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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1045, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyse the changes in curative care expenditure (CCE) associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) before and after the Beijing healthcare reform, thus providing a reference for the healthcare system. METHODS: A total of 60 medical institutions were selected using multistage stratified cluster random sampling in Beijing, China. The records of approximately 100 million outpatients with NCDs in 2016-2018 were extracted. System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA2011) was used to estimate the CCE. The segmented regression model was established to observe both the instant change and the slope change of intervention in interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). The study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 in Beijing, China. RESULTS: From SHA2011, we found that the CCE for outpatients with NCDs in Beijing were 58.59, 61.46 and 71.96 billion RMB in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The CCE continued to rise at all hospital levels, namely, tertiary, secondary, and community-level hospitals. However, the proportion of CCE in tertiary hospitals decreased. From ITSA, we can also conclude that the CCE showed a significant increasing trend change at the three hospital levels after the intervention. The drug proportion showed a significant decreasing trend change in secondary and tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Beijing healthcare reform does have an impact on the CCE of NCDs.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pequim/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20565, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663872

RESUMO

Representative subsets of global climate models (GCMs) are often used in climate change impact studies to account for uncertainty in ensemble climate projections. However, the effectiveness of such subsets has seldom been assessed for the estimations of either the mean or the spread of the full ensembles. We assessed two different approaches that were employed to select 5 GCMs from a 20-member ensemble of GCMs from the CMIP5 ensemble for projecting canola and spring wheat yields across Canada under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios in the periods 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, based on crop simulation models. Averages and spreads of the simulated crop yields using the 5-GCM subsets selected by T&P and KKZ approaches were compared with the full 20-GCM ensemble. Our results showed that the 5-GCM subsets selected by the two approaches could produce full-ensemble means with a relative absolute error of 2.9-4.7% for canola and 1.5-2.2% for spring wheat, and covers 61.8-91.1% and 66.1-80.8% of the full-ensemble spread for canola and spring wheat, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that both approaches were very likely to outperform a subset of randomly selected 5 GCMs in terms of a smaller error and a larger range.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1040, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic, causing a lot of death. How to quickly screen risk population for severe patients is essential for decreasing the mortality. Many of the predictors might not be available in all hospitals, so it is necessary to develop a simpler screening tool with predictors which can be easily obtained for wide wise. METHODS: This retrospective study included all the 813 confirmed cases diagnosed with COVID-19 before March 2nd, 2020 in a city of Hubei Province in China. Data of the COVID-19 patients including clinical and epidemiological features were collected through Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System. Predictors were selected by logistic regression, and then categorized to four different level risk factors. A screening tool for severe patient with COVID-19 was developed and tested by ROC curve. RESULTS: Seven early predictors for severe patients with COVID-19 were selected, including chronic kidney disease (OR 14.7), age above 60 (OR 5.6), lymphocyte count less than < 0.8 × 109 per L (OR 2.5), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio larger than 4.7 (OR 2.2), high fever with temperature ≥ 38.5℃ (OR 2.2), male (OR 2.2), cardiovascular related diseases (OR 2.0). The Area Under the ROC Curve of the screening tool developed by above seven predictors was 0.798 (95% CI 0.747-0.849), and its best cut-off value is > 4.5, with sensitivity 72.0% and specificity 75.3%. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed screening tool can be a good choice for early prediction and alert for severe case especially in the condition of overload health service.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Org Lett ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633197

RESUMO

A corrorin parasitized hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.0) 1 was synthesized by [4 + 4] condensation, and subsequent treatment with PbO2 afforded hexaphyrin 2 appended with a dipyrrinone moiety via regioselective opening of the corrorin ring. In contrast, oxidation of the corresponding corrorin-N-confused hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.0) hybrid 3 afforded only a keto adduct 4. As a result, the planarity and aromaticity of the hexaphyrin moiety can be modulated.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637379

