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1.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As comprehensive surgical management for gastric cancer becomes increasingly specialized and standardized, the precise differentiation between ≤T1 and ≥T2 gastric cancer before endoscopic intervention holds paramount clinical significance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography in differentiating ≤T1 and ≥T2 gastric cancer. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline were searched to collect studies published from January 1, 2000 to March 16, 2023 on the efficacy of either double contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography (D-CEGUS) or oral contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography (O-CEGUS) in determining T-stage in gastric cancer. The articles were selected according to specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the included literature was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12 software with data from the 2 × 2 crosslinked tables in the included literature. RESULTS: In total, 11 papers with 1124 patients were included in the O-CEGUS analysis, which revealed a combined sensitivity of 0.822 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.753-0.875), combined specificity of 0.964 (95% CI = 0.925-0.983), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89-0.94). In addition, five studies involving 536 patients were included in the D-CEGUS analysis, which gave a combined sensitivity of 0.733 (95% CI = 0.550-0.860), combined specificity of 0.982 (95% CI = 0.936-0.995), and AUC of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.91-0.95). According to the I2 and P values ​​of the forest plot, there was obvious heterogeneity in the combined specificities of the included papers. Therefore, the two studies with the lowest specificities were excluded from the O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS analyses, which eliminated the heterogeneity among the remaining literature. Consequently, the combined sensitivity and specificity of the remaining studies were 0.794 (95% CI = 0.710-0.859) and 0.976 (95% CI = 0.962-0.985), respectively, for the O-CEDUS studies and 0.765 (95% CI = 0.543-0.899) and 0.986 (95% CI = 0.967-0.994), respectively, for the D-CEGUS studies. The AUCs were 0.98 and 0.99 for O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS studies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS can differentiate ≤T1 gastric cancer from ≥T2 gastric cancer, thus assisting the formulation of clinical treatment strategies for patients with very early gastric cancer. Given its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, O-CEGUS is often favored as a staging method for gastric cancer prior to endoscopic intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Curva ROC
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568403

RESUMO

Oral health is a major health concern in the US and globally, particularly among communities of color and low-income/low-education groups. General health disparities have been reported among Native Hawaiians (NHs) and Other Pacific Islanders (OPIs), although less is known about the specific racial/ethnic and socioeconomic trends that are relevant to oral health disparities for NHOPIs. We examined delayed dental visits and severe tooth loss among older NHOPI adults in relation to sociodemographic factors and community level disparities using five waves of data from the Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System collected between 2012 and 2020. Weighted Poisson regression was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratio of delayed dental service utilization and severe tooth loss. Relative to other racial/ethnic groups, older NHs had higher rates of delayed dental service utilization and severe tooth loss after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, and disparities were also found in rural communities.Awareness of the unique challenges and inequities faced by older Indigenous and racially/ethnically marginalized populations is critical for policymakers to develop strategies to achieve health equity.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 932-941, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621900

RESUMO

This study explored the biosynthesis of bufadienolides(BDs) in Bufo bufo gargarizans to solve the dilemma of the decreasing resources of B. bufo gargarizans and provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable utilization of the resources. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) was employed to detect the synthesis sites of BDs in B. bufo gargarizans, and the results were verified by desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging(DESI-MSI) and homogenate incubation experiments. BDs in B. bufo gargarizans had the highest content in the liver and the highest concentration in the gallbladder, in addition to the parotid gland and skin, which suggested that the liver could synthesize BDs. The results of DESI-MSI also showed that BDs were mainly enriched in the liver rather than the immature parotid gland. The incubation experiment of liver homogenates demonstrated the liver of B. bufo gargarizans had the ability to synthesize BDs. This study showed that the liver was a major organ for the synthesis of BDs in B. bufo gargarizans during metamorphosis, development, and growth, which provided strong theoretical support for the biosynthesis of BDs and the sustainable utilization of B. bufo gargarizans resources.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 1017-1027, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621909

