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1.
medRxiv ; 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38405973

RESUMO

Research on brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has illuminated the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia (SCZ). Yet, the majority of these studies have been centered on European populations, leading to a constrained understanding of population diversities and disease risks. To address this gap, we examined genotype and RNA-seq data from African Americans (AA, n=158), Europeans (EUR, n=408), and East Asians (EAS, n=217). When comparing eQTLs between EUR and non-EUR populations, we observed concordant patterns of genetic regulatory effect, particularly in terms of the effect sizes of the eQTLs. However, 343,737 cis-eQTLs (representing ∼17% of all eQTLs pairs) linked to 1,276 genes (about 10% of all eGenes) and 198,769 SNPs (approximately 16% of all eSNPs) were identified only in the non-EUR populations. Over 90% of observed population differences in eQTLs could be traced back to differences in allele frequency. Furthermore, 35% of these eQTLs were notably rare (MAF < 0.05) in the EUR population. Integrating brain eQTLs with SCZ signals from diverse populations, we observed a higher disease heritability enrichment of brain eQTLs in matched populations compared to mismatched ones. Prioritization analysis identified seven new risk genes ( SFXN2 , RP11-282018.3 , CYP17A1 , VPS37B , DENR , FTCDNL1 , and NT5DC2 ), and three potential novel regulatory variants in known risk genes ( CNNM2 , C12orf65 , and MPHOSPH9 ) that were missed in the EUR dataset. Our findings underscore that increasing genetic ancestral diversity is more efficient for power improvement than merely increasing the sample size within single-ancestry eQTLs datasets. Such a strategy will not only improve our understanding of the biological underpinnings of population structures but also pave the way for the identification of novel risk genes in SCZ.

2.
Neuroscience ; 542: 21-32, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340785

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is an early event of brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether the macrophage mediators in resolving inflammation 1 (MaR1) is involved in SAH pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, 205 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH via endovascular perforation in the experimental and control groups. MaR1 was dosed intranasally at 1 h after SAH, with LGR6 siRNA and KG-501, GSK-J4 administered to determine the signaling pathway. Neurobehavioral, histological and biochemical data were obtained from the animal groups with designated treatments. The results showed: (i) The leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 6 (LGR6) was decreased after SAH and reached to the lowest level at 24 h after SAH. Jumonji d3 (JMJD3) protein levels tended to increase and peaked at 24 h after SAH. LGR6 and JMJD3 expression were co-localized with microglia. (ii) MaR1 administration mitigated short-term neurological deficits, brain edema and long-term neurobehavioral performance after SAH, and attenuated microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration. (iii) Knockdown of LGR6, inhibition of CREB phosphorylation or JMJD3 activity abolished the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of MaR1 on the expression of CREB, CBP, JMJD3, IRF4, IRF5, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10, thus prevented microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration. Together, the results show that MaR1 can activate LGR6 and affect CREB/JMJD3/IRF4 signaling to attenuate neuroinflammation after SAH, pointing to a potential pharmacological utility in this disorder.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
PLoS Biol ; 22(1): e3002470, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206965

RESUMO

The bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene is an important risk locus for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). BIN1 protein has been reported to mediate tau pathology, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that neuronal BIN1 is cleaved by the cysteine protease legumain at residues N277 and N288. The legumain-generated BIN1 (1-277) fragment is detected in brain tissues from AD patients and tau P301S transgenic mice. This fragment interacts with tau and accelerates its aggregation. Furthermore, the BIN1 (1-277) fragment promotes the propagation of tau aggregates by enhancing clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Overexpression of the BIN1 (1-277) fragment in tau P301S mice facilitates the propagation of tau pathology, inducing cognitive deficits, while overexpression of mutant BIN1 that blocks its cleavage by legumain halts tau propagation. Furthermore, blocking the cleavage of endogenous BIN1 using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing tool ameliorates tau pathology and behavioral deficits. Our results demonstrate that the legumain-mediated cleavage of BIN1 plays a key role in the progression of tau pathology. Inhibition of legumain-mediated BIN1 cleavage may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Endocitose , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
4.
Mol Pharm ; 20(11): 5865-5876, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37852240