RESUMO

Attributes and objects can compose diverse compositions. To model the compositional nature of these concepts, it is a good choice to learn them as transformations, e.g., coupling and decoupling. However, complex transformations need to satisfy specific principles to guarantee rationality. Here, we first propose a previously ignored principle of attribute-object transformation: Symmetry. For example, coupling peeled-apple with attribute peeled should result in peeled-apple, and decoupling peeled from apple should still output apple. Incorporating the symmetry, we propose a transformation framework inspired by group theory, i.e., SymNet. It consists of two modules: Coupling Network and Decoupling Network. We adopt deep neural networks to implement SymNet and train it in an end-to-end paradigm with the group axioms and symmetry as objectives. Then, we propose a Relative Moving Distance (RMD) based method to utilize the attribute change instead of the attribute pattern itself to classify attributes. Besides the compositions of single-attribute and object, our RMD is also suitable for complex compositions of multiple attributes and objects when incorporating attribute correlations. SymNet can be utilized for attribute learning, compositional zero-shot learning and outperforms the state-of-the-art on four widely-used benchmarks. Code is at https://github.com/DirtyHarryLYL/SymNet.

7.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 8173-8185, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672248

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is defined as a bone condition characterized by bone mass reduction, bone micro-architectural and quality deterioration, leading to compromised strength and increased chances of fracture. Evidence have shown an essential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various osteogenic differentiation processes. However, the function of miR-15a-5p in the differentiation of osteogenic cells and possible mechanisms remains unclear. The present study explored the expression of miR-15a-5p in human osteoporosis specimens and during the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Functions of miR-15a-5p were determined using miR-15a-5p mimics and inhibitors. Luciferase assay was used to verify the binding of miR-15a-5p and PDCD4 3'UTR. Alizarin Red Staining (ARS) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine the miR-15a-5p role in osteogenic differentiation. Finally, Wnt pathway inhibitor was used to determine the miR-15a-5p/PDCD4/Wnt signaling pathway in regulating osteogenic differentiation. We found miR-15a-5p expression was increased in human osteoporosis specimens and during differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. PDCD4 was also identified as a target of miR-15a-5p and was found to be involved in osteogenic differentiation. Further, miR-15a-5p mimics attenuated the effects of PDCD4 overexpression. Finally, use of XAV939 (Wnt pathway inhibitor) downregulated osteogenic differentiation in miR-15a5p/PDCD4/Wnt-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, miR-15a-5p induced differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization by modulating osteoblast differentiation factors, mainly OSX, ALP, OCN, and RUNX2, by inhibiting PDCD4 and Wnt signaling pathways. This study provides a modality for the future use of miR-15a-5p in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150519, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610409

RESUMO

The urbanization and development of Tibetan Plateau (TP) probably results in a significant contamination of organic pollutants, such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). However, there is a lack of monitoring and evaluation of their occurrence and risks in the soil of TP. We investigated the concentrations, vertical distributions, potential sources, and ecological risks of OPFRs in soil profiles from four regions of TP, China. The total concentrations of OPFRs in all soil samples ranged from 1.35 to 126 ng/g with a median of 12.6 ng/g. Relatively high concentrations were discovered in the top soils from Lhasa, suggesting a rising contamination around cities of TP due to anthropogenic disturbance. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP) was the dominant OPFRs followed by tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Vertical distribution of ΣOPFRs was discovered, especially at site Lhasa. Source apportionment based on principle component analysis and correlation analysis suggests that OPFRs in the TP soil mainly originate from atmospheric transport, while some OPFRs in the top soil may be also influenced by nearby sources. The vertical distributions of OPFRs in soil may be influenced by both soil and chemical properties, as well as their use. The ecological risk quotients (RQs) of 6 OPFRs in the TP soil were calculated, and most of their ecological risks were relatively low or negligible. However, for the worst-case scenario calculated by the 95th percentile concentrations, TNBP and tris(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) at site Lhasa and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP) at site Nagri had moderate risks. More attentions should be paid to the Tibetan Plateau in the future due to the rising ecological risks of OPFRs, especially to the areas around cities.

