patients (OR = 1.630, 95% CI 1.300-2.044, P < 0.001). In PDM patients, changes in GA at 28 days, CPI, baseline HbA1c, diabetic duration, and BMI were all independent predictors of good glycemic control (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: GA decline is a good predictor of future success in newly diagnosed patients. In patients intensifying therapy, beside GA decline, other individualized clinical characteristics should also be considered.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18203, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770276

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of endovascular stent repair of celiac arterial aneurysm (CAA).From January 2015 to December 2018, 11 patients (7 males, 4 females with a mean age of 52.2 ±â€Š7.9 years) underwent endovascular stent repair of CAA in our center. A covered stent was used to occlude the CAA neck. Follow-up was performed 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following surgery and yearly thereafter. Rates of technical success, treatment-related complications, and long-term outcome were analyzed.Each patient was placed with 1 stent for repair of CAA. Stent was placed in the celiac and common hepatic arteries for 10 patients and was placed in the celiac artery for 1 patient. The duration of the procedure ranged from 50 to 75 minutes (mean 63.2 ±â€Š7.2 minutes). The rate of technical success of the endovascular stent repair was 100%. No patient experienced CAA rupture or instant endoleak during or after stent insertion. Abdominal pain was relieved progressively after stent insertion. All patients were followed-up for 6 to 48 months (mean 22.4 ±â€Š10.8 months). All patients were alive during the follow-up. No endoleaks were experienced during follow-up with 100% stent patency rate. No patient suffered splenic, hepatic, or bowel infarction during follow-up.Endovascular stent repair is a safe, simple, and effective treatment for patients with CAA.

5.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(12): 903-908, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence exists for chemotherapy selection in advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) after first-line FOLFIRINOX. Second-line gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (GEMNAB) is publicly funded in the Canadian provinces of Alberta (AB) and Manitoba (MB), but not in British Columbia (BC). We compared population-based outcomes by region to examine the utility of second-line GEMNAB versus gemcitabine (GEM) alone. METHODS: We identified patients treated with first-line FOLFIRINOX between 2013 and 2015 across BC, AB, and MB. Baseline characteristics and treatment regimens were compared between AB/MB and BC. Survival outcomes were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 368 patients were treated with first-line FOLFIRINOX (143 AB/MB, 225 BC): median age 61 (interquartile range: 55 to 68) years, 42% comprising female individuals, and 67% with metastatic disease. Receipt of second-line therapy was 48% in AB/MB versus 44% in BC (P=0.35), and time from diagnosis to second-line therapy was 7.7 (AB/MB) versus 9.4 months (BC; P=0.1). Distribution of second-line GEM use: 73% GEMNAB, 23% GEM (AB/MB) versus 27% GEMNAB, 66% GEM (BC; P<0.001). Median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was similar: 12.4 (AB/MB) versus 11.5 months (BC; P=0.91). On Cox regression analysis, region was not significant. Secondary survival analysis by second-line regimen demonstrated a median OS of 18.0 months with GEMNAB versus 14.3 months with GEM (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based comparison of APC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRINOX, survival outcomes were comparable regardless of funded access to second-line GEMNAB. OS by regimen favored second-line GEMNAB, but patient selection may be largely responsible for this difference.

6.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570787

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with reflux and is implicated the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Apoptosis induces cell death through mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is considered an irreversible step in apoptosis. Activation of MOMP to levels that fail to reach the apoptotic threshold may paradoxically promote cancer-a phenomenon called "Minority MOMP." We asked whether reflux-induced esophageal carcinogenesis occurred via minority MOMP and whether compensatory resistance mechanisms prevented cell death during this process. We exposed preneoplastic, hTERT-immortalized Barrett's cell, CP-C and CP-A, to the oncogenic bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), for 1 year. Induction of minority MOMP was tested via comet assay, CyQuant, annexin V, JC-1, cytochrome C subcellular localization, caspase 3 activation, and immunoblots. We used bcl-2 homology domain-3 (BH3) profiling to test the mitochondrial apoptotic threshold. One-year exposure of Barrett's cells to DCA induced a malignant phenotype noted by clone and tumor formation. DCA promoted minority MOMP noted by minimal release of cytochrome C and limited caspase 3 activation, which resulted in DNA damage without apoptosis. Upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1, ROS generation, and NF-κB activation occurred in conjunction with minority MOMP. Inhibition of ROS blocked minority MOMP and Mcl-1 upregulation. Knockdown of Mcl-1 shifted minority MOMP to complete MOMP as noted by dynamic BH3 profiling and increased apoptosis. Minority MOMP contributes to DCA induced carcinogenesis in preneoplastic BE. Mcl-1 provided a balance within the mitochondria that induced resistance complete MOMP and cell death. Targeting Mcl-1 may be a therapeutic strategy in EAC.