RESUMO

Network pharmacology and animal and cell experiments were employed to explore the mechanism of astragaloside Ⅳ(AST Ⅳ) combined with Panax notoginseng saponins(PNS) in regulating angiogenesis to treat cerebral ischemia. The method of network pharmacology was used to predict the possible mechanisms of AST Ⅳ and PNS in treating cerebral ischemia by mediating angiogenesis. In vivo experiment: SD rats were randomized into sham, model, and AST Ⅳ(10 mg·kg~(-1)) + PNS(25 mg·kg~(-1)) groups, and the model of cerebral ischemia was established with middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) method. AST Ⅳ and PNS were administered by gavage twice a day. the Longa method was employed to measure the neurological deficits. The brain tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) to reveal the pathological damage. Immunohistochemical assay was employed to measure the expression of von Willebrand factor(vWF), and immunofluorescence assay to measure the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR2), VEGFA, phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(p-PI3K), and phosphorylated protein kinase B(p-AKT) in the brain tissue. In vitro experiment: the primary generation of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells(rBEMCs) was cultured and identified. The third-generation rBMECs were assigned into control, model, AST Ⅳ(50 µmol·L~(-1)) + PNS(30 µmol·L~(-1)), LY294002(PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibitor), 740Y-P(PI3K/AKT signaling pathway agonist), AST Ⅳ + PNS + LY294002, and AST Ⅳ + PNS + 740Y-P groups. Oxygen glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation(OGD/R) was employed to establish the cell model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) and scratch assay were employed to examine the survival and migration of rBEMCs, respectively. Matrigel was used to evaluate the tube formation from rBEMCs. The Transwell assay was employed to examine endothelial cell permeability. Western blot was employed to determine the expression of VEGFR2, VEGFA, p-PI3K, and p-AKT in rBEMCs. The results of network pharmacology analysis showed that AST Ⅳ and PNS regulated 21 targets including VEGFA and AKT1 of angiogenesis in cerebral infarction. Most of these 21 targets were involved in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The in vivo experiments showed that compared with the model group, AST Ⅳ + PNS reduced the neurological deficit score(P<0.05) and the cell damage rate in the brain tissue(P<0.05), promoted the expression of vWF and VEGFA(P<0.01) and angiogenesis, and up-regulated the expression of proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway(P<0.05, P<0.01). The in vitro experiments showed that compared with the model group, the AST Ⅳ + PNS, 740Y-P, AST Ⅳ + PNS + LY294002, and AST Ⅳ + PNS + 740Y-P improved the survival of rBEMCs after OGD/R, enhanced the migration of rBEMCs, increased the tubes formed by rBEMCs, up-regulated the expression of proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway, and reduced endothelial cell permeability(P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the LY294002 group, the AST Ⅳ + PNS + LY294002 group showed increased survival rate, migration rate, and number of tubes, up-regulated expression of proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway, and decreased endothelial cell permeability(P<0.05,P<0.01). Compared with the AST Ⅳ + PNS and 740Y-P groups, the AST Ⅳ + PNS + 740Y-P group presented increased survival rate, migration rate, and number of tubes and up-regulated expression of proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway, and reduced endothelial cell permeability(P<0.01). This study indicates that AST Ⅳ and PNS can promote angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

5.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency among the clinical model, the radiomics model and the nomogram that combined radiomics features, frozen section (FS) analysis and clinical characteristics for the prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). METHODS: A total of 208 patients were randomly divided into two groups randomly with a proportion of 7:3 for the training groups (n = 146) and the validation groups (n = 62). The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was used for the selection of radiomics features extracted from ultrasound (US) images. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used to select predictors associated with the status of LN. The clinical model, radiomics model and nomogram were subsequently established by logistic regression machine learning. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the different models. The Delong test was used to compare the AUC of the three models. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated that age, size group, Adler grade, ACR score and the psammoma body group were independent predictors of lymph node metastasis (LNM). The results showed that in both the training and validation groups, the nomogram showed better performance than the clinical model, albeit not statistically significant (p > .05), and significantly outperformed the radiomics model (p < .05). However, the nomogram exhibits a slight improvement in sensitivity that could reduce the incidence of false negatives. CONCLUSION: We propose that the nomogram holds substantial promise as an effective tool for predicting LNM in patients with PTC.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2337984, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622888

