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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 887054, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558078

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that causes great economic losses globally to the swine industry. Innate immune RNA receptors mainly sense it during infection. As a DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) plays an important role in sensing cytosolic DNA and activating innate immunity to induce IFN-I and establish an antiviral cellular state. In contrast, the role of innate immune DNA sensors during PRRSV infection has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that cGAS facilitates the production of IFN-ß during PRRSV infection. Western blot and virus titer assays suggested that cGAS overexpression suppressed the replication of multiple PRRSV strains, while knockout of cGAS increased viral titer and nucleocapsid protein expression. Besides, our results indicated that the mitochondria were damaged during PRRSV infection and leaked mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytoplasm. The mtDNA in the cytoplasm co-localizes with the cGAS, and the cGAMP activity was increased when the cGAS was overexpressed during PRRSV infection. Furthermore, the cGAMP also possesses an anti-PRRSV effect. These results indicate for the first time that cGAS restricts PRRSV replication by sensing the mtDNA in the cytoplasm to increase cGAMP activity, which not only explains the molecular mechanism by which cGAS inhibits PRRSV replication but also provides research ideas for studying the role of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in the process of RNA virus infection.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 853428, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558422

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several epidemiological and clinical features, but the neurobiological substrates shared by these two diseases remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the similarities and differences in brain function between them using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Eventually, 130 SZ patients, 70 OCD and 75 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled. A 52-channel NIRS instrument was used to detect the concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) during the verbal fluency task. Ten regions of interests (ROIs) were defined: the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), frontopolar cortex (FPC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and temporal gyrus (TG). Through two different analysis strategies based on channels or ROIs, we compared the [oxy-Hb] changes in three groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests. Across 52 channels, compared to the NC group, both SZ and OCD groups exhibited reduced activity in 17 channels, including left FPC, left DLPFC, bilateral OFC, IFG, middle TG, supplementary motor cortex and Broca's area, while SZ showed lower activity in channel 35 (right OFC) than OCD patients. Across all ROIs, compared to the NC group, both SZ and OCD groups showed reduced activity in 7 ROIs, including left FPC, bilateral OFC, IFG and TG, while SZ showed lower activity in the right OFC than OCD group, which were almost consistent with the results based on channels. This study suggests SZ and OCD present with some similar neuropathological changes, while SZ shows more severe impairment in the right OFC than OCD.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503660

RESUMO

The intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 has attracted significant interest recently as a promising platform for exploring exotic quantum phenomena. Here we report that, when atomically thin MnBi2Te4 is deposited on a substrate such as silicon oxide or gold, there is a very strong mechanical coupling between the atomic layer and the supporting substrate. This is manifested as an intense low-frequency breathing Raman mode that is present even for monolayer MnBi2Te4. Interestingly, this coupling turns out to be stronger than the interlayer coupling between the MnBi2Te4 atomic layers. We further found that these low-energy breathing modes are highly sensitive to sample degradation, and they become drastically weaker upon ambient air exposure. This is in contrast to the higher energy optical phonon modes which are much more robust, suggesting that the low-energy Raman modes found here can be an effective indicator of sample quality.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 850896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548514

RESUMO

The accelerating growth of virtual reality (VR) technology and evolving customer needs make multifarious challenges and opportunities for service industries. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Affection Responses, we explored the key drivers of customer loyalty in virtual reality-enabled services through a large-scaled survey data collected from VR users in four major cities of Pakistan. The study employs the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). We verified that the authenticity of the VR experience and TAM dimensions (ease of use, usefulness of VR) are the key drivers of customer loyalty béhavioral in VR-enabled services. Furthermore, results revealed that Affective responses (i.e., enjoyment, emotional involvement, and flow state) significantly mediated the relationships between the drivers and customer loyalty (continued use, recommendation, and willingness to pay premium). Implications for researchers and VR practitioners were also provided.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic hip fractures have posed a significant burden to society, and more epidemiological data is required. OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological differences of hip fracture patients in Spain and China. METHOD: This was a retrospective comparative study. Comparisons were made in terms of morbidity, demographic and anthropometric characteristics, length of stay, cost of hospitalization, and mortality by consulting the medical histories of osteoporotic hip fractures in two hospitals. The t test was used for measurement data, and the X2 test was used for count data. The difference is statistically significant when p< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 757 patients were enrolled in this study, with 426 from Virgen Macarena University Hospital (HUVM) and 331 from Xi'an Daxing Hospital (XDH). The average age was 81.4 ± 9.26 and 76.0 ± 8.08 years; the proportion of women was 74.9% and 68.0%, respectively. The incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Seville residents over 50 years old was approximately 239 per 100,000 residents, compared to 158 per 100,000 residents in Xi'an. The timing of surgery in Spanish patients was significantly longer than in Chinese patients, 78.7 ± 48.2 vs. 60.7 ± 43.1 hours, p= 0.000. There were 81 deaths in Spain and 43 deaths in China during the one-year follow-up period (p= 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of incidence, demographics, surgical methods, and mortality, there are significant differences between hip fracture patients in Seville, Spain and Xi'an, China.