9.
Nature ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671164

RESUMO

Mouse caspase-11 and human caspase-4 and caspase-5 recognize cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce pyroptosis by cleaving the pore-forming protein GSDMD1-5. This non-canonical inflammasome defends against Gram-negative bacteria6,7. Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, lives freely within the host cytosol where these caspases reside. However, the role of caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis in S. flexneri infection is unknown. Here we show that caspase-11 did not protect mice from S. flexneri infection, in contrast to infection with another cytosolic bacterium, Burkholderia thailandensis8. S. flexneri evaded pyroptosis mediated by caspase-11 or caspase 4 (hereafter referred to as caspase-11/4) using a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, OspC3. OspC3, but not its paralogues OspC1 and 2, covalently modified caspase-11/4; although it used the NAD+ donor, this modification was not ADP-ribosylation. Biochemical dissections uncovered an ADP-riboxanation modification on Arg314 and Arg310 in caspase-4 and caspase-11, respectively. The enzymatic activity was shared by OspC1 and 2, whose ankyrin-repeat domains, unlike that of OspC3, could not recognize caspase-11/4. ADP-riboxanation of the arginine blocked autoprocessing of caspase-4/11 as well as their recognition and cleavage of GSDMD. ADP-riboxanation of caspase-11 paralysed pyroptosis-mediated defence in Shigella-infected mice and mutation of ospC3 stimulated caspase-11- and GSDMD-dependent anti-Shigella humoral immunity, generating a vaccine-like protective effect. Our study establishes ADP-riboxanation of arginine as a bacterial virulence mechanism that prevents LPS-induced pyroptosis.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113859, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601246

RESUMO

Urea transporters (UTs) have been identified as new targets for diuretics. Functional deletion of UTs led to urea-selective urinary concentrating defects with relative salt sparing. In our previous study, a UT inhibitor with a diarylamide scaffold, which is denoted as 11a, was demonstrated as the first orally available UT inhibitor. However, the oral bioavailability of 11a was only 4.38%, which obstructed its clinical application. In this work, by replacing the nitro group of 11a with an acetyl group, 25a was obtained. Compared with 11a, 25a showed a 10 times stronger inhibitory effect on UT-B (0.14 µM vs. 1.41 µM in rats, and 0.48 µM vs. 5.82 µM in mice) and a much higher inhibition rate on UT-A1. Moreover, the metabolic stability both in vitro and in vivo and the drug-like properties (permeability and solubility) of 25a were obviously improved compared with those of 11a. Moreover, the bioavailability of 25a was 15.18%, which was 3 times higher than that of 11a, thereby resulting in significant enhancement of the diuretic activities in rats and mice. 25a showed excellent potential for development as a promising clinical diuretic candidate for targeting UTs to treat diseases that require long-term usage of diuretics, such as hyponatremia.

11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108119, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492535

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a common chronic disease associated with chondrocyte inflammation and cartilage matrix hydrolyzation. Studies report that IL-1ß plays a critical role in osteoarthritis. Anti-inflammatory effect of nootkatone has been explored in acute and chronic inflammatory disease, thus the current study sought to explore its therapeutic effect in osteoarthritis. Notably, the effect of nootkatone in osteoarthritis has not been elucidated. Therefore, murine primary chondrocytes were extracted and ACLT induced OA mouse model was established in the current study to explore the therapeutic effect of nootkatone in OA both in vitro and in vivo. The findings showed that nootkatone inhibited inflammatory response and protected cartilage balance in murine primary chondrocyte. Further analysis showed that nootkatone suppressed inflammation and protected cartilage against degeneration induced by ACLT surgery in mice. The cellular mechanism of the protective effect of nootkatone in osteoarthritis and associated signaling pathway was identified as the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the findings of the current study indicated that nootkatone is a potential therapeutic agent for OA.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 708730, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568034

