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1.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354638

RESUMO

Phosphate/calcium homeostasis is crucial for health maintenance. Lithocholic acid, a bile acid produced by intestinal bacteria, is an agonist of vitamin D receptor. However, its effects on phosphate/calcium homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that lithocholic acid increases intestinal phosphate/calcium absorption in an enterocyte vitamin D receptor-dependent manner. Lithocholic acid was found to increase serum phosphate/calcium levels and thus to exacerbate vascular calcification in animals with chronic kidney disease. Lithocholic acid did not affect levels of intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2b, Pi transporter-1, -2, or transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 6. Everted gut sac analyses demonstrated that lithocholic acid increased phosphate/calcium absorption in a transcellular pathway-independent manner. Lithocholic acid suppressed intestinal mucosal claudin 3 and occludin in wild-type mice, but not in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Everted gut sacs of claudin 3 knockout mice showed an increased permeability for phosphate, but not calcium. In patients with chronic kidney disease, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels are decreased, probably as an intrinsic adjustment to reduce phosphate/calcium burden. In contrast, serum and fecal lithocholic acid levels and fecal levels of bile acid 7α-dehydratase, a rate-limiting enzyme involved in lithocholic acid production, were not downregulated. The effects of lithocholic acid were eliminated by bile acid adsorptive resin in mice. Thus, lithocholic acid and claudin 3 may represent novel therapeutic targets for reducing phosphate burden.

2.
Dent Mater J ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404566

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to build an in silico computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin-composite-block (RCB) model with different silane coupling ratios and to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the models, including the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, compressive strength, and maximum principal strain. Nanoscale CAD/CAM RCB models were designed by using CAD software that consisted of twelve spherical silica nanofiller particles and a resin matrix. Seven nanoscale models with different silane coupling ratios were prepared with the same filler volume contents. Homogenization analysis was conducted by using voxel-base finite-element analysis software to predict the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio of the macro CAD/CAM RCB. Localization analysis was used to analyze the maximum principal strain distribution in the hydrolysis layer. In silico multi-scale analysis demonstrated that the compressive strength of the CAD/CAM RCB was reduced with a decrease in the silane coupling ratios of the fillers.

3.
Behav Neurol ; 2020: 9541869, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399085

RESUMO

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a slow progressive impairment of episodic memory. Many studies have shown that AD exhibits deterioration of semantic memory during the course of disease progression. We previously reported that AD patients exhibited severe access disorders in the semantic memory system, using the Momentary Presentation Task (20 or 300 ms). In this study, we studied access disorder in patients with AD by the use of object difference (pictures vs words) methods. Methods: 56 patients with probable AD (NINCDS-ADRDA, mean age 79.0 years) and 11 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 67.0 years) were studied. Ten pictures and 10 corresponding Japanese Hiragana words were presented arbitrarily for 20 and 300 ms on the monitor screen which were correctly named at the usual confrontation setting (i.e., semantic memory preserved). They were asked to name the pictures or to read the words or nonsense syllables aloud. Results: The AD group showed significantly lower scores than the HC group, especially for the 20 ms condition. For the type of stimuli, the AD patients had better performances for words > pictures > nonsense syllables, although no differences for the HC group. The effect of AD severity was noted, moderate > severe stage. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the processing speed in AD patients may have reduced, even if the semantic memory were preserved. These data indicated that the difference in the processing speeds by the type of stimuli (pictures, words, and nonsense syllables) may be a character of AD patients.

4.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narrowness of the spinal canal is associated with the development of cervical myelopathy. While studies have addressed the sagittal diameter of the cervical spinal canal, few evaluated the correlation between the size of the spinal canal and the vertebral level. We addressed this issue. METHODS: Our retrospective study included 102 patients with cranial or spinal disorders. We examined the correlation between the cervical spinal canal diameter (SCD) at C1 to C7 and the inner anteroposterior diameter (IAPD) of the atlas on CT images. RESULTS: At C1, the SCD was largest, at C4 it was smallest. While there was a strong correlation between the IAPD and the SCD at C1 (r = 0.8), the correlation between the size of the atlas and the SCD at C4 to C7 was weak (r = 0.2-0.3). We divided our patients into a normal group (n = 34, SCD ≥ 12 mm at any levels) and a stenosis group (n = 68, SCD < 12 mm at all levels). The mean SCD at C2 to C7 was significantly larger in the normal group. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the IAPD and the SCD at C1. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the subaxial spine does not necessarily affect the size of the atlas. The pathophysiology of spinal canal stenosis should be considered separately at the C1- and the subaxial level.