6.
Int Wound J ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560869

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of stem cells treatment in managing burn wounds. A systematic literature search up to March 2022 incorporated 24 studies reported between 2013 and 2021 including 400 animals with burn wounds at the beginning of the study; 211 were using stem cells treatment, and 189 controlled. Statistical tools like the contentious method were used within a random or fixed-influence model to establish the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the influence of stem cells treatment in managing burn wounds. Stem cells treatment had a significantly higher burn wound healing rate (MD, 15.18; 95% CI, 11.29-19.07, P < .001), higher blood vessel number (MD, 12.28; 95% CI, 10.06-14.51, P < .001), higher vascular endothelial growth factor (MD, 10.24; 95% CI, 7.19-13.29, P < .001), lower interleukin-1 level (MD, -98.48; 95% CI, -155.33 to -41.63, P < .001), and lower tumour necrosis factor α level (MD, -28.71; 95% CI, -46.65 to -10.76, P < .002) compared with control in animals' models with burn wounds. Stem cells treatment had a significantly higher burn wound healing rate, higher blood vessel number, higher vascular endothelial growth factor, lower interleukin-1 level, and lower tumour necrosis factor α level compared with control in animals' models with burn wounds. Further studies are required to validate these findings.

7.
Dermatol Ther ; : e15548, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502558

RESUMO

Becker's nevus (BN) manifests as a hyperpigmented, sometimes hypertrichotic plaque/patch over the chest and shoulder, and it is in the category of benign cutaneous hamartomas. BN has elongation and fusion of the rete ridge, keratotic plugging, sebaceous hyperplasia, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and hyperpigmentation of the basal/suprabasal layer histologically. This article highlights all issues involved in pathogenesis and treatment options of BN. According to current research, postzygotic ACTB mutations induce BN and Becker's nevus syndrome (BNS). Although several therapy strategies were utilized to treat the pigmentary and hypertrichotic aspects of BN, no definitive standard treatment was identified to far, and further research is needed to better educate BN care.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 389, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the major transcription factors, SPL plays a crucial role in plant growth, development, and stress response. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 crop, is rich in nutrients and is beneficial to human health. However, research on the foxtail millet SPL (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE) gene family is limited.  RESULTS: In this study, a total of 18 SPL genes were identified for the comprehensive analysis of the whole genome of foxtail millet. These SiSPL genes were divided into seven subfamilies (I, II, III, V, VI, VII, and VIII) according to the classification of the Arabidopsis thaliana SPL gene family. Structural analysis of the SiSPL genes showed that the number of introns in subfamilies I and II were much larger than others, and the promoter regions of SiSPL genes were rich in different cis-acting elements. Among the 18 SiSPL genes, nine genes had putative binding sites with foxtail millet miR156. No tandem duplication events were found between the SiSPL genes, but four pairs of segmental duplications were detected. The SiSPL genes expression were detected in different tissues, which was generally highly expressed in seeds development process, especially SiSPL6 and SiSPL16, which deserve further study. The results of the expression levels of SiSPL genes under eight types of abiotic stresses showed that many stress responsive genes, especially SiSPL9, SiSPL10, and SiSPL16, were highly expressed under multiple stresses, which deserves further attention. CONCLUSIONS: In this research, 18 SPL genes were identified in foxtail millet, and their phylogenetic relationships, gene structural features, duplication events, gene expression and potential roles in foxtail millet development were studied. The findings provide a new perspective for the mining of the excellent SiSPL gene and the molecular breeding of foxtail millet.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 156, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To find out the reasons why patients still need to use rescue analgesics frequently after gastrointestinal tumor surgery under the patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (IV-PCA), and the different abdominal surgery patients using the difference of analgesics. METHODS: A total of 970 patients underwent abdominal operation for gastrointestinal tumors were included. According whether patients used dezocine frequently for rescue analgesics within 2 days after surgery, they assigned into two groups: RAN group (Patients who did not frequently use rescue analgesia, 406 cases) and RAY group (Patients who frequently used rescue analgesia, 564 cases). The data collected included patient's characteristics, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), nausea and vomiting (PONV), and postoperative activity recovery time. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the baseline characteristics. Compared with the RAN group, patients in the RAY group had a higher proportion of open surgery, upper abdominal surgery, VAS score at rest on the first 2 days after surgery and PONV, and a slower recovery of most postoperative activities. Under the current use of IV-PCA background, the proportion of rescue analgesics used by patients undergoing laparotomy and upper abdominal surgery was as high as 64.33% and 72.8%, respectively. Regression analysis showed that open surgery (vs laparoscopic surgery: OR: 2.288, 95% CI: 1.650-3.172) and the location of the tumor in the upper abdomen (vs lower abdominal tumor: OR: 2.738, 95% CI: 2.034-3.686) were influential factors for frequent salvage administration. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient population, with our IV-PCA prescription for postoperative pain control, patient who underwent open upper abdominal surgery required more rescue postoperative analgesia.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502169