8.
Int J Med Inform ; 132: 103986, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pneumonia is a common complication after stroke, causing an increased length of hospital stay and death. Therefore, the timely and accurate prediction of post-stroke pneumonia would be highly valuable in clinical practice. Previous pneumonia risk score models were often built on simple statistical methods such as logistic regression. This study aims to investigate post-stroke pneumonia prediction models using more advanced machine learning algorithms, specifically deep learning approaches. METHODS: Using a hospital's electronic health record(EHR) data from 2007-2017, 13,930 eligible patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) were identified to build and evaluate the models (85% of the patients were used for training, and 15% were used for testing). In total, 1012 patients (7.23%) contracted pneumonia during hospitalization. A number of machine learning methods were developed and compared to predict pneumonia in the stroke population in China. In addition to the classic methods (i.e., logistic regression (LR), support vector machines (SVMs), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost)), methods based on multiple layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks and recurrent neural network (RNNs) (i.e., attention-augmented gated recurrent unit (GRU)) are also implemented to make use of the temporal sequence information in electronic health record (EHR) systems. Prediction models for pneumonia were built for two time windows, i.e., within 7 days and within 14 days after stroke onset. In particular, pneumonia occurring within the 7-day window is considered highly associated with stroke (stroke-associated pneumonia, SAP). MAIN FINDINGS: The attention-augmented GRU model achieved the best performance based on an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.928 for pneumonia prediction within 7 days and an AUC of 0.905 for pneumonia prediction within 14 days. This method outperformed the other machine learning-based methods and previously published pneumonia risk score models. Considering that pneumonia prediction after stroke requires a high sensitivity to facilitate its prevention at a relatively low cost (i.e., increasing the nursing level), we also compared the prediction performance using other evaluation criteria by setting the sensitivity to 0.90. The attention-augmented GRU achieved the optimal performance, with a specificity of 0.85, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.32 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.99 for pneumonia within 7 days and a specificity of 0.82, a PPV of 0.29 and an NPV of 0.99 for pneumonia within 14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning-based predictive model is feasible for stroke patient management and achieves the optimal performance compared to many classic machine learning methods.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590254

RESUMO

Intrabody communication (IBC) has drawn extensive attention in the field of ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and more. Until now, most studies on the modeling and characterization of capacitive coupling IBC have been conducted in open space, while influences when using metallic-enclosed environments such as a car, airplane, or elevator have not yet been considered. In this paper, we aimed to systematically investigate the grounding effect of an enclosed metal wall of a vehicle on the transmission path loss, utilizing the finite element method (FEM) to model capacitive coupling IBC in an in-vehicle scenario. The results of a simulation and experimental validation indicated that the system gain in an in-vehicle scenario increased up to 7 dB compared to in open space. The modeling and characterization achieved in this paper of capacitive coupling IBC could facilitate an intrabody sensor design and an evaluation with great flexibility to meet the performance needs of an in-vehicle use scenario.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7418-7429, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is a rare cause of myelopathies. Considering its poor prognosis, it is essential to determine the appropriate treatment strategies and to develop nomograms to predict survival outcome for PISCL patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. We used 364 patients to investigate overall survival (OS) and 289 patients for cancer-specific survival (CSS). Kaplan-Meier method was to evaluate correlations of survival with different treatment strategies and clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess OS and CSS based on different variables. Risk factors were integrated to build nomograms. RESULTS Most of the 414 PISCL patients diagnosed with positive histology had diffuse B cell lymphoma, were under 60 years old, were male, were of white race, had 1 primary tumor, were married, were low stage, and had previously undergone chemotherapy. We found that radiation therapy had no effect on patient OS and CSS, and patients receiving chemotherapy alone tended to have better OS and CSS in comparison with other groups. In addition, we showed that clinicopathologic factors, including histologic type, age, stage, and marital status, could serve as independent prognostic factors for PISCL patient OS and CSS. These factors were utilized to construct nomograms. The calibration curves demonstrated good agreement. The concordance indexes for OS and CSS were 0.672 (P=0.024) and 0.683 (P=0.029), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Practical nomograms were established for patients' OS and CSS. Besides, this study can guild clinician to make the right decision for appropriate treatment of PISCL patients.