5.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare vascular lesions and are classified into 4 types (types I-IV). Due to rapid advances in neuroimaging, spinal epidural AVFs (edAVFs), which are similar to type I spinal dural AVFs (dAVFs), have recently been increasingly reported. These 2 entities have several important differences that influence the treatment strategy selected. The purposes of the present study were to compare angiographic and clinical differences between edAVFs and dAVFs and to provide treatment strategies for edAVFs based on a multicenter cohort. METHODS: A total of 280 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) and edAVFs with intradural venous drainage were collected from 19 centers. After angiographic and clinical comparisons, the treatment failure rate by procedure, risk factors for treatment failure, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed in edAVF cases. RESULTS: Final diagnoses after an angiographic review included 199 dAVFs and 81 edAVFs. At individual centers, 29 patients (36%) with edAVFs were misdiagnosed with dAVFs. Spinal edAVFs were commonly fed by multiple feeding arteries (54%) shunted into a single or multiple intradural vein(s) (91% and 9%) through a dilated epidural venous plexus. Preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades were worse in patients with edAVFs than in those with dAVFs. Among the microsurgical (n = 42), endovascular (n = 36), and combined (n = 3) treatment groups of edAVFs, the treatment failure rate was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (7.5%, 31%, and 0%, respectively). Endovascular treatment was found to be associated with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.45-22.6). In edAVFs, the independent risk factor for treatment failure after microsurgery was the number of intradural draining veins (OR 17.9, 95% CI 1.56-207), while that for treatment failure after the endovascular treatment was the number of feeders (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.23-13.8). Postoperatively, mRS score and Aminoff-Logue gait and micturition grades significantly improved in edAVFs with a median follow-up of 31 months. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal epidural AVFs with intradural venous drainage are a distinct entity and may be classified as type V spinal vascular malformations. Based on the largest multicenter cohort, this study showed that primary microsurgery was superior to endovascular treatment for initial treatment success in patients with spinal edAVFs.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 276, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of avulsion fractures of the distal fibula for lateral ankle sprain in children and compare it to that of radiography. METHODS: Children who sustained lateral ankle sprain were prospectively surveyed. They underwent both ultrasonography and radiography at the first clinic visit to diagnose any concomitant avulsion fractures of the distal fibula. The patients underwent follow-up radiography 4 weeks later to obtain the reference standard diagnosis. The measures of diagnostic accuracy (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) of the initial ultrasonography and radiography were calculated; they were then compared using the McNemar test. Totally, 52 patients (with a median age of 9 years) were analyzed. RESULTS: On the reference standard (follow-up) radiographs, 32 patients (62%) were found to have avulsion fractures of the distal fibula. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography were 94, 85, 91, and 89% respectively; and 81, 100, 100, and 77% respectively for radiography at the first visit. There were no significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between the two diagnostic methods (P = 0.22, 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography has a high diagnostic accuracy, which is comparable to that of radiography, for the diagnosis of avulsion fracture of the distal fibula. Ultrasonography may be used as an option of imaging modality for lateral ankle sprain in children.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4418, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157180