RESUMO

Infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been studied worldwide. At Juntendo University Hospital (JUH) in Tokyo, Japan, we have consistently conducted serological studies using the blood residue of healthcare workers (HCWs) at annual health examinations since 2020. In this 2023 study (n = 3,594), N-specific seroprevalence (infection-induced) was examined while univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compute ORs of seroprevalence with respect to basic characteristics of participants. We found that the N-specific seroprevalence in 2023 was 54.1%-a jump from 17.7% in 2022, and 1.6% in 2021-with 37.9% as non-PCR-confirmed asymptomatic infection cases. Those younger than 50 (adjusted OR = 1.62; p < .001) and recipients with 4 doses or less of vaccine had a higher risk to be N-positive, ranging from 1.45 times higher for the participants with 4 doses (p < .001) to 4.31 times higher for the participants with 1 dose (p < .001), compared to those with 5 or more doses. Our findings indicate that robust vaccination programs may have helped alleviate symptoms but consequently caused asymptomatic spread in this hospital, especially among younger HCWs. Although having four doses or less was found to be associated with higher risk of infection, the optimal constitution and intervals for effective booster vaccines warrant further investigations.

7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8435, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600253

RESUMO

Ignition electrodes have an immense impact on the accurate measurement of the flame propagation spherical radius. In this study, a flame-radius calculation method is designed. The method is able to eliminate effects due to the ignition electrodes. The adaptability and optimization effects of the proposed method are analyzed. The results show that the ratio of the angle is affected by the ignition electrodes under the Han II method. There are three obvious divisions include a high-value area, a sharp-variation area, and a mild-variation area. The ratio of the angle affected by the ignition electrodes is only applicable to the mild-variation region when the flame presents respective convex and concave distributions. For these distributions, the increment rate of the mean radius is 0.4-0.85% and 0.42-3.19%. The reduced rate of the standard deviation of the radius extraction value is 11.91-22.1% and 5.13-17.99%, and the reduced rate of the radius extraction value range is 20.32-39.51% and 0.32-8.09%.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607792

RESUMO

Novel inorganic-organic hybrid complexes Al13-X (X represents the dianhydrides PMDA, NTCDA, and PTCDA) are theoretically designed and studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. These conjugated dianhydrides containing four acceptor carbonyl groups are commonly used as electron acceptor materials. These compounds possess large binding energies, reflecting the sufficient binding of Al13 to the dianhydride molecule. The binding nature of the complexes is of charge transfer type, i.e., electrons are transferred from the aluminum cluster to the dianhydride. All of the aimed complexes have large mean polarizability (α0) and first hyperpolarizability (ß0). The ß0 values are explained on the basis of electronic transitions in crucial excited states using the TD-DFT method. Additionally, the hole-electron distribution was analyzed, revealing the nature of electronic excitation. Absorption spectra analysis shows that these complexes have an excellent infrared (IR) transparent region (1000-5000 nm). Therefore, these inorganic-organic hybrid complexes with high stability can be considered as potential candidates for new IR nonlinear optical molecules.