11.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581878

RESUMO

Soft tissue reconstruction of the distal lower leg and foot sole is a challenge for surgeons. In this article, we describe our experience and outcomes with distal lower leg and foot sole reconstruction using the medial plantar flap. From January 2007 to December 2017, 29 consecutive patients from our department underwent reconstruction of soft tissue defects over the distal lower leg, heel and plantar forefoot using medial plantar flaps. Of the 29 patients, the defects were located in the distal lower leg (n = 8 [27.6%]), heel (n = 14 [48.3%]) and plantar forefoot (n = 7 [24.1%]). The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months, 28 (96.6%) survived completely. Lateral partial necrosis occurred in one flap. No patient had recurrence of ulcer and two (6.9%) patients died within 1 year post-reconstruction owing to metastatic malignant melanoma. At last follow-up, all survived patients could walk for more than 1 h in normal shoes. All donor sites were covered with a split-thickness skin graft, no early nor late complications were encountered, and no patients complained about the donor site scar. The medial plantar flap may be considered as an effective method for the repair of small to medium soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg, heel and plantar forefoot.

12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104441, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627995

RESUMO

OBJECT: Ischemic stroke readmission within 90 days of hospital discharge is an important quality of care metric. The readmission rates of ischemic stroke patients are usually higher than those of patients with other chronic diseases. Our aim was to identify the ischemic stroke readmission risk factors and establish a 90-day readmission prediction model for first-time ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: The readmission prediction model was developed using the extreme gradient boosting (XGboost) model, which can generate an ensemble of classification trees and assign a predictive risk score to each feature. The patient data were split into a training set (5159) and a validation set (911). The prediction results were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent ROC curve, which were compared with the outputs from the logistic regression (LR) model. RESULTS: A total of 6070 adult patients (39.6% female, median age 67 years) without any ischemic attack (IS) history were included, and 520 (8.6%) were readmitted within 90 days. The XGboost-based prediction model achieved a standard area under the curve (AUC) value of .782 (.729-.834), and the best time-dependent AUC value was .808 in 54 days for the validation set. In contrast, the LR model yielded a standard AUC value of .771 (.714-.828) and best time-dependent AUC value of .797. CONCLUSIONS: The XGboost model obtained a better risk prediction for 90-day readmission for first-time ischemic stroke patients than the LR model. This model can also reveal the high risk factors for stroke readmission in first-time ischemic stroke patients.

13.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605439

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the tumor microenvironment immune types (TMIT) based on tumor cell programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) distribution and whether distinct TMIT subtypes (TMIT I, PD-L1high /TILhigh ; TMIT II, PD-L1low /TILlow ; TMIT III, PD-L1high /TILlow ; and TMIT IV, PD-L1low /TILhigh ) differentially affect clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 and the spatial distribution of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and CD8 TILs on the surgically resected specimens from 205 cases of LAC and 149 cases of SCC. PD-1 and CD8 TILs were more frequently distributed in SCC than those in LAC, regardless of their infiltrating in the tumor islets or stroma. The density of TILs was a poor prognostic factor in LAC but a favorable one in SCC. PD-L1 levels and its clinical prognostic significance differed in LAC vs SCC. LAC patients with TMIT III and SCC patients with TMIT I had the longest survival, respectively (P = .0197 and .0049). Moreover, TMIT stratification based on tumor cell PD-L1 expression and stromal CD8+ TILs could be considered as an independent prognostic factor of SCC patients' survival as determined by both univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that different type of TMIT provides its specific microenvironment with diverse impact on survival of LAC and SCC patients and highlights the importance of the integrative assessment of PD-L1 status and TILs' spatial distribution to predict patients' prognosis.