RESUMO

Methods: Blood pressure and urine biochemical indices were recorded. Renal blood flow was evaluated by renal ultrasonography. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and HE staining were used to assess kidney and spleen morphology. Renal fibrosis was assessed using Masson staining. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured using ELISAs. The density of RORγ and Foxp3 in the spleen was observed by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of Th17 cells and Tregs in blood were detected via flow cytometry. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to screen the targets of BSHM granules in hypertensive kidneys. Results: BSHM granules decreased SBP by 21.2 mm·Hg and DBP by 8.8 mm·Hg in ageing SHRs (P < 0.05), decreased the levels of urine mALB, ß2-Mg, and NAG (P < 0.01), and improved renal blood flow and arteriosclerosis. BSHM granules increased IL-10 expression (P < 0.05) while decreasing IL-6 (P < 0.01) and IL-17A (P < 0.05) levels. BSHM granules improved Foxp3 density and the number of Tregs (P < 0.01) and reduced RORγt density and the number of Th17 cells (P < 0.01). Transcriptome sequencing identified 747 differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs in kidneys after BSHM treatment. GO analysis suggested that BSHM granules act through immunoregulation. Conclusions: BSHM granules attenuated hypertensive renal damage in ageing SHRs, by significantly increasing Tregs and decreasing Th17 cells.

11.
Nat Mater ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513501

RESUMO

In organic photovoltaics, morphological control of donor and acceptor domains on the nanoscale is the key for enabling efficient exciton diffusion and dissociation, carrier transport and suppression of recombination losses. To realize this, here, we demonstrated a double-fibril network based on a ternary donor-acceptor morphology with multi-length scales constructed by combining ancillary conjugated polymer crystallizers and a non-fullerene acceptor filament assembly. Using this approach, we achieved an average power conversion efficiency of 19.3% (certified 19.2%). The success lies in the good match between the photoelectric parameters and the morphological characteristic lengths, which utilizes the excitons and free charges efficiently. This strategy leads to an enhanced exciton diffusion length and a reduced recombination rate, hence minimizing photon-to-electron losses in the ternary devices as compared to their binary counterparts. The double-fibril network morphology strategy minimizes losses and maximizes the power output, offering the possibility of 20% power conversion efficiencies in single-junction organic photovoltaics.

12.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499801

RESUMO

Few studies have focused on environmental cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure while exploring the effect of smoking on blood Cd (BCd) and blood Pb (BPb) levels. Moreover, essential trace elements affect the absorption, accumulation, and toxicity of Cd and Pb. To investigate the effect of smoking on BCd and BPb levels under high Cd and Pb exposure and the influence of essential trace elements on the effect, 301 residents living near a mining and smelting area in Northwest China were included in our study. After collecting health information and measuring BCd, BPb, serum iron, magnesium, and total calcium levels, we analyzed the association between smoking and BCd and BPb levels and the influence of the essential trace elements on the association. The results showed that BCd and BPb levels in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers. There was a dose-response association between pack-years and the odds ratios (ORs) of high BCd and BPb levels in all participants compared with non-smokers. Serum iron, magnesium, and calcium had a negative effect on the elevations of the ORs of high BCd and BPb levels. In addition, smoking-related elevations of BCd and BPb levels vary by sex, age, BMI, and age of smoking initiation. Our findings present evidence for the effect of smoking on BCd and BPb levels under high Cd and Pb exposure and may provide guidance for the prevention and control of BCd and BPb elevations in residents living in Cd- and Pb-polluted areas.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(40): 6028-6031, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502757

RESUMO

Polyhedral metallocalixarene nanocage clusters based on pure Ti(IV) ions are to our knowledge unknown hitherto. Herein we report the first Ti(IV)-based metallocalixarene nanocage cluster by assembling a [Ti13O14] cage with six t-butylcalix[4]arene molecules. Notably, the cluster exhibits extraordinary stability in high-concentration acid/alkali solutions and can act as a stable photocatalyst to catalyze the oxidation of ammonia to imines.