9.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609577

RESUMO

ASTRACT: One of the most common oral diseases affecting millions of people worldwide is periodontitis. Usually, proteins in body fluids are used as biomarkers of diseases. This study focused on hydrogen peroxide, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactic acid as salivary non-protein biomarkers for oxidative stress conditions of periodontitis. Electrochemical analysis of artificial saliva was done using Gamry with increasing hydrogen peroxide, bLPS, and lactic acid concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were conducted. From EIS data, change in capacitance and CV plot area were calculated for each test condition. Hydrogen peroxide groups had a decrease in CV area and an increase in percentage change in capacitance, lipopolysaccharide groups had a decrease in CV area and a decrease in percentage change in capacitance, and lactic acid groups had an increase of CV area and an increase in percentage change in capacitance with increasing concentrations. These data showed a unique combination of electrochemical properties for the three biomarkers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) employed to observe the change in the electrode surface and elemental composition data present on the sensor surface also showed a unique trend of elemental weight percentages. Machine learning models using hydrogen peroxide, LPS, and lactic acid electrochemical data were applied for the prediction of risk levels of periodontitis. The detection of hydrogen peroxide, LPS, and lactic acid by electrochemical biosensors indicates the potential to use these molecules as electrochemical biomarkers and use the data for ML-driven prediction tool for the periodontitis risk levels.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e26791, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586373

RESUMO

Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (PMNs) by macrophages is helpful for inflammation resolution and injury repair, but the role of efferocytosis in intrinsic nature of macrophages during septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. Here we report that CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα)-the anti-efferocytotic 'don't eat me' signals-are highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with septic AKI and kidney samples from mice with polymicrobial sepsis and endotoxin shock. Conditional knockout (CKO) of SIRPA in macrophages ameliorates AKI and systemic inflammation response in septic mice, accompanied by an escalation in mitophagy inhibition of macrophages. Ablation of SIRPA transcriptionally downregulates solute carrier family 22 member 5 (SLC22A5) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages that efferocytose apoptotic neutrophils (PMNs). Targeting SLC22A5 renders mitophagy inhibition of macrophages in response to LPS stimuli, improves survival and deters development of septic AKI. Our study supports further clinical investigation of CD47-SIRPα signalling in sepsis and proposes that SLC22A5 might be a promising immunotherapeutic target for septic AKI.

11.
Protein Expr Purif ; 219: 106482, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583789

RESUMO

GH11 enzyme is known to be specific and efficient for the hydrolysis of xylan. It has been isolated from many microorganisms, and its enzymatic characteristics and thermostability vary between species. In this study, a GH11 enzyme PphXyn11 from a novel xylan-degrading strain of Paenibacillus physcomitrellae XB was characterized, and five mutants were constructed to try to improve the enzyme's thermostability. The results showed that PphXyn11 was an acidophilic endo-ß-1,4-xylanase with the optimal reaction pH of 3.0-4.0, and it could deconstruct different kinds of xylan substrates efficiently, such as beechwood xylan, wheat arabinoxylan and xylo-oligosaccharides, to produce xylobiose and xylotriose as the main products at the optimal reaction temperature of 40 °C. Improvement of the thermal stability of PphXyn11 using site-directed mutagenesis revealed that three mutants, W33C/N47C, S127C/N174C and S49E, designed by adding the disulfide bonds at the N-terminal, C-terminal and increasing the charged residues on the surface of PphXyn11 respectively, could increase the enzymatic activity and thermal stablility significantly and make the optimal reaction temperature reach 50 °C. Molecular dynamics simulations as well as computed the numbers of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds indicated that the protein structures of these three mutants were more stable than the wild type, which provided theoretical support for their improved thermal stability. Certainly, further research is necessary to improve the enzymatic characteristics of PphXyn11 to achieve the bioconversion of hemicellulosic biomass on an applicable scale.