RESUMO

Objective: To reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies, we designed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based nomogram prediction model of prostate maximum sectional area (PA) and investigated its zone area for diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: MRI was administered to 691 consecutive patients before prostate biopsies from January 2012 to January 2020. PA, central gland sectional area (CGA), and peripheral zone sectional area (PZA) were measured on axial T2-weighted prostate MRI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to evaluate and integrate the predictors of PCa. Based on multivariate logistic regression coefficients after excluding combinations of collinear variables, three models and nomograms were generated and intercompared by Delong test, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: The positive rate of PCa was 46.74% (323/691). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, PSA, MRI, transCGA, coroPZA, transPA, and transPAI (transverse PZA-to-CGA ratio) were independent predictors of PCa. Compared with no PCa patients, transCGA (AUC = 0.801) was significantly lower and transPAI (AUC = 0.749) was significantly higher in PCa patients. Both of them have a significantly higher AUC than PSA (AUC = 0.714) and PV (AUC = 0.725). Our best predictive model included the factors age, PSA, MRI, transCGA, and coroPZA with the AUC of 0.918 for predicting PCa status. Based on this predictive model, a novel nomogram for predicting PCa was conducted and internally validated (C-index = 0.913). Conclusions: We found the potential clinical utility of transCGA and transPAI in predicting PCa. Then, we firstly built the nomogram based on PA and its zone area to evaluate its diagnostic efficacy for PCa, which could reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies.

13.
Placenta ; 114: 100-107, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study we examined the hypothesis that a hypoxic intrauterine environment causes mitochondrial dysfunction of trophoblasts in fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: The mtDNA content, mRNA levels of mitochondrial encoded genes (ND6, COX I), mitochondrial membrane proteins (COX I, COX IV and VDAC), HIF-1α and BINP3 (mitophagy receptor) protein levels were examined in FGR placentas and normal placentas. The mitochondrial function (ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm) and above related proteins were further examined in hypoxic HTR-8/SVneo cells induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Mitophagy and its regulating mechanism under hypoxia in FGR was also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, both FGR placentas and CoCl2-treated trophoblast cells demonstrated statistically lower mtDNA content, reduced mRNAs of mitochondrial encoding genes, and decreased mitochondrial membrane proteins, accompanied by increased HIF-1α. Mitochondrial functions were impaired as demonstrated by decreased ATP production, and, reduced ΔΨm in CoCl2-treated cells. Meanwhile, mitophagy was markedly enhanced as indicated by increased LC3 fluorescent puncta in mitochondria of hypoxic trophoblastic cells. The upregulated BINP3 expression was demonstrated in FGR placentas as well as in hypoxic trophoblastic cells. DISCUSSION: We demonstrated that hypoxic conditions lead to impaired mitochondrial function in trophoblasts in FGR. Reduced mtDNA may be associated with enhanced mitophagy via activating HIF-1α/BINP3 signalling pathway, that may, in turn, affect nutrition and energy transfer to the growth-restricted fetus.

14.
Ann Phys Rehabil Med ; : 101570, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires an extended period of postoperative rehabilitation. Psychological factors can affect recovery after surgery. Study of psychological factors is still limited to self-motivation, fear and pain. Study of personality traits associated with early rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction is scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the effect of personality traits on early rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction and provide a reference for clinicians in designing a personalized rehabilitation plan. METHODS: This prospective analysis investigated 155 patients at 3 and 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Follow-up involved administration of a general data questionnaire, the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory Brief Version, the Tegner activity score, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Score, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Lysholm Score and a balance test. RESULTS: Among the 155 patients included (124 males), Neuroticism was negatively correlated with subjective knee scores at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p<0.001). The odds of a poor balance test result was increased for each 1-point increase in Neuroticism score (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.36, p<0.001). We found a positive correlation between Conscientiousness score and subjective knee scores at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p<0.001). For every 1-point increase in Conscientiousness score, the odds of a poor balance test result were decreased (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.54, p<0.001). Agreeableness and Openness to experience scores were positively correlated with subjective knee scores at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p<0.001). We found no correlation between Extraversion and subjective knee scores at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p>0.05) but a positive correlation with the Tegner activity score at 3 and 6 months after surgery (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We found a significant correlation between the Big Five personality dimensions and the early rehabilitation effect after ACL reconstruction, which can provide a reference for clinicians in designing a personalized rehabilitation plan.