14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 125, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current drug treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have negative side effects. Therefore, it is important to find effective alternative therapies with significantly fewer side effects. Our previous study revealed that Rauwolfia vomitoria (RWF) root bark extract reversed BPH development in a rat model. However, the molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effects on BPH remains largely unknown. METHODS: BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cell lines derived from BPH epithelial and prostatic stromal compartments were selected to investigate how RWF extract inhibits BPH in vitro by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and GFP-LC3 immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the effects of RWF extract on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagic apoptosis pathways in two cell lines. A human BPH ex vivo explant assay was also employed for validation. RESULTS: RWF extract treatment decreased cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death in both BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with the increase of pro-apoptotic PCDC4 protein. RWF extract induced autophagy by enhancing the levels of autophagic genes (ULK2 and SQSTM1/p62) and the LC3II:LC3I ratio, with the increase of GFP-LC3 puncta. Moreover, RWF extract activated PERK- and ATF6-associated ER stress pathways by inducing the transcriptional levels of EIF2AK3/PERK, DDIT3/CHOP and ATF6, accompanied by the reduction of BiP protein level, but not its mRNA level. Another ER stress pathway was not induced by RWF extract, as manifested by the lack of XBP1 splicing. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine abrogated apoptosis but not ER stress; while inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate alleviated the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. In addition, pretreatments with either 3-methyladenine or 4-phenylbutyrate suppressed RWF extract-induced cytotoxicity. Notably, the inductions of PERK- and ATF6-related stress pathways and autophagic apoptosis were confirmed in a human BPH ex vivo explant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data have demonstrated that RWF extract significantly suppressed the viabilities of BPH epithelial cells and BPH myofibroblasts by inducing apoptosis via upregulating ER stress and autophagy. These data indicate that RWF extract is a potential novel alternative therapeutic approach for BPH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Rauwolfia , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
15.
Hepatol Res ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536197

RESUMO

AIM: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with a PD-1 inhibitor and TACE combined with a PD-1 inhibitor and lenvatinib have recently been reported as promising treatments to improve the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study aims to compare the efficacy of these two treatments. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, and patients were recruited from two centers in China. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared, and the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were evaluated according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were analyzed to assess safety. RESULTS: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 11.4 months. Of the 103 patients included in this study, 56 received triple therapy, and 47 received doublet therapy. PFS was significantly higher in the triple therapy group than in the doublet therapy group (mPFS 22.5 months vs. 14.0 months, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in terms of OS (P = 0.001). The ORR and DCR were also better in the triple therapy group (64.3% vs. 38.3%, P = 0.010; 85.7% vs. 57.4%, P = 0.002). The most common AEs in the triple therapy group were decreased albumin (55.3%), decreased platelet count (51.8%) and hypertension (44.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of TACE with a PD-1 inhibitor and lenvatinib in patients with BCLC stage B HCC might result in significantly improved clinical outcomes with a manageable safety profile compared with TACE with a PD-1 inhibitor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267513, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522648

RESUMO

Adipose tissue plays a central role in energy substrate homeostasis and is a key regulator of lipid flow throughout these processes. As hypoxia affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, we aimed to investigate the effects of high-altitude chronic hypoxia on lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of rats using a lipidomic analysis approach. Visceral adipose tissues from rats housed in a high-altitude hypoxia environment representing 4,300 m with 14.07% oxygen (hypoxia group) and from rats housed in a low-altitude normoxia environment representing 41 m with 20.95% oxygen (normoxia group) for 8 weeks were analyzed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry system. After 8 weeks, the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight of the hypoxia group were significantly decreased compared to those of the normoxia group (p < 0.05). The area and diameter of visceral adipose cells in the hypoxia group were significantly smaller than those of visceral adipose cells in the normoxia group (p < 0.05). The results of lipidomic analysis showed a total of 21 lipid classes and 819 lipid species. The total lipid concentration of the hypoxia group was lower than that in the normoxia group (p < 0.05). Concentrations of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the hypoxia group were significantly lower than those in the normoxia group (p < 0.05). Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we identified 74 lipids that were significantly altered between the normoxia and hypoxia groups. These results demonstrate that high-altitude chronic hypoxia changes the metabolism of visceral adipose glycerides, which may potentially modulate other metabolic processes.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Altitude , Animais , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) have a high rate of postoperative recurrence. We aimed to describe the patterns and kinetics of recurrence in BDTT patients and provide management options accordingly. METHODS: This retrospective study included 311 HCC patients with BDTT who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2017 at five centers in China. The hazard rate of recurrence was calculated using the hazard function. RESULTS: The hazard rate of intrahepatic recurrence was higher than that of extrahepatic recurrence (0.0588 vs. 0.0301), and both showed a decreasing trend, and the intrahepatic recurrence and extrahepatic recurrence risk decreased to a lower level after 40 and 20 months, respectively. Patients who underwent anatomic resection had a consistently lower hazard rate of recurrence than patients who underwent nonanatomic resection, whereas patients who received postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) mainly had a lower hazard rate of recurrence in the first year than patients who did not. CONCLUSION: The follow-up of BDTT patients should be at least 40 months because of its high rate of recurrence, in parallel with the need for vigilance for extrahepatic recurrence within 20 months. Anatomic hepatectomy and adjuvant TACE are recommended to improve BDTT patient outcomes.