12.
World J Diabetes ; 15(3): 530-551, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the serious complications of diabetes mellitus, and the existing treatments cannot meet the needs of today's patients. Traditional Chinese medicine has been validated for its efficacy in DKD after many years of clinical application. However, the specific mechanism by which it works is still unclear. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of the Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma-rhubarb drug pair (NRDP) for the treatment of DKD will provide a new way of thinking for the research and development of new drugs. AIM: To investigate the mechanism of the NRDP in DKD by network pharmacology combined with molecular docking, and then verify the initial findings by in vitro experiments. METHODS: The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database was used to screen active ingredient targets of NRDP. Targets for DKD were obtained based on the Genecards, OMIM, and TTD databases. The VENNY 2.1 database was used to obtain DKD and NRDP intersection targets and their Venn diagram, and Cytoscape 3.9.0 was used to build a "drug-component-target-disease" network. The String database was used to construct protein interaction networks. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and Gene Ontology analysis were performed based on the DAVID database. After selecting the targets and the active ingredients, Autodock software was used to perform molecular docking. In experimental validation using renal tubular epithelial cells (TCMK-1), we used the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay to detect the effect of NRDP on cell viability, with glucose solution used to mimic a hyperglycemic environment. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of STAT3, p-STAT3, BAX, BCL-2, Caspase9, and Caspase3. RESULTS: A total of 10 active ingredients and 85 targets with 111 disease-related signaling pathways were obtained for NRDP. Enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways was performed to determine advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor for AGEs (RAGE) signaling as the core pathway. Molecular docking showed good binding between each active ingredient and its core targets. In vitro experiments showed that NRDP inhibited the viability of TCMK-1 cells, blocked cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase, and reduced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on the results of Western blot analysis, NRDP differentially downregulated p-STAT3, BAX, Caspase3, and Caspase9 protein levels (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). In addition, BAX/BCL-2 and p-STAT3/STAT3 ratios were reduced, while BCL-2 and STAT3 protein expression was upregulated (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: NRDP may upregulate BCL-2 and STAT3 protein expression, and downregulate BAX, Caspase3, and Caspase9 protein expression, thus activating the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, inhibiting the vitality of TCMK-1 cells, reducing their apoptosis. and arresting them in the G0/G1 phase to protect them from damage by high glucose.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 174: 116505, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574614

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was a devastating disease characterized by artery remodeling, ultimately resulting in right heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) with mild SGLT1 inhibitory effects, on rats with PAH, as well as its direct impact on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). PAH rats were induced by injection of monocrotaline (MCT) (40 mg/kg), followed by four weeks of treatment with CANA (30 mg/kg/day) or saline alone. Pulmonary artery and right ventricular (RV) remodeling and dysfunction in PAH were alleviated with CANA, as assessed by echocardiography. Hemodynamic parameters and structural of pulmonary arteriole, including vascular wall thickness and wall area, were reduced by CANA. RV hypertrophy index, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and fibrosis were decreased with CANA treatment. PASMCs proliferation was inhibited by CANA under stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB or hypoxia. Activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) was induced by CANA treatment in cultured PASMCs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CANA were attenuated when treatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Abundant expression of SGLT1 was observed in PASMCs and pulmonary arteries, while SGLT2 expression was undetectable. SGLT1 increased in response to PDGF-BB or hypoxia stimulation, while PASMCs proliferation was inhibited and beneficial effects of CANA were counteracted by knockdown of SGLT1. Our research demonstrated for the first time that CANA inhibited the proliferation of PASMCs by regulating SGLT1/AMPK signaling and thus exerted an anti-proliferative effect on MCT-induced PAH.

14.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28019, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560167

RESUMO

Aim: Atractylodes macrocephala Rhizome (AM) has been used to treat hyperlipidemia for centuries, but its functional components and mechanisms are not clear. This research aimed to investigate the active components in AM and the mechanisms that underlie its anti-hyperlipidemia effect. Methods: SD rats were fed a high-sucrose high-fat diet in conjunction with alcohol (HSHFDAC) along with different AM extracts (AMW, AMO, AME, and AMP) for 4 weeks. AM's active components were analyzed using multiple databases, and their mechanisms were explored through network pharmacology. The relationship between AM's effect of enhancing serum HDL-c and regulating the expression of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)-related proteins (Apo-A1, LCAT, and SR-BI) was further validated in the HSHFDAC-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The kidney and liver functions of the rats were measured to evaluate the safety of AM. Results: AMO, mainly comprised of volatile and liposoluble components, contributed the most significant anti-hyperlipidemia effect among the four extracts obtained from AM, significantly improving the blood lipid profile. Network pharmacology analysis also suggested that volatile and liposoluble components, comprise AM's main active components and they might act on signaling pathways associated with elevated HDL-c. Validation experiments found that AMO substantially and dose-dependently increased HDL-c levels, upregulated the expression of Apo-A1, SR-BI, and LCAT, improved the pathological changes in the kidney and liver, and significantly reduced the serum creatinine levels in rats with hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: The main anti-hyperlipidemia active components of AM are its volatile and liposoluble components, which may enhance serum HDL-c by increasing the expression of the RCT-related proteins Apo-A1, LCAT, and SR-BI.