RESUMO

Lower corrected calcium (cCa) levels are associated with a better prognosis among incident dialysis patients. However, cCa frequently overestimates ionized calcium (iCa) levels. The prognostic importance of the true calcium status defined by iCa remains to be revealed. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of incident hemodialysis patients. We collected data of iCa levels immediately before the first dialysis. We divided patients into three categories: apparent hypocalcemia (low iCa; <1.15 mmol/L and low cCa; <8.4 mg/dL), hidden hypocalcemia (low iCa despite normal or high cCa), and normocalcemia (normal iCa). The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death and cardiovascular diseases after hospital discharge. Among the enrolled 332 patients, 75% of the patients showed true hypocalcemia, defined as iCa <1.15 mmol/L, 61% of whom showed hidden hypocalcemia. In multivariate Cox models including other potential risk factors, true hypocalcemia was a significant risk factor (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.34), whereas hypocalcemia defined as corrected calcium <8.4 mg/dL was not. Furthermore, hidden hypocalcemia was significantly associated with an increased risk of the outcome compared with normocalcemia (HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.11-5.94), while apparent hypocalcemia was not. Patients with hidden hypocalcemia were less likely to receive interventions to correct hypocalcemia, such as increased doses of active vitamin D or administration of calcium carbonate, than patients with apparent hypocalcemia (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89). Hidden hypocalcemia was a strong predictor of death and cardiovascular events, suggesting the importance of measuring iCa.

8.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The locomotive syndrome risk test was developed to quantify the decrease in mobility among adults, which could eventually lead to disability. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the locomotive syndrome risk test for adults and investigate the influence of age and sex. METHODS: We analyzed 8681 independent community dwellers (3607 men, 5074 women). Data pertaining to locomotive syndrome risk test (the two-step test, the stand-up test, and the 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale [GLFS-25]) scores were collected from seven administrative areas of Japan. RESULTS: The reference values of the three test scores were generated and all three test scores gradually decreased among young-to-middle-aged individuals and rapidly decreased in individuals aged over 60 years. The stand-up test score began decreasing significantly from the age of 30 years. The trajectories of decrease in the two-step test score with age was slightly different between men and women especially among the middle-aged individuals. The two physical test scores were more sensitive to aging than the self-reported test score. CONCLUSION: The reference values generated in this study could be employed to determine whether an individual has mobility comparable to independent community dwellers of the same age and sex.

9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 104: 103697, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of in silico models of three-point bending tests to reflect in vitro physical properties obtained from three commercially available computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin composite blocks and demonstrate notchless triangular prism analysis with those properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three types of commercially available CAD/CAM resin composite blocks were used: Cerasmart 300 (CS300; GC, Tokyo, Japan), Katana Avencia P Block (AP; Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan), and KZR CAD HR3 Gamma Theta (GT; Yamakin, Osaka, Japan). In vitro/in silico three-point bending tests were conducted to obtain elastic modulus and fracture strain for non-linear dynamic finite element analysis (n = 10/each). Fractured surfaces of specimens after in vitro NTP tests were observed, and the fracture toughness of each CAD/CAM resin composite was obtained by in silico NTP analysis. RESULTS: Both in vitro and in silico load-displacement curves obtained from three-point bending tests were significantly correlated (p < 0.05). The elastic moduli of CS300, AP, and GT were 8.0 GPa, 10.0 GPa, and 9.0 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness values obtained from in silico NTP analysis of CS300, AP, and GT were 5.057 MPa m1/2, 4.193 MPa m1/2, and 4.880 MPa m1/2, respectively. There was no significant difference in the length of the stable region among the three CAD/CAM resin composites (p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: The in silico approach established in this study showed acceptable reflection of in vitro physical properties and will be useful for assessing fracture toughness related to the longevity of CAD/CAM resin composites without wastage of materials.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We are developing an intradural approach to spinal cord stimulation, where the thin electrode array is affixed stably to the underside of the thoracic spinal dura mater without leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. As part of the design and testing process, we sought to evaluate the potential risk of inadvertent contact of the array with the pial surface of the spinal cord during variations in spinal loading. METHODS: As part of the risk assessment process, a 2-part study was undertaken. First, a retrospective review of the imaging studies of 25 patients was done in the supine, 45- and 90-degree positions to measure the positional shift between the T9 and T10 vertebral bodies as a function of spinal angulation. Second, similar measurements were made on a cadaveric model, with and without a prototype intradural stimulator implanted at the T9-T10 position and with and without 13.8 kg (30 lb) of axial spinal loading at the 90-degree orientation. RESULTS: In all cases, the measured relative displacement of the dura mater towards the spinal cord in both the imaging and the cadaveric arms of the study was less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation method for the thin intradural array of the prototype device will ensure that the anatomic separation between it and the pial surface of the spinal cord will be the same as that of the dura mater. Therefore the risk of inadvertent contact will be no greater than that due to the mass effects of standard epidural stimulator implants.

