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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen for community-acquired pneumonia and is also implicated in a broad array of extra-pulmonary manifestations. M. pneumoniae infection is rarely associated with concurrent central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement in children. METHODS: We report 2 patients who presented with acute encephalitis and polyradiculitis due to M. pneumoniae infection and review the literature to discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of concomitant CNS and PNS involvement associated with M. pneumoniae infection. RESULTS: We report two 6-year-old boys with M. pneumoniae antecedent infection who presented initially with impaired consciousness followed by limb weakness, limb pain and urinary retention, and responded well to immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We described 2 patients who presented symptomatic combined CNS and PNS involvement with persistent urinary retention associated with M. pneumoniae infection. We found autoimmunity plays an important role and recommend that antibiotics and immunomodulators should be administered with concurrent CNS and PNS involvement associated with M. pneumoniae.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752668

RESUMO

Electron transfer is considered to be a typical parameter that affects the catalytic activity of nanozymes. However, there is still controversy regarding whether higher or lower electron transfer numbers are beneficial for improving the catalytic activity of nanozymes. To address this issue, we propose the introduction of Pd doping as an important electron regulation strategy to tune electron transfer between Pt and ZIF-8 carriers (PtxPd1@ZIF-8). We observe a volcano-shaped relationship between the electron transfer number and catalytic activity, reaching its peak at Pt4Pd1@ZIF-8. Mechanism studies indicate that as the electron transfer number from Pt to ZIF-8 carriers increases, the d-band center of the active site Pt increases, reducing the occupancy of antibonding states and enhancing the adsorption capacity of the key intermediate (*O). However, a further increase in the adsorption of *O energy makes it difficult to desorb and participate in the next reaction, thus exhibiting volcanic activity. The optimized Pt4Pd1@ZIF-8 nanozyme is applied to develop an immunoassay for the detection of zearalenone, achieving a detection limit of 0.01 µg/L, which is 6 times higher than that of the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This work not only reveals the potential regulatory mechanism of electron transfer on the catalytic activity of nanozymes but also improves the performance of nanozyme-based biosensors.

3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4032, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740753

RESUMO

Animal regeneration involves coordinated responses across cell types throughout the animal body. In endosymbiotic animals, whether and how symbionts react to host injury and how cellular responses are integrated across species remain unexplored. Here, we study the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura, which hosts symbiotic Tetraselmis sp. green algae and can regenerate entire bodies from tissue fragments. We show that animal injury causes a decline in the photosynthetic efficiency of the symbiotic algae, alongside two distinct, sequential waves of transcriptional responses in acoel and algal cells. The initial algal response is characterized by the upregulation of a cohort of photosynthesis-related genes, though photosynthesis is not necessary for regeneration. A conserved animal transcription factor, runt, is induced after injury and required for acoel regeneration. Knockdown of Cl-runt dampens transcriptional responses in both species and further reduces algal photosynthetic efficiency post-injury. Our results suggest that the holobiont functions as an integrated unit of biological organization by coordinating molecular networks across species through the runt-dependent animal regeneration program.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Regeneração , Simbiose , Animais , Regeneração/fisiologia , Clorófitas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 173222, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750750

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a major air pollutant that directly threatens the respiratory system, lung fatty acid metabolism disorder is an important molecular event in pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome not only regulate inflammation, but also have close relationship with fatty acid metabolism. However, the role and mechanism of LKB1 and NLRP3 inflammasome in lung fatty acid metabolism, which may contribute to ozone-induced lung inflammation, remain unclear, and effective strategy for preventing O3-induced pulmonary inflammatory injury is lacking. To explore these, mice were exposed to 1.00 ppm O3 (3 h/d, 5 days), and pulmonary inflammation was determined by airway hyperresponsiveness, histopathological examination, total cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Targeted fatty acids metabolomics was used to detect medium and long fatty acid in lung tissue. Then, using LKB1-overexpressing adenovirus and NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/-) mice to explore the mechanism of O3-induced lung fatty acid metabolism disorder. Results demonstrated that O3 exposure caused pulmonary inflammatory injury and lung medium and long chain fatty acids metabolism disorder, especially decreased dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA). Meanwhile, LKB1 expression was decreased, and NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in lung of mice after O3 exposure. Additionally, LKB1 overexpression alleviated O3-induced lung inflammation and inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. And we found that pulmonary fatty acid metabolism disorder was ameliorated of NLRP3 -/- mice compared with those in wide type mice after O3 exposure. Furthermore, administrating DGLA intratracheally prior to O3 exposure significantly attenuated O3-induced pulmonary inflammatory injury. Taken together, these findings suggest that fatty acids metabolism disorder is involved in O3-induced pulmonary inflammation, which is regulated by LKB1-mediated NLRP3 pathway, DGLA supplement could be a useful preventive strategy to ameliorate ozone-associated lung inflammatory injury.