15.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of CD146 and its role in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to analyse the expression and relationship of sCD146, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in vitreous specimens from PDR and idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IERM) or idiopathic macular hole patients. The location of CD146 in ERMs was detected by immunofluorescence. The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice model was established and the adeno-associated virus expressing a shRNA of CD146 (AAV1-shCD146-GFP) was administered via intravitreal injection. The effect of AAV1-shCD146-GFP was explored by immunofluorescence, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The levels of sCD146 in vitreous specimens from PDR patients and CD146 in retinas from OIR mice were significantly increased. Immunofluorescence showed that CD146 was co-located with CD31, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively. Intravitreal injection of AAV1-shCD146-GFP could dramatically reduce the formation of neovascularization and non-perfusion area by inhibiting VEGFR2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that CD146 was involved in the development of retinal neovascularization via VEGFR2 pathway. Anti-CD146 may be an innovative or adjuvant therapy, which provides a new direction for the treatment of PDR and other ocular neovascular diseases.

16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 99: 119-129, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563620

RESUMO

AIM: Gut microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis of gut hypomotility and are critical for the production of the intestinal immune system and the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis. Patients with psychotic disorders are at a high risk of antipsychotic-induced constipation. However, the mechanisms might be more than neurotransmission properties of antipsychotics. METHODS: We recruited a total of 45 patients with constipation according to Rome IV criteria and objective test for colonic motility and the other 45 gender- and age-matching patients without constipation and investigated their differences in composition of gut microbiota. The demographic and serum metabolic indices were collected. The subjective constipation assessment scale (CAS) and the Bristol stool classification (BSS) were also used to evaluate the degree of constipation in both groups. The fecal samples were analysed using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: The constipation group had a significantly increased alpha diversity in Observed species, Chao 1, and ACE as compared to the non-constipation group. At the phylum levels, the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria decreased significantly, while those of Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Synergistetes increased significantly in the constipation group. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Christensenella and Desulfovibrio were higher in the constipation group. The α-diversity indices of gut microbiota were correlated positively with the levels of serum total bile acid and correlated negatively with BSS scores. The BSS scores were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes but negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Firmicutes. PICRUSt analysis revealed the potential metabolic pathways of lipopolysaccharide, vitamin B6, riboflavin, pyruvate, and propionate functions. CONCLUSIONS: The alternation of the gut microbiota in schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced constipation indicates antipsychotic agents might affect gastrointestinal motility via varying microbiome-related metabolites, and the specific bacteria, such as Synergistetes which might act as an anti-inflammatory factor in the healthy human gut, related to colonic transit motility seem inconsistent to the findings from previous literature in gastroenterology. However, the causal effects are still unknown. Our study provides a new possibility to understand the mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced constipation.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 42861-42869, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473469

RESUMO

Ni(OH)2-based materials are widely studied in oxygen evolution reaction (OER), but no related synthesis, electrocatalytic application, or theoretical analysis of Sn4+-doped Ni(OH)2 has been reported. In this work, Sn-Ni(OH)2 with a homogeneously distributed nanosheet array was synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal process. It displays a hugely enhanced catalytic activity compared to undoped Ni(OH)2 throughout the OER and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) processes. The overpotentials at 100 mA cm-2 of Sn-Ni(OH)2 are 312 mV (OER) and 298 mV (HER), which are lower than the corresponding 396 and 427 mV of Ni(OH)2, respectively. In addition, Sn-Ni(OH)2 can deliver stable large current densities (at ≈500 and ≈1000 mA cm-2) for the long-term (>100 h) chronoamperometry testing. Moreover, Sn-Ni(OH)2 illustrates catalytic activity comparable to that of a commercial Pt/C||RuO2 electrode pair during the overall water splitting course. Both experimental phenomena and relevant computed theoretical data confirm that the enhanced water splitting activity is mainly due to the introduced Sn4+ site, which acts as the active center activates the nearby Ni sites during the OER, while acting as the most active reaction site that participates in the HER. Although the doped Sn4+ has two different effects on OER and HER proceedings, water splitting performance of Sn-Ni(OH)2 has been conspicuously improved.