14.
Hypertens Res ; 42(12): 1971-1978, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562418

RESUMO

In the treatment of resistant hypertension, physiologically individualized therapy based on phenotyping with plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone significantly improves blood pressure control. Patients with a low-renin/low aldosterone (Liddle) phenotype respond best to amiloride, while those with low-renin/high aldosterone respond best to aldosterone antagonists, and those with high renin/high aldosterone (renal phenotype) respond best to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). However, it is important to measure PRA in a stimulated condition to distinguish between low levels due to high salt intake, licorice or nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs and low levels due to suppression by excess aldosterone secretion or renal tubular genetic variants causing retention of salt and water (Liddle phenotype). In the past, both diuretics and angiotensin converting inhibitors (ACEi) have been used for this purpose, and it has been assumed that these classes of drugs are equivalent. In this study of 2896 patients with hypertension, we evaluated that assumption. We found important differences among diuretics alone, ACEi/ARB alone, and ACEi/ARB + diuretics, which all stimulated PRA. However, ACEi/ARB lowers plasma aldosterone, and beta blockers lower PRA. Among patients with systolic pressure ≥ 180 mmHg ± diastolic pressure ≥ 100 mmHg stimulated only by diuretics, the phenotypes were 25% Liddle, 38% IA, 8.7% renal, and 28.3% mixed. In choosing physiologically individualized therapy based on PRA and aldosterone, it is important to consider the classes of stimulating drugs. Phenotypes are best distinguished by taking into account the aldosterone/PRA ratio in addition to the levels of PRA and aldosterone.

15.
Surgery ; 166(4): 524-533, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy and typically heralds a poor prognosis. The oncocytic subtype of this neoplasm is rare but may be associated with more favorable outcomes. METHODS: The Provincial Cancer Registry was searched for cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma between 1992 and 2017. Comprehensive chart reviews were performed and data gathered related to presentation, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: In the study, 82 patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma were identified. Complete data were available for 67 patients (82%). In the 41 patients who underwent resection, 9 (22%) had oncocytic subtypes. When compared with the total group of adrenal cortical carcinomas, the oncocytic subtypes were larger at presentation (19.8 cm vs 11.0 cm), more commonly symptomatic and hormonally active, and despite larger tumor size, were often early stage I and II. Recurrent disease was observed in 3 out of 9 oncocytic subtype (vs 23 out of 32 adrenal cortical carcinoma), with greater median time to recurrence (17.5 vs 8 months). Univariate analysis suggested that age, T-stage, M-stage, and overall stage were associated with survival. There was a trend toward improved overall survival for patients with oncocytic subtype on Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Despite our small numbers of patients with oncocytic subtype, our data suggest that oncocytic subtype are typically larger at presentation but more often early stage and recur less frequently than adrenocortical carcinomas. Modifications to treatment and surveillance strategies may be appropriate in this subtype.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(41): 37617-37625, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539473

RESUMO

In general, high-purity monoclinic VO2 (VO2(M)) was considered as a prerequisite for obtaining VO2-based thermochromic coatings with high performance. The coexistence of other vanadium oxides (such as V3O7 and V2O5) in VO2 coatings was regarded as an unfavorable issue. Here, we investigate the microstructures and thermochromic properties of the composite vanadium oxide (CVO) thin films. The results demonstrate that the proper coexistence of high valent vanadium oxides (V3O7 and V2O5) in VO2-based films can remarkably enhance the thermochromic performance of films. The CVO thin films were prepared by a room-temperature sputtering process followed by a modified rapid annealing routine in air. The structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) reveal the coexistence of VO2(M), V3O7(M), and V2O5(O) in CVO thin films. The luminous transmittance (Tlum) and solar modulation ability (ΔTsol) of the CVO thin film obtained by an optimal preparation process are 1.93 and 1.34 times those of the pure polycrystalline VO2 thin film, respectively. Moreover, the CVO thin film exhibits lower semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature (60.8 °C) than the pure VO2(M) thin film (67.9 °C). Furthermore, the fabrication process is well-reproducible, which is highly attractive for the mass production.