5.
FASEB J ; 38(9): e23654, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717442

RESUMO

Heart failure and cardiac remodeling are both characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. Healthy mitochondria are required for adequate contractile activity and appropriate regulation of cell survival. In the mammalian heart, enhancement of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is cardioprotective under pressure overload conditions. We explored the UPRmt and the underlying regulatory mechanism in terms of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and the cardioprotective effect of metformin. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats and angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to induce cardiac hypertrophy. The results showed that hypertension induced the formation of aberrant mitochondria, characterized by a reduced mtDNA/nDNA ratio and swelling, as well as lower levels of mitochondrial complexes I to V and inhibition of the expression of one protein subunit of each of complexes I to IV. Such changes eventually enlarged cardiomyocytes and increased cardiac fibrosis. Metformin treatment increased the mtDNA/nDNA ratio and regulated the UPRmt, as indicated by increased expression of activating transcription factor 5, Lon protease 1, and heat shock protein 60, and decreased expression of C/EBP homologous protein. Thus, metformin improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In vitro analyses revealed that metformin reduced the high levels of angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in such animals and stimulated nuclear translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Moreover, HSF1 small-interfering RNA reduced the metformin-mediated improvements in mitochondrial morphology and the UPRmt by suppressing hypertrophic signals and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that HSF1/UPRmt signaling contributes to the beneficial effects of metformin. Metformin-mediated targeting of mitochondrial protein homeostasis and modulation of HSF1 levels have potential therapeutic implications in terms of cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico , Metformina , Miócitos Cardíacos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202319908, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693057

RESUMO

Upon pathogenic stimulation, activated neutrophils release nuclear DNA into the extracellular environment, forming web-like DNA structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which capture and kill bacteria, fungi, and cancer cells. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as NETosis. Inspired by this, we introduce a cell surface-constrained web-like framework nucleic acids traps (FNATs) with programmable extracellular recognition capability and cellular behavior modulation. This approach facilitates dynamic key chemical signaling molecule recognition such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is elevated in the extracellular microenvironment, and triggers FNA self-assembly. This, in turn, leads to in situ tightly interwoven FNAs formation on the cell surface, thereby inhibiting target cell migration. Furthermore, it activates a photosensitizer-capturing switch, chlorin e6 (Ce6), and induces cell self-destruction. This cascade platform provides new potential tools for visualizing dynamic extracellular activities and manipulating cellular behaviors using programmable in situ self-assembling DNA molecular devices.

7.
Hortic Res ; 11(5): uhae081, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766530

RESUMO

BTB and TAZ domain proteins (BTs) function as specialized adaptors facilitating substrate recognition of the CUL3-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex that targets proteins for ubiquitination in reaction to diverse pressures. Nonetheless, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which the apple scaffold protein MdBT2 responds to external and internal signals is limited. Here we demonstrate that a putative Ca 2+ sensor, calmodulin-like 15 (MdCML15), acts as an upstream regulator of MdBT2 to negatively modulate its functions in plasma membrane H+-ATPase regulation and iron deficiency tolerance. MdCML15 was identified to be substantially linked to MdBT2, and to result in the ubiquitination and degradation of the MdBT2 target protein MdbHLH104. Consequently, MdCML15 repressed the MdbHLH104 target, MdAHA8's expression, reducing levels of a specific membrane H+-ATPase. Finally, the phenotype of transgenic apple plantlets and calli demonstrated that MdCML15 modulates membrane H+-ATPase-produced rhizosphere pH lowering alongside iron homeostasis through an MdCML15-MdBT2-MdbHLH104-MdAHA8 pathway. Our results provide new insights into the relationship between Ca2+ signaling and iron homeostasis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639856

RESUMO

This systematic review aims to identify the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and allergic diseases in children, focusing on specific pollutants, timing of exposure, and associated diseases. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for English articles until May 1, 2023, examining maternal exposure to outdoor air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3) during pregnancy and child allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis (AD), food allergy (FA), asthma (AT) and allergic rhinitis (AR)/hay fever (HF)). The final 38 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 during pregnancy was associated with the risk of childhood AD, with pooled ORs of 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.63) and 1.10 (95%CI, 1.05-1.15) per 10 µg/m3 increase, respectively. Maternal exposure to PM1, PM2.5, and NO2 with a 10 µg/m3 increase posed a risk for AT, with pooled ORs of 1.34 (95%CI, 1.17-1.54), 1.11 (95%CI, 1.05-1.18), and 1.07 (95%CI, 1.02-1.12), respectively. An increased risk of HF was observed for PM2.5 and NO2 with a 10 µg/m3 increase, with ORs of 1.36 (95%CI, 1.17-1.58) and 1.26 (95%CI, 1.08-1.48), respectively. Traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), particularly PM2.5 and NO2, throughout pregnancy, pose a pervasive risk for childhood allergies. Different pollutants may induce diverse allergic diseases in children across varying perinatal periods. AT is more likely to be induced by outdoor air pollutants as a health outcome. More research is needed to explore links between air pollution and airway-derived food allergies.

9.
Noise Health ; 26(120): 30-36, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from medical institutions such as hospitals usually exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. This study aimed to explore the application effect of ward-noise reduction management combined with monitoring-training-planning (MTP) management mode in hospitalized patients with heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 168 research objects, 55 patients with heart failure receiving ward-noise reduction management combined with MTP management mode from April 2022 to March 2023 were included in group A, 52 patients with heart failure who underwent MTP management mode from March 2021 to March 2022 were selected as group B, and 61 patients who underwent routine management measures from March 2020 to February 2021 served as the control group. The vital signs, Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) scores, Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores, physical function indices, sleep quality score, and satisfaction degree of patients in the three groups were compared before and after management. RESULTS: After 1 month of management, group A had lower heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate compared to group B and the control group (P < 0.001). The SAS score, SDS score, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score after management in group A were lower than those in group B and the control group (P < 0.001). Group A had a higher 6-Minute Walk Distance than group B and the control group (P < 0.001). Group A had a higher satisfaction degree after management compared to group B (P < 0.01) and the control group (P < 0.001). Group A had lower noise level than group B and the control group (P < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in noise level between group B and the control group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Ward-noise reduction management combined with MTP management mode can reduce the noise level in the ward and improve the psychological state and sleep quality of patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 1189-1212, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) plays a crucial role in metabolizing and detoxifying endogenous and exogenous substances. However, its contribution to the progression of liver damage remains unclear. AIM: To determine the role and mechanism of UGT1A1 in liver damage progression. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between UGT1A1 expression and liver injury through clinical research. Additionally, the impact and mechanism of UGT1A1 on the progression of liver injury was analyzed through a mouse model study. RESULTS: Patients with UGT1A1 gene mutations showed varying degrees of liver damage, while patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) exhibited relatively reduced levels of UGT1A1 protein in the liver as compared to patients with chronic hepatitis. This suggests that low UGT1A1 levels may be associated with the progression of liver damage. In mouse models of liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and concanavalin A (ConA), the hepatic levels of UGT1A1 protein were found to be increased. In mice with lipopolysaccharide or liver steatosis-mediated liver-injury progression, the hepatic protein levels of UGT1A1 were decreased, which is consistent with the observations in patients with ACLF. UGT1A1 knockout exacerbated CCl4- and ConA-induced liver injury, hepatocyte apoptosis and necroptosis in mice, intensified hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress, and disrupted lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: UGT1A1 is upregulated as a compensatory response during liver injury, and interference with this upregulation process may worsen liver injury. UGT1A1 reduces ER stress, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism disorder, thereby mitigating hepatocyte apoptosis and necroptosis.


Assuntos
Glucuronosiltransferase , Fígado , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
11.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 11: 737-746, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654891

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to explore the effects of the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC). Methods: A total of 242 patients with HBV-related LC were enrolled and followed-up. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate risk factors for HCC. Results: The median follow-up time was 37 months (range: 6-123 months). At the end of the follow-up, 11 (11.3%) patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) and 45 (31.0%) with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) developed HCC. The TyG index was higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group (P=0.05). Univariate analysis showed that age (P<0.01), DC (P<0.01), TyG index (P=0.08), albumin (ALB) level (P=0.05), platelet (PLT) count (P<0.01), and HBV DNA positivity (P<0.01) were associated with HCC development. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, DC, TyG index, PLT count, and HBV DNA positivity were independent risk factors for HCC development (P=0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.05, and <0.01, respectively). For patients with DC, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, TyG index, and HBV DNA positivity were independent risk factors for HCC development (all P<0.05). A new model encompassing age, DC, TyG, PLT, and positive HBV DNA had optimal predictive accuracy in patients with DC or CC, with a cutoff value of 0.197. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of the model for predicting HCC development in patients with LC, DC, and CC were 0.778, 0.721, and 0.783, respectively. Conclusion: TyG index was identified as an independent risk factor for HCC development in patients with LC.

12.
J Adv Res ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity-induced bone loss affects the life quality of patients all over the world. Irisin, one of the myokines, plays an essential role in bone and fat metabolism. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effects of irisin on bone metabolism via adipocytes in the bone marrow microenvironment. METHODS: In this study, we fed fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5, the precursor protein of irisin) knockout mice (FNDC5-/-) with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. The quality of bone mass was assessed by micro-CT analysis, histological staining, and dynamic bone formation. In vitro, the lipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was assayed by Oil Red O staining, and the osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase staining. Meanwhile, the gene expression in the BMSC-differentiated adipocytes by RNA sequence and the involved pathway of irisin were determined by western blot and qRT-PCR were performed. RESULTS: The FNDC5-/- mice fed with a HFD showed an increased body weight, fat content of the bone marrow and bone, and a decreased bone formation compared with those with a standard diet (SD). In vitro, irisin inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and alleviated the inhibition of osteogenesis derived from BMSCs by the adipocyte supernatant. RNA sequence and blocking experiment showed that irisin reduced the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in adipocytes through downregulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Immunofluorescence staining of bone marrow further confirmed an increased IL-6 expression in the FNDC5-/- mice fed with HFD compared with those fed with SD, which suffered serious bone loss. CONCLUSION: Irisin downregulates activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, thereby reducing IL-6 production in adipocytes to enhance the osteogenesis of BMSCs. Thus, the rescue of osteogenesis of BMSCs, initially inhibited by IL-6, is a potential therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced osteoporosis.

13.
Org Lett ; 26(15): 3213-3217, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573591

RESUMO

With in-depth research on 1,2-difunctionalization, remote difunctionalization has garnered widespread attention for achieving multifunctionality. Herein, we report a strategy for achieving remote difunctionalization under mild conditions. This strategy exhibited good substrate suitability and functional group tolerance. In addition, the significance of this method is further evidenced by its successful application in scaling up and conducting additional transformations of target compounds. Mechanistic studies showed that a radical might be involved in this process.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(16): 12483-12494, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619858

RESUMO

The MP2 and CCSD(T) methods are paired with correlation consistent basis sets as large as aug-cc-pVQZ to optimize the structures of the cyclic minima for (HF)n, (HCl)n and (H2O)n where n = 3-5, as well as the corresponding transition states (TSs) for concerted proton transfer (CPT). MP2 and CCSD(T) harmonic vibrational frequencies confirm the nature of each minimum and TS. Both conventional and explicitly correlated CCSD(T) computations are employed to assess the electronic dissociation energies and barrier heights for CPT near the complete basis (CBS) limit for all 9 clusters. Results for (HF)n are consistent with prior studies identifying Cnh and Dnh point group symmetry for the minima and TSs, respectively. Our computations also confirm that CPT proceeds through Cs TS structures for the C1 minima of (H2O)3 and (H2O)5, whereas the process goes through a TS with D2d symmetry for the S4 global minimum of (H2O)4. This work corroborates earlier findings that the minima for (HCl)3, (HCl)4 and (HCl)5 have C3h, S4 and C1 point group symmetry, respectively, and that the Cnh structures are not minima for n = 4 and 5. Moreover, our computations show the TSs for CPT in (HCl)3, (HCl)4 and (HCl)5 have D3h, D2d, and C2 point group symmetry, respectively. At the CCSD(T) CBS limit, (HF)4 and (HF)5 have the smallest electronic barrier heights for CPT (≈15 kcal mol-1 for both), followed by the HF trimer (≈21 kcal mol-1). The barriers are appreciably higher for the other clusters (around 27 kcal mol-1 for (H2O)4 and (HCl)3; roughly 30 kcal mol-1 for (H2O)3, (H2O)5 and (HCl)4; up to 38 kcal mol-1 for (HCl)5). At the CBS limit, MP2 significantly underestimates the CCSD(T) barrier heights (e.g., by ca. 2, 4 and 7 kcal mol-1 for the pentamers of HF, H2O and HCl, respectively), whereas CCSD overestimates these barriers by roughly the same magnitude. Scaling the barrier heights and dissociation energies by the number of fragments in the cluster reveals strong linear relationships between the two quantities and with the magnitudes of the imaginary vibrational frequency for the TSs.

15.
Toxicology ; 505: 153805, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621634

RESUMO

Moon dust presents a significant hazard to manned moon exploration missions, yet our understanding of its toxicity remains limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the pattern and mechanism of lung inflammation induced by subacute exposure to moon dust simulants (MDS) in rats. SD rats were exposed to MDS and silica dioxide through oral and nasal inhalation for 6 hours per day continuously for 15 days. Pathological analysis indicated that the toxicity of MDS was lower than that of silica dioxide. MDS led to a notable recruitment and infiltration of macrophages in the rat lungs. Material characterization and biochemical analysis revealed that SiO2, Fe2O3, and TiO2 could be crucial sources of MDS toxicity. The study revealed that MDS-induced oxidative stress response can lead to pulmonary inflammation, which potentially may progress to lung fibrosis. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that MDS suppresses the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, triggers the Tnfr2 non-classical NF-kB pathway and IL-17 signaling pathway, ultimately causing lung inflammation and activating predominantly antioxidant immune responses. Moreover, the study identified the involvement of upregulated genes IL1b, csf2, and Sod2 in regulating immune responses in rat lungs, making them potential key targets for preventing pulmonary toxicity related to moon dust exposure. These findings are expected to aid in safeguarding astronauts against the hazardous effects of moon dust and offer fresh insights into the implications and mechanisms of moon dust toxicity.

16.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 56: 101850, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We expand on prior systematic reviews of Tai chi/Qigong (TCQ) practice on depression or anxiety symptoms in adults with cancer to estimate the mean effect of TCQ on depression and anxiety in randomized controlled trials. Additionally, we perform moderator analysis to examine whether effects vary based on patient features, TCQ stimuli properties, or characteristics of research design. METHODS: Guided by PRISMA guidelines, we located articles published before August 31, 2023 using a combination of electronic database search and a complementary manual search through reference lists of articles and published reviews. Two separate multilevel meta-analyses with random-effects model were employed to estimate the overall effect of TCQ on depression and anxiety respectively. Further, multilevel meta-regression analysis was utilized to examine moderating effects based on moderators derived from patient features, TCQ stimuli properties, or characteristics associated with research design. Meta-analyses were performed in R4.0.0 and certainty of evidence with GRADEpro software. RESULTS: The TCQ intervention yielded a standardized mean effect size of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.40) for anxiety, indicating homogeneity among the included studies. Conversely, for depression, the standardized mean effect size was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.55), signifying heterogeneity: reductions were larger when the trial primary outcome, predominantly function-related outcomes, changed significantly between the TCQ and control group. CONCLUSIONS: TCQ practice exhibits small-to-moderate efficacy in alleviating depression and anxiety symptoms among cancer patients and survivors. Moreover, patients with depressive symptoms for whom TCQ intervention coupled with improvements in function-related outcomes manifested greater antidepressant effect.

17.
Opt Express ; 32(6): 8657-8683, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571119

RESUMO

Fully considering the mechanical and photoelastic anisotropies of monocrystalline silicon, the impacts of spatial symmetries on the stimulated Brillouin scatterings (SBSs) in nanoscale suspended silicon waveguides are studied theoretically and numerically based on group theory. First, starting from an assumption that the principal material coordinate system can be arbitrarily orientated in a waveguide with fixed geometry, the silicon waveguides are systematically classified into a number of point groups according to their spatial symmetry features. Thereafter, the symmetry characteristics of physical fields and SBS opto-mechanical coupling characteristics in the silicon waveguides belonging to different point groups are further examined, and the major new findings can be summarized as follows: The SBS opto-mechanical couplings in several kinds of silicon waveguides with certain nontrivial symmetry features exhibit relatively predictable behaviors in that the opto-mechanical coupling coefficients can be deterministically vanishing or nonvanishing under very few constraints, which can thus serve as general symmetry selection rules for SBSs in suspended silicon waveguides. The results obtained in the present study could be a useful theoretical reference for the design of novel SBS-active silicon photonic devices.

18.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2794, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555346

RESUMO

C-oligosaccharides are found in natural products and drug molecules. Despite the considerable progress made during the last decades, modular and stereoselective synthesis of C-oligosaccharides continues to be challenging and underdeveloped compared to the synthesis technology of O-oligosaccharides. Herein, we design a distinct strategy for the stereoselective and efficient synthesis of C-oligosaccharides via palladium-catalyzed nondirected C1-H glycosylation/C2-alkenylation, cyanation, and alkynylation of 2-iodoglycals with glycosyl chloride donors while realizing the difunctionalization of 2-iodoglycals. The catalysis approach tolerates various functional groups, including derivatives of marketed drugs and natural products. Notably, the obtained C-oligosaccharides can be further transformed into various C-glycosides while fully conserving the stereochemistry. The results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations support oxidative addition mechanism of alkenyl-norbornyl-palladacycle (ANP) intermediate with α-mannofuranose chloride and the high stereoselectivity of glycosylation is due to steric hindrance.

19.
Biomater Sci ; 12(7): 1898-1913, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426394

RESUMO

Masquelet's induced membrane (IM) technique is a promising treatment strategy for the repair of substantial bone defects. The formation of an IM around polymethylmethacrylate bone cement plays a crucial role in this technique. Several studies have indicated that IMs have bioactivity because they contain abundant blood vessels, a variety of cells, and biological factors. The bioactivity of an IM increases during the initial stages of formation, thereby facilitating bone regeneration and remodeling. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the enhancement of IM bioactivity and the promotion of bone regeneration necessitate further investigation. In this study, we successfully developed a Masquelet IM model of critical femur defects in rats. By employing proteomics analysis and biological detection techniques, we identified fibromodulin (FMOD) as a pivotal factor contributing to angiogenesis and the enhanced bioactivity of the IM. A significant increase in angiogenesis and the expression of bioactive factors in the IM was also observed with the upregulation of FMOD expression. Furthermore, this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)/SMAD signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that administering recombinant human FMOD enhanced osteogenesis in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the negative regulatory effect of the TGF-ß signaling pathway was verified. In conclusion, this study provides a novel theoretical basis for the application of IMs in bone-defect reconstruction and explores possible new mechanisms that may play an important role in promoting the bioactivity and osteogenic potential of IMs.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Fibromodulina , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical manifestations, operative techniques, and outcomes of patients who undergo open repair after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2022, 113 consecutive type A aortic dissection (TAAD) patients underwent secondary open operation after TEVAR at our institution, and the median interval from primary intervention to open surgery was 12 (1.9-48.0) months. We divided the patients into two groups (RTAD (retrograde type A dissection) group, N = 56; PNAD (proximal new aortic dissection) group, N = 57) according to their anatomical features. Survival analysis during the follow-up was evaluated using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve and a log-rank test. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 6.2% (7/113), the median follow-up period was 31.7 (IQR 14.7-65.6) months, and the overall survival at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years was 88.5%, 88.5%, and 87.6%, respectively. Fourteen deaths occurred during the follow-up, but there were no late aorta-related deaths. Three patients underwent total thoracoabdominal aortic replacement 1 year after a second open operation. The RTAD group had a smaller ascending aorta size (42.5 ± 7.7 mm vs 48.4 ± 11.4 mm; P < .01) and a closer proximal landing zone (P < .01) compared to the PNAD group. However, there were no differences in survival between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAAD can present as an early or a late complication after TEVAR due to stent-grafting-related issues or disease progression. Open operation can be performed to treat TAAD, and this has acceptable early and mid-term outcomes. Follow-up should become mandatory for patients after TEVAR because these patients are at increased risk for TAAD.

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