11.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The differences in symptoms of spinal meningiomas have rarely been discussed from the perspective of tumor characteristics. The main purpose of this paper was to define the differences, if any, in symptoms in patients with spinal meningiomas with respect to tumor size, location, and degree of spinal cord compression. The authors also sought the threshold of spinal cord compression that causes motor weakness. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective study of 53 cases of spinal meningiomas that were surgically treated from 2013 to 2018. Symptoms related to the tumor were classified as motor weakness, sensory disturbance, pain, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. Based on MR images, tumor location was classified by spinal level and by its attachment to the dura mater. Tumor dimensions were also measured. Occupation ratios of the tumors to the spinal canal and degree of spinal cord flattening were sought from the axial MR images that showed the highest degree of spinal cord compression. RESULTS: Motor weakness and sensory disturbance were significantly more common in thoracic spine meningiomas than in cervical spine meningiomas (p < 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively), while pain was more common in meningiomas at the craniovertebral junction (p < 0.001). The attachment, height, width, depth, and volume of the tumor showed no significant difference irrespective of the presence or absence of each symptom. In cases of motor weakness and sensory disturbance, occupation ratios and spinal cord flattening ratios were significantly larger. However, these ratios were significantly smaller in the presence of pain. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that occupation ratio independently contributed to motor weakness (OR 1.14, p = 0.035) and pain (OR 0.925, p = 0.034). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that occupation ratio with a value of 63.678% is the threshold for the tumor to cause motor weakness. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed the difference in clinical presentation of spinal meningiomas by spinal level, occupation ratio, and spinal cord flattening ratio. An occupation ratio of approximately 64% could be utilized as the threshold value of tumor growth to cause motor weakness. Tumor growth in the cervical spine might cause pain symptoms before causing motor weakness. The relationship between the tumor and its symptomatology should be discussed with respect to tumor size relative to the surrounding spinal canal.

12.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 103: 103598, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this multi-scale in silico study was to evaluate the influence of resorption cavities on the mechanical properties and load distribution in cortical bone after implant placement with two different drilling protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two different micro-scale bone structures were assessed: cortical bone models with cavities (test) and without cavities (control) were designed from µCT data. In a macro-scale model, representing a mandibular ridge, oblique load of 150 N was applied on the implant-abutment. Maximum principal stress/strain, and shear stress/strain were calculated in the macro- and micro-scale models. RESULTS: Test presented anisotropic material properties. In tests, significantly greater maximum values of Maximum principal stress/strain were calculated in micro-scale model. These values were located at the implant neck area in the macro-scale model and in the proximity of cavities in the micro-scale model respectively. Greater values of shear stress/strain were found in the test along the mandibular horizontal plane. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical bone with resorption cavities following undersized drilling showed an impaired load distribution compared with bone without cavities. Subsequently, stress/strain distribution suggests that this bone model is more prone to microdamage, thus delaying the healing process.

13.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 14, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bevacizumab and gemcitabine are key drugs for treating recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. However, information about the combination of bevacizumab and gemcitabine is insufficient. We conducted a phase II study to assess the feasibility, clinical activity, and toxicity of this combination chemotherapy. METHODS: This study included women with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who received one to three regimens of platinum-based chemotherapy between April 1, 2015 and December 31, 2018. The patients received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was the completion rate of three cycles of chemotherapy. This study was registered in the University Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000016619). RESULTS: Among the 19 patients, 18 (95%) received ≥3 and 9 (47%) received ≥6 cycles of the study therapy. The objective response rate was 42% (complete response of 16% and partial response of 26%), and the clinical control rate was 84%. Hematological toxicity included neutropenia grade 3/4 in 9 patients (47%), anemia grade 3/4 in 2 (11%), and thrombocytopenia grade 3/4 in 1 (5%). One patient (5%) had grade 3 hypertension, and 1 (5%) had grade 3 protein urea. Possibly related grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in 1 patient. Three patients needed dose reduction of gemcitabine to 800 mg/m2 due to treatment delay by 15 to 21 days on day1. There was no treatment delay more than 14 days on day 8. The median progression-free survival duration was 5.1 months and median overall survival duration was 21.3 months. CONCLUSION: The combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and bevacizumab was feasible, effective and safe. This combination chemotherapy may be explored in a further randomized trial.

14.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e393-e397, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During surgery, shoulder traction is often used for better fluoroscopic imaging of the lower cervical spine. Traction on the C5 root has been implicated as a potential cause of C5 palsy after cervical spine surgery. Using magnetic resonance imaging, this study was undertaken to determine the impact of upper extremity traction on the C5 root orientation. METHODS: In this study, 5 subjects underwent coronal magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and left brachial plexus. Using a wrist restraint, sequential traction on the left arm with 10, 20, and 30 lb. was applied. Measurements of the angle between the spinal axis and C5 nerve root and the angle between the C5 nerve root and the upper trunk of the brachial plexus were obtained. The measurements were taken by a trained neuroradiologist and analyzed for significance. RESULTS: The angle between the C5 nerve root and the vertical spinal axis remained within 3 and 4 degrees of the mean and was not found to be associated with increased traction weight (P = 0.753). The angle between the C5 root and the upper trunk increased with increasing weight and was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: While the cause of C5 palsy is likely multifactorial, this study provides evidence that, in the awake volunteer, upper extremity traction leads to C5 root and upper trunk tension. These results suggest that shoulder traction in the anesthetized patient could lead to tension of the C5 nerve root and subsequent injury and palsy.


Assuntos
Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Paralisia/etiologia , Tração/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia/patologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/patologia
15.
J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 112-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996513

RESUMO

Fifty-four patients diagnosed with paresthesia on one side of the lower lip or skin in the chin area, were examined by multiple sensory tests and assessed self-reported subjective symptoms and the psychological state through questionnaires. Additionally, they were followed over time. Each sensory test threshold was evaluated and classified according to the individual way of scoring system, and the average sensory score (ASS) was used to analyze the correlation between self-reported symptoms and psychological state. On the second visit, all sensory test results had improved. The ASS was positively correlated with the pain questionnaire on the first visit; however, it did not correlate with psychological state or personality. There was a positive correlation between neuroticism and anxiety scores. The index of change (IC) of the ASS over time did not correlate with the IC of patients' self-reported symptoms or mental state. The IC of ASS data improved in all patients, but self-reported subjective symptoms did not show signs of improvement in all patients. When patients were divided into two groups according to age or sex, older females showed significantly more improvement than younger males on the psychological test.


Assuntos
Nervo Mandibular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(4): 585-593, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894526

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). EAT thickness identified on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The relationship between EAT volume and left atrial appendage (LAA) function is not well-known. We aimed to investigate the associations between EAT thickness and LAA emptying flow velocity and LAA orifice area. This single-center retrospective study enrolled 202 patients who underwent both TTE and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). EAT thickness was measured on TTE in parasternal long-axis view. We measured LAA orifice areas in 41 patients with 3-dimensional TEE data. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationships between EAT thickness and LAA emptying flow velocity and LAA orifice area. We created a receiver operating characteristic curve for low LAA emptying flow velocity (< 20 cm/s) and determined the best cutoff for EAT thickness according to the maximum Youden index. There was a significant negative correlation between EAT thickness and LAA emptying flow velocity (ρ = - 0.56, P < 0.001) and a significant positive correlation between EAT thickness and LAA orifice area (ρ = 0.38, P = 0.014). The best EAT thickness cutoff value for low LAA emptying flow velocity was > 5.1 mm (c-statistics, 75.7%). A thickened EATT was associated with low LAA emptying flow velocity, which increases the risk of thromboembolic phenomena in the presence of AF.