17.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487435

RESUMO

Phytochemical study on the fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. yielded two new iridoid glucosides, named cornusglucoside A (1) and cornusglucoside B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated via comprehensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analysis. Additionally, their inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced STAT3 activation were assessed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480135

RESUMO

Objective: This study examined the effects of divergence in residual feed intake (RFI) on expression profiles of key genes related to lipid transport in the liver and duodenal epithelium and their associations with feed efficiency traits in meat-type ducks. Methods: A total of 1000 male ducks with similar body weight (1042.1  87.2 g) were used in this study, and their individual RFI was calculated from 21 to 42 d of age. Finally, the 10 highest RFI (HRFI) and 10 lowest RFI (LRFI) ducks were chosen for examining the expression of key genes related to lipid transport in the liver and duodenal epithelium using quantitative PCR. Results: In the liver, expression levels of albumin (ALB), CD36 molecule (CD36), fatty acid hydroxylase domain containing 2 (FAXDC2), and choline kinase alpha (CHKA) were significantly higher in LRFI ducks than in HRFI ducks (p < 0.01); negative correlations (p < 0.05) between expression levels of ALB, CD36, FAXDC2, and CHKA and RFI were detected in the liver. Additionally, ALB expression was strongly positively correlated (p < 0.05) with CD36, FAXDC2, CHKA, and apolipoprotein H (APOH) expression in the liver. In duodenal epithelium, we found that mRNA levels of ALB, CD36, FAXDC2, and APOH were significantly higher in LRFI ducks than in HRFI ducks (p < 0.01); RFI was strongly negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with ALB, FAXDC2, and APOH expression, while ALB expression was strongly positively correlated with APOH expression (p < 0.01) in duodenal epithelium. Furthermore, expression levels of both ALB and FAXDC2 genes were significantly associated with feed conversion ratio and RFI in both liver and duodenal epithelium (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings therefore suggest that ALB and FAXDC2 genes might be used as potential gene markers designed to improve feed efficiency in future meat-type duck breeding programs.

19.
Poult Sci ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504898

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of free-range days on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, lymphoid organ indices, and blood biochemical parameters of Wannan Yellow chickens. A total of 1,000 one-day-old male Wannan Yellow chickens were reared to 56 D. At 56 D of age, 960 birds with similar body weight (BW) were randomly allocated to free-range treatment at 56, 70, 84, and 98 D of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 42, 28, 14, and 0 D, respectively); 6 replicates with 40 chickens per treatment. In the free-range system, chickens were reared in indoor floor pens with an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 4 × 7 m (28 m2, 1.5 birds/m2). Results showed that BW of birds decreased significantly in the first 2 wk after birds were assigned to free-range treatment compared with those in the conventional treatment (P < 0.05). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for chickens assigned to free-range treatment from 56 to 70 D of age, while feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05). Breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), whereas leg and foot yields decreased linearly (P < 0.05). Drip loss and L* value of thigh muscle decreased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05), while shear force improved linearly (P < 0.05). Additionally, the absolute thymus weight and thymus to BW ratio showed significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic responses to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). Furthermore, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride content declined linearly, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) content increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing free-range days had positive effects on breast yield, shear force, thymus weight, and HDL-C content, but negatively affected leg yield, foot yield, drip loss, L* value of thigh muscle, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of Wannan Yellow chickens.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471994

RESUMO

Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a birth defect with variable clinical and anatomical manifestations due to spinal malformation. The genetic etiology underlying about 10% of CS cases in the Chinese population is compound inheritance by which the gene dosage is reduced below that of haploinsufficiency. In this genetic model, the trait manifests as a result of the combined effect of a rare variant and common pathogenic variant allele at a locus. From exome sequencing (ES) data of 523 patients in Asia and two patients in Texas, we identified six TBX6 gene-disruptive variants from 11 unrelated CS patients via ES and in vitro functional testing. The in trans mild hypomorphic allele was identified in 10 of the 11 subjects; as anticipated these 10 shared a similar spinal deformity of hemivertebrae. The remaining case has a homozygous variant in TBX6 (c.418C>T) and presents a more severe spinal deformity phenotype. We found decreased transcriptional activity and abnormal cellular localization as the molecular mechanisms for TBX6 missense loss-of-function alleles. Expanding the mutational spectrum of TBX6 pathogenic alleles enabled an increased molecular diagnostic detection rate, provided further evidence for the gene dosage-dependent genetic model underlying CS, and refined clinical classification.

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