15.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5873, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587039

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) and fried ZSS (FZSS) have been used for treating insomnia and depression in China. However, the potential influence of chemical variations on their efficacy remains unclear. This study demonstrated that compared with ZSS, FZSS exhibited an increase in the content of seven compounds, while the fatty oil content decreased. Both ZSS and FZSS exhibited antidepressive effects in a chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model, indicating a synergistic regulation of deficiencies in 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain and the hyperactivation of severe peripheral inflammation. ZSS demonstrated a superior modulatory effect compared with FZSS, as indicated by integrated pharmacodynamic index, metabolic profile, and relative distance value. The potential mechanism underlying their antidepressive effects involved the modulation of gut microbiota structure to alleviate excessive inflammatory responses and imbalanced tryptophan metabolism. Correlation analysis indicated that the higher fatty oil contents should be comprehensively considered as the main reason for ZSS's superior antidepressive effects, achieved through the regulation of pyroglutamic acid levels.

16.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 13(3): 654-665, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601446

RESUMO

Background: Tracheobronchial schwannomas are extremely rare, which account for lower than 0.2% in all pulmonary tumors. In large part because of the rarity and insufficient reported clinical details, tracheobronchial schwannoma lacks guidelines or expert consensus for diagnosis and treatment, and the delay in diagnosis can range from months to years. The main treatment option is surgery. Endoscopic intervention can also be selected. An increasing number of thoracic surgery cases were performed on the robotic platforms in recent years. With their assistance, surgeons can accomplish the high technique required surgical procedures with ease. Case Description: In this case, a 48-year-old female had a history of shortness of breath for more than 1 year. The chest computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy examination revealed a new growth of nodule in the left main bronchus. The nodule was considered a schwannoma by transbronchial biopsy, which was removed by robot-assisted bronchial resection with primary anastomosis. The application of Da Vinci Si robotic surgical system benefited the process of this surgery. Pathology and immunohistochemistry results confirmed the diagnosis of schwannomas. The patient tolerated the treatment without any complications. No sign of recurrence was discovered at present, 6 months after the intervention. Conclusions: We reported the first sleeve resection for bronchial schwannoma using Da Vinci robotic surgical system. The clinical details of tracheobronchial schwannoma should be revealed more specifically to achieve more systematic diagnosis and treatment.

17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 711: 149911, 2024 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603832

RESUMO

Macrophages play a crucial role in host response and wound healing, with M2 polarization contributing to the reduction of foreign-body reactions induced by the implantation of biomaterials and promoting tissue regeneration. Electrical stimulation (ES) and micropatterned substrates have a significant impact on the macrophage polarization. However, there is currently a lack of well-established cell culture platforms for studying the synergistic effects of these two factors. In this study, we prepared a graphene free-standing substrate with 20 µm microgrooves using capillary forces induced by water evaporation. Subsequently, we established an ES cell culture platform for macrophage cultivation by integrating a self-designed multi-well chamber cell culture device. We observed that graphene microgrooves, in combination with ES, significantly reduce cell spreading area and circularity. Results from immunofluorescence, ELISA, and flow cytometry demonstrate that the synergistic effect of graphene microgrooves and ES