18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 622: 169-180, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490620

RESUMO

The solar-driven interfacial evaporation (SDIE) is now a promising way to solve the shortage of fresh water. However, high performance SDIE for the oil contaminated seawater remains challenging. Here, we propose a facile "chitosan assisted MXene decoration" strategy to prepare a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic Chitosan/MXene/fabric (CMF) for highly efficient SDIE. Benefiting from the superhydrophilicity and excellent photo-thermal conversion performance, the CMF is served as both the solar absorber and the water transportation path. Under the light illumination with one sun intensity (1 kW·m-2), a high evaporation rate of 1.50 kg·m-2·h-1 and efficiency of 88.05% are achieved. The strong interfacial interaction and outstanding salt rejection behavior of the CMF ensure the SDIE long-term stability and durability. In addition, the underwater superoleophobic CMF can effectively and quickly repel different oils and is hence suitable for high performance SDIE of the oil-in-water emulsion and the crude oil contaminated seawater. This work provides a rational design and optimization for the SDIE system, which holds great potential in practical desalination applications.

19.
Insect Sci ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499984

RESUMO

The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella, is the most damaging potato pest in the world and is difficult to control as the larvae are internal feeders in the foliage and tubers. Entomopathogenic fungi that colonize plants as endophytes have lethal and sublethal pathological effects on insect pests. We show that Beauveria bassiana colonizes the aerial parts of potato plants endophytically after inoculation through soil drenching. Endophytic B. bassiana persisted in potato foliage for more than 50 days postinoculation. Bioassays indicated that foliage of B. bassiana-inoculated potato plants were pathogenic against larvae of P. operculella. Sublethal experiments indicated that B. bassiana negatively affected the growth, development, and reproduction of P. operculella. Development experiments showed that the weight of P. operculella pupae reared on B. bassiana-colonized potato plants (4.25 mg) was significantly less than that of those reared on uninoculated control plants (8.89 mg). Compared with newly eclosed larvae fed on control plants, those fed on B. bassiana-inoculated plants had significantly lower survivorship, with only 17.8% developing to the adult stage. Oviposition of P. operculella females reared on B. bassiana endophytically colonized plants was significantly lower (35 eggs/female) than of those reared on uninoculated plants (115 eggs/female). This study demonstrates that endophytic B. bassiana can be a potential biological control agent for the control and management of P. operculella. Comparing pupal weights of P. operculella reared on potato plants inoculated with the B. bassiana strain GZGY-1-3 and on untreated control plants, pupae from the control plants were significantly heavier than those from treated plants.

20.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedicular screws (PS) is often used in lumbar fusion. Cortical bone trajectory (CBT) is a novel technology in lumbar fusion with less clinical outcomes evidence. So we conduct a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety between cortical bone trajectory screw fixation and traditional pedicle screws in lumbar fusion surgery. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched for the articles about comparison of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) and traditional pedicle screws (PS) in lumbar fusion surgeries. The Meta-analysis was conducted by Revman 5.3 software. The following indicators were abstracted: visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), surgical duration, complications, and blood loss. The quality of the articles was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or Cochrane Handbook. RESULTS: 25 studies were included involving a total of 1735 patients. There is no difference in preoperative VAS scores, JOA, ODI, postoperative VAS scores and fusion rates. Besides, postoperative JOA(MD = 0.78, P = 0.02), ODI (MD = -2.09, P=0.03), surgical duration(MD = -26.90, P = 0.02), complications(MD = 0.70, P = 0.03), and blood loss(MD = -85.27, P=0.0009) showed greater improvement trends in CBT group than PS group with significant difference. CONCLUSION: CBT reduced the rate of complications, surgical duration, blood loss, postoperative ODI and JOA scores. CBT technique with better postoperative outcomes achieved similar fusion rates compared with PS technique.

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