RESUMO

This study focused on designing and evaluating Tau-PET tracers for noninvasive positron emission computed tomography (PET) imaging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The tracers were synthesized with a 2-styrylquinoxaline scaffold and varying lengths of FPEG chains. The compound [18F]15, which had two ethoxy units, showed high affinity for recombinant K18-Tau aggregates (Ki = 41.48 nM) and the highest selectivity versus Aß1-42 aggregates (8.83-fold). In vitro autoradiography and fluorescent staining profiles further validated the binding of [18F]15 or 15 toward NFTs in brain sections from AD patients and Tau-transgenic mice. In normal ICR mice, [18F]15 exhibited an ideal initial brain uptake (11.21% ID/g at 2 min) and moderate washout ratio (2.29), and micro-PET studies in rats confirmed its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier with the peak SUV value of 1.94 in the cortex. These results suggest that [18F]15 has the potential to be developed into a useful Tau-PET tracer for early AD diagnosis and evaluation of anti-Tau therapeutics.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Proteínas tau , Camundongos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos
5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 14(8): 1108-1112, 2023 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37583810

RESUMO

Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging as an exquisite sensitive, high spatial-resolution, and real-time tool plays an important role in visualizing pathologies in the brain. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of NIR probes of hydroxyethyl cycloheptatriene-BODIPY derivatives that have demonstrated strong binding specificity to native neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain sections. The improved hydrophilicity of TNIR7-9 and TNIR7-11 resulted in faster clearance rates from healthy brains (4.2 and 10.9, respectively) compared to previously reported compounds. Furthermore, TNIR7-13, which features a fluorinated modification, exhibited a high binding affinity to Tau aggregates (Kd = 11.8 nM) and held promise for future PET studies.

6.
Immunity ; 56(8): 1794-1808.e8, 2023 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37442133

RESUMO

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is strongly linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, but its functions are not fully understood. Here, we found that TREM2 specifically attenuated the activation of classical complement cascade via high-affinity binding to its initiator C1q. In the human AD brains, the formation of TREM2-C1q complexes was detected, and the increased density of the complexes was associated with lower deposition of C3 but higher amounts of synaptic proteins. In mice expressing mutant human tau, Trem2 haploinsufficiency increased complement-mediated microglial engulfment of synapses and accelerated synaptic loss. Administration of a 41-amino-acid TREM2 peptide, which we identified to be responsible for TREM2 binding to C1q, rescued synaptic impairments in AD mouse models. We thus demonstrate a critical role for microglial TREM2 in restricting complement-mediated synaptic elimination during neurodegeneration, providing mechanistic insights into the protective roles of TREM2 against AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Complemento C1q , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Complemento C1q/genética , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Microglia/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 26(7): 1170-1184, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264159

RESUMO

Extensive studies indicate that ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregation is pivotal for Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression; however, cumulative evidence suggests that Aß itself is not sufficient to trigger AD-associated degeneration, and whether other additional pathological factors drive AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we characterize pathogenic aggregates composed of ß2-microglobulin (ß2M) and Aß that trigger neurodegeneration in AD. ß2M, a component of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I), is upregulated in the brains of individuals with AD and constitutes the amyloid plaque core. Elevation of ß2M aggravates amyloid pathology independent of MHC class I, and coaggregation with ß2M is essential for Aß neurotoxicity. B2m genetic ablation abrogates amyloid spreading and cognitive deficits in AD mice. Antisense oligonucleotide- or monoclonal antibody-mediated ß2M depletion mitigates AD-associated neuropathology, and inhibition of ß2M-Aß coaggregation with a ß2M-based blocking peptide ameliorates amyloid pathology and cognitive deficits in AD mice. Our findings identify ß2M as an essential factor for Aß neurotoxicity and a potential target for treating AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos Cognitivos , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Placa Amiloide/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças
8.
Aging Dis ; 14(5): 1853-1869, 2023 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37196127

RESUMO

A wealth of knowledge regarding glial cell-mediated neuroinflammation, which contributes to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has emerged in recent years. Contactin 1(CNTN1), a member of the cell adhesion molecule and immunoglobulin supergene family, is centrally involved in axonal growth regulation and is also a key player in inflammation-associated disorders. However, whether CNTN1 plays a role in inflammation-related cognitive deficits and how this process is triggered and orchestrated remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we examined postmortem brains with AD. CNTN1 immunoreactivity was markedly increased, particularly in the CA3 subregion, as compared with non-AD brains. Furthermore, by applying an adeno-associated virus-based approach to overexpress CNTN1 directly via stereotactic injection in mice, we demonstrated that hippocampal CNTN1 overexpression triggered cognitive deficits detected by novel object-recognition, novel place-recognition and social cognition tests. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits could be attributed to hippocampal microglia and astrocyte activation, which led to aberrant expression of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT)1/EAAT2. This resulted in long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment that could be reversed by minocyline, an antibiotic and the best-known inhibitor of microglial activation. Taken together, our results identified Cntn1 as a susceptibility factor involved in regulating cognitive deficits via functional actions in the hippocampus. This factor correlated with microglial activation and triggered astrocyte activation with abnormal EAAT1/EAAT2 expression and LTP impairment. Overall, these findings may significantly advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the risk of neuroinflammation related cognitive deficits.

9.
J Med Chem ; 66(14): 9561-9576, 2023 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37199108

RESUMO

Tau accumulation is one of the predominant neuropathological biomarkers for in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease due to its high correlation with disease progression. In this study, we focused on the structure-activity relationship study of the substituent effect on the aza-fused tricyclic core imidazo[1,2-h][1,7]naphthyridine to screen 18F-labeled Tau tracers. Through a series of autoradiographic studies and biological evaluations, 4-[18F]fluorophenyl-substituted tracer [18F]13 ([18F]FPND-4) was identified as a promising candidate with high affinity to native Tau tangles (IC50 = 2.80 nM), few appreciable binding to Aß plaques and MAO-A/B. Validated by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in rodents and rhesus monkey, [18F]13 displayed desirable brain uptake (SUV = 1.75 at 2 min), fast clearance (brain2min/60min = 5.9), minimal defluorination, and few off-target binding, which met the requirements of a Tau-specific PET radiotracer.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares , Humanos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Naftiridinas/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
10.
J Med Chem ; 66(7): 4603-4616, 2023 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36932961

RESUMO

The deposition of ß-amyloid (Aß) in the brain is a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), appearing years before the onset of symptoms, and its detection is incorporated into clinical diagnosis. Here, we have discovered and developed a class of diaryl-azine derivatives for detecting Aß plaques in the AD brain using PET imaging. After a set of comprehensive preclinical assessments, we screened out a promising Aß-PET tracer, [18F]92, with a high binding affinity to the Aß aggregates, significant binding ability with the AD brain sections, and optimal brain pharmacokinetic properties in rodents and non-human primates. The first-in-human PET study declared that [18F]92 displayed low white matter uptake and could bind to Aß pathology for distinguishing AD from healthy control subjects. All these results support that [18F]92 might become a promising PET tracer for visualizing Aß pathology in AD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Flúor/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo
11.
Mol Neurobiol ; 60(6): 3464-3485, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36879137

RESUMO

A cohort of morphologically heterogenous doublecortin immunoreactive (DCX +) "immature neurons" has been identified in the cerebral cortex largely around layer II and the amygdala largely in the paralaminar nucleus (PLN) among various mammals. To gain a wide spatiotemporal view on these neurons in humans, we examined layer II and amygdalar DCX + neurons in the brains of infants to 100-year-old individuals. Layer II DCX + neurons occurred throughout the cerebrum in the infants/toddlers, mainly in the temporal lobe in the adolescents and adults, and only in the temporal cortex surrounding the amygdala in the elderly. Amygdalar DCX + neurons occurred in all age groups, localized primarily to the PLN, and reduced in number with age. The small-sized DCX + neurons were unipolar or bipolar, and formed migratory chains extending tangentially, obliquely, and inwardly in layers I-III in the cortex, and from the PLN to other nuclei in the amygdala. Morphologically mature-looking neurons had a relatively larger soma and weaker DCX reactivity. In contrast to the above, DCX + neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were only detected in the infant cases in parallelly processed cerebral sections. The present study reveals a broader regional distribution of the cortical layer II DCX + neurons than previously documented in human cerebrum, especially during childhood and adolescence, while both layer II and amygdalar DCX + neurons persist in the temporal lobe lifelong. Layer II and amygdalar DCX + neurons may serve as an essential immature neuronal system to support functional network plasticity in human cerebrum in an age/region-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Neuropeptídeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Proteínas do Domínio Duplacortina , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 222: 114939, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459819

RESUMO

Developing rapid and non-invasive diagnostics for Helicobacter pylori (HP) is imperative to prevent associated diseases such as stomach gastritis, ulcers, and cancers. Owing to HP strain heterogeneity, not all HP-infected individuals incur side effects. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) genes predominantly drive HP pathogenicity. Therefore, diagnosing CagA and VacA genotypes could alert active infection and decide suitable therapeutics. We report an enhanced LbCas12a trans-cleavage activity with extended reporters and reductants (CEXTRAR) for early detection of HP. We demonstrate that extended ssDNA reporter acts as an excellent signal amplifier, making it a potential alternative substrate for LbCas12a collateral activity. Through a systematic investigation of various buffer components, we demonstrate that reductants improve LbCas12a trans-cleavage activity. Overall, our novel reporter and optimal buffer increased the trans-cleavage activity to an order of 16-fold, achieving picomolar sensitivity (171 pM) without target pre-amplification. Integrated with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), CEXTRAR successfully attained attomolar sensitivity for HP detection using real-time fluorescence (43 and 96 aM), in-tube fluorescence readouts (430 and 960 aM), and lateral flow (4.3 and 9.6 aM) for CagA and VacA, respectively. We also demonstrate a rapid 2-min Triton X-100 lysis for clinical sample analysis, which could provide clinicians with actionable information for rapid diagnosis. CEXTRAR could potentially spot the 13C urea breath test false-negatives. For the first time, our study unveils an experimental outlook to manipulate reporters and reconsider precise cysteine substitution via protein engineering for Cas variants with enhanced catalytic activities for use in diagnostics and genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Úlcera Péptica , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Substâncias Redutoras , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico , Úlcera Péptica/genética , Genótipo , Citotoxinas/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 246: 114991, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493618

RESUMO

For various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), the abnormal aggregation of Tau is not only the predominant contributing factor but also a major biomarker for disease diagnosis. In this study, a series of aza-fused tricyclic derivatives were designed and synthesized. By changing the position and number of nitrogen atoms on the fused tricyclic core, the imidazonaphthyridine scaffold was screened and reported for the first time which could potentially detect Tau aggregates. Through a series of in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations, probe [125I]5 possessed exceptional binding affinity (IC50 = 1.63 nM) to neurofibrillary tangles in the AD brain, high selectivity over Aß plaques (23.4-fold), clean off-target profile to monoamine oxidase A/B (MAO-A/B), and suitable pharmacokinetics (initial brain uptake = 3.22% ID/g).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo
14.
Anal Chem ; 94(44): 15261-15269, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282989

RESUMO

Lewy pathologies, which mainly consist of insoluble α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates, are the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease and many other neurodegenerative diseases termed "synucleinopathies". Detection of Lewy pathologies with optical methods is of interest for preclinical studies, while the α-syn fluorescent probe is still in great demand. By rational design, we obtained a series of D-π-A-based trisubstituted alkenes with acceptable optical properties and high binding affinities to α-syn fibrils. Among these probes, FPQXN and TQXN-2 exhibited high binding affinities (6 and 8 nM, respectively), significant fluorescence enhancements (17.2- and 26.6-fold, respectively), and satisfying quantum yields (36.5% and 10.4%, respectively), which met the need for the in vitro neuropathological staining of Lewy pathologies in the PD brain sections. In addition, TQXN-2 showed great potential in fluorescent discrimination of Lewy pathologies and Aß plaques. Our research provides flexible tools for in vitro detection of α-syn aggregates and offers new structural frameworks for the further development of α-syn fluorescent probes.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Alcenos/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/química , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo
15.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 926904, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978952

RESUMO

Extracellular ß-amyloid (Aß) deposition and intraneuronal phosphorylated-tau (pTau) accumulation are the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, "sorfra" plaques, named for the extracellular deposition of sortilin c-terminal fragments, are reported as a new AD-related proteopathy, which develop in the human cerebrum resembling the spatiotemporal trajectory of tauopathy. Here, we identified intraneuronal sortilin aggregation as a change related to the development of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), tauopathy, and sorfra plaques in the human hippocampal formation. Intraneuronal sortilin aggregation occurred as cytoplasmic inclusions among the pyramidal neurons, co-labeled by antibodies to the extracellular domain and intracellular C-terminal of sortilin. They existed infrequently in the brains of adults, while their density as quantified in the subiculum/CA1 areas increased in the brains from elderly lacking Aß/pTau, with pTau (i.e., primary age-related tauopathy, PART cases), and with Aß/pTau (probably/definitive AD, pAD/AD cases) pathologies. In PART and pAD/AD cases, the intraneuronal sortilin aggregates colocalized partially with various GVD markers including casein kinase 1 delta (Ck1δ) and charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). Single-cell densitometry established an inverse correlation between sortilin immunoreactivity and that of Ck1δ, CHMP2B, p62, and pTau among pyramidal neurons. In pAD/AD cases, the sortilin aggregates were reduced in density as moving from the subiculum to CA subregions, wherein sorfra plaques became fewer and absent. Taken together, we consider intraneuronal sortilin aggregation an aging/stress-related change implicating protein sorting deficit, which can activate protein clearance responses including via enhanced phosphorylation and hydrolysis, thereby promoting GVD, sorfra, and Tau pathogenesis, and ultimately, neuronal destruction and death.

16.
Cell Death Discov ; 8(1): 304, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-pathological cognitive decline is a neurodegenerative condition associated with brain aging owing to epigenetic changes, telomere shortening, stem cells exhaustion, or altered differentiation. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have shown excellent therapeutic prospects on the hallmarks of aging. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of hUCMSCs with down-regulated miRNA-206 (hUCMSCs anti-miR-206) on cognitive decline and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: After daily subcutaneous injection of D-gal (500 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks, 17-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were stem cells transplanted by lateral ventricular localization injection. During the 10-day rest period, were tested the behavioral experiments applied to cognitive behavior in the hippocampus. And then, the mice were sacrificed for sampling to complete the molecular and morphological experiments. RESULTS: Our behavioral experiments of open field test (OFT), new object recognition test (NOR), and Y-maze revealed that D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice treated with hUCMSCs anti-miR-206 had no obvious spontaneous activity disorder and had recovery in learning and spatial memory ability compared with the PBS-treated group. The hUCMSCs anti-miR-206 reconstituted neuronal physiological function in the hippocampal regions of the aging mice with an increase of Nissl bodies and the overexpression of Egr-1, BDNF, and PSD-95. CONCLUSION: This study first reports that hUCMSCs anti-miR-206 could provide a novel stem cell-based antiaging therapeutic approach.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(7): 622, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851059

RESUMO

Defects in ataxin-3 proteins and CAG repeat expansions in its coding gene ATXN3 cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3) or Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) polyglutamine neurodegenerative disease. The mutant proteins aggregate as inclusion bodies in cells and compete with wild-type ataxin-3, which leads to neuronal dysfunction or death and impairs Beclin1-mediated autophagy. It has been reported that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can reliably treat several neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we used a Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) nuclear translocation-mediated MSCs co-culture approach to reconstitute autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, and reduce SCA3-like behaviors in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neuron cells models. Our iPSCs model showed enhanced expression of autophagy proteins, attenuated the expression and toxic effects of mutant ataxin-3 on neurons, and alleviated the effects of ataxin-3 on autophagy. Therefore, MSCs are associated with autophagy-inducing therapy and compared to animal models, our MSCs co-culture could be used as a novel and potential therapeutic approach to study SCA3 disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Machado-Joseph , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Animais , Ataxina-3/genética , Ataxina-3/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Doença de Machado-Joseph/genética , Doença de Machado-Joseph/terapia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
19.
Protein Cell ; 13(1): 26-46, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800266

RESUMO

In vitro studies have established the prevalent theory that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 protects neurodegeneration by removing damaged mitochondria in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, difficulty in detecting endogenous PINK1 protein in rodent brains and cell lines has prevented the rigorous investigation of the in vivo role of PINK1. Here we report that PINK1 kinase form is selectively expressed in the human and monkey brains. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deficiency of PINK1 causes similar neurodegeneration in the brains of fetal and adult monkeys as well as cultured monkey neurons without affecting mitochondrial protein expression and morphology. Importantly, PINK1 mutations in the primate brain and human cells reduce protein phosphorylation that is important for neuronal function and survival. Our findings suggest that PINK1 kinase activity rather than its mitochondrial function is essential for the neuronal survival in the primate brains and that its kinase dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of PD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Homeostase , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/enzimologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética
20.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 42(6): 1623-1643, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595806

RESUMO

The Shank family proteins are enriched at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. They serve as synaptic scaffolding proteins and appear to play a critical role in the formation, maintenance and functioning of synapse. Increasing evidence from genetic association and animal model studies indicates a connection of SHANK genes defects with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first update the current understanding of the SHANK family genes and their encoded protein products. We then denote the literature relating their alterations to the risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. We further review evidence from animal models that provided molecular insights into the biological as well as pathogenic roles of Shank proteins in synapses, and the potential relationship to the development of abnormal neurobehavioral phenotypes.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Sinapses , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
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