17.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(1): 14-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740884

RESUMO

AIM: The prevalence of mental disorders increases sharply during adolescence. Therefore, school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students with mental health problems. Although effects of a number of mental health literacy programs aimed at teachers have been reported, they have not yet been reviewed in a systematic manner. This study conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health literacy programs for teachers. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science and reference lists of included studies were searched in September 2018. Studies that quantitatively measured at least one of the main components of mental health literacy, including (a) knowledge of mental illnesses, (b) stigma towards mental illnesses, (c) confidence in helping students, and (d) behaviour of helping students, were included regardless of study design. Risk of bias was rated for each included study according to the Cochrane tool for randomized studies and the Cochrane tool, for raondomized studies, and the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS), for nonrandomized studies. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT), 2 cluster RCTs, 1 controlled before-and-after study and 12 case series. Most of the studies claimed significant improvement of knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and/or confidence. However, the overall quality for all outcomes was relatively low; 15 studies had high/unclear risk of bias due to lack of allocation concealment, not controlling for confounders, and/or inadequate analysis for attrition. CONCLUSIONS: More high quality evidence is required before the effectiveness of mental health literacy programs for teachers can be established.

18.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(2): 391-395, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most cases of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) arise from solid tumors, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, or malignant melanoma. LM arising from gynecological cancers are extremely rare. Longer survival owing to recent advances in chemotherapy and other treatments has contributed to the increased frequency of gynecological cancers metastasizing to the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed information regarding LM is scarce; therefore, we conducted a study concerning LM arising from primary gynecological cancers. METHODS: Among 24 patients with CNS metastases from gynecological cancer treated at our hospital between January 2011 and August 2018, those who were eventually diagnosed with LM were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Among 24 patients with CNS metastases, five patients (20.8%) were diagnosed with LM. The primary cancer was endometrial in two, cervical in one, and peritoneal in two patients. Of these five patients, three developed LM as a complication 1-11 months after the treatment of brain metastases; one patient had multiple brain metastases diagnosed at the same time as LM, and one had LM alone, without accompanying brain metastases. The median survival after the diagnosis of LM was 23 (12-69) days, while the median survival of 24 patients after the initial diagnosis of CNS metastases was 106 (13-959) days. CONCLUSION: Although LM arising from gynecological cancers is considered rare, identification of LM may be important to predict prognosis and develop new therapeutic strategies.

19.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(3): 502-507, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal regimen of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers. METHODS: A clinical information survey involving 171 patients with advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer was conducted. These patients underwent NAC followed by interval debulking surgery at the Hyogo Cancer Center (Hyogo, Japan) between January 2006 and December 2015. RESULTS: The median observation period was 41 (range 4-138) months. Dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) was administered in 101 patients (59%); tri-weekly TC was administered 70 patients (41%). Median progression-free survival was 21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 18-23] months and 15 (95% CI 13-17) months in the dose-dense TC and conventional-TC group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% CI 0.46-0.96; p = 0.02], respectively. The median overall survival was 59 (95% CI 46-72) and 40 (95% CI 32-57) months in the dose-dense TC group and conventional-TC group (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.48-1.06; p = 0.09). Multivariate analysis for progression-free survival demonstrated that dose-dense TC represented an independent prognostic factor (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dose-dense TC is a promising regimen of NAC for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

20.
Cartilage ; 11(1): 122-129, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of administration of intra-articular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on cartilage repair at different timings, and the distribution of MSCs in the knee. DESIGN: A partial thickness cartilage defect (PTCD) was created on the medial femoral condyle in 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Intra-articular injection of 1 × 106 MSCs was performed at 3 time points, namely at the time of surgery (0w group), at 1 week after surgery (1w group), and at 2 weeks after surgery (2w group). For the control, 50 µL phosphate-buffered saline was injected at the time of surgery. The femoral condyles were collected at 6 weeks after creation of PTCD and assessed histologically. To investigate the distribution of MSCs, fluorescent-labeled MSCs were injected into the knee joint. RESULTS: In the control group, the cartilage lesion was distinguishable from surrounding cartilage. In the 0w group, hypocellularity and a slight decrease in safranin O stainability were observed around the injured area, but cartilage was restored to a nearly normal condition. In contrast, in the 1w and 2w groups, the cartilage surface was irregular and safranin O stainability in the injured and surrounding areas was poor. Histological score in the 0w group was significantly better than in the control, 1w, and 2w groups. At 1 day postinjection, fluorescent-labeled MSCs were mostly distributed in synovium. However, no migration into the PTCD was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Early intra-articular injection of MSCs was effective in enhancing cartilage healing in a rat PTCD model. Injected MSCs were distributed in synovium, not in cartilage surrounding the PTCD.

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