18.
Disabil Health J ; : 101198, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapy services can support developmental needs, improve social emotional outcomes, and reduce persistent health inequities for children with developmental disabilities (DD). Receipt of therapy services may be especially timely when children with DD are school-aged, once diagnosis has often occurred. Yet limited knowledge exists on geographic variability and determinants of therapy use among school-aged U.S. children with DD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) determine if therapy use varies significantly by state and (2) examine associations of health determinants with therapy use among U.S. school-aged children with DD. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of 2016 and 2017 National Survey of Children's Health data. The sample included 9984 children with DD ages 6-17 years. We obtained odds ratios and predicted margins with 95% confidence intervals from multilevel logistic regression models to examine therapy use variation and determinants. RESULTS: Overall, 34.6% of children used therapy services. Therapy use varied significantly across states (σ2 = 0.11, SE = 0.04). Younger age, public insurance, functional limitations, individualized education program, frustration accessing services, and care coordination need were associated with higher adjusted odds of therapy access. In states with Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services waivers, higher estimated annual waiver cost was associated with lower adjusted odds of therapy use. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight geographic disparities in therapy use and multilevel targets to increase therapy use for school-aged children with DD.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2159-2174, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by numerous cysts originating from renal tubules and is associated with significant tubular epithelial cell proliferation. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) promotes tumor growth by regulating multiple proliferative pathways. METHODS: We established the forskolin (FSK)-induced three-dimensional (3D) Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cystogenesis model and 8-bromoadenosine-3`,5`-cyclic monophosphate-stimulated cyst formation in ex vivo embryonic kidney culture. Cultured human renal cyst-lining cells (OX-161) and normal tubular epithelial cells were treated with FAK inhibitors or transfected with green fluorescent protein-tagged FAK mutant plasmids for proliferation study. Furthermore, we examined the role of FAK in two transgenic ADPKD animal models, the kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout and the collecting duct-specific Pkd1 knockout mouse models. RESULTS: FAK activity was significantly elevated in OX-161 cells and in two ADPKD mouse models. Inhibiting FAK activity reduced cell proliferation in OX-161 cells and prevented cyst growth in ex vivo and 3D cyst models. In tissue-specific Pkd1 knockout mouse models, FAK inhibitors retarded cyst development and mitigated renal function decline. Mechanically, FSK stimulated FAK activation in tubular epithelial cells, which was blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Inhibition of FAK activation by inhibitors or transfected cells with mutant FAK constructs interrupted FSK-mediated Src activation and upregulation of ERK and mTOR pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the critical involvement of FAK in renal cyst development, suggests that FAK is a potential therapeutic target in treating patients with ADPKD, and highlights the role of FAK in cAMP-PKA-regulated proliferation.

20.
ACS Omega ; 6(34): 22188-22201, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497910

RESUMO

A novel copper-based catalyst supported by a long-chain hydrocarbon stearic acid (Cu x O@C18H36O2) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and double replacement reactions. The as-prepared catalyst is shown as self-assembled hierarchical nanoflakes with an average size of ∼22 nm and a specific surface area of 51.4 m2 g-1. The catalyst has a good performance on adsorption as well as Fenton-like catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The catalyst (10 mg/L) showed an excellent adsorption efficiency toward RhB (20 mg/L) for pH ranging from 5 to 13, with the highest adsorption rate (99%) exhibited at pH 13. The Fenton-like catalytic degradation reaction of RhB (20 mg/L) by Cu x O@C18H36O2 nanoflakes was effective over a wide range of pH of 3-11, and •OH radicals were generated via Cu2O/H2O2 interactions in acidic conditions and CuO/H2O2 reactions in a neutral solution. The highest efficiency catalytic degradation of RhB (20 mg/L) was 99.2% under acidic conditions (pH = 3, H2O2 = 0.05 M), with an excellent reusability of 96% at the 6th cycle. The results demonstrated that the as-prepared Cu x O@C18H36O2 nanoflakes are an efficient candidate for wastewater treatment, with excellent adsorption capacity and superior Fenton-like catalytic efficiency and stability for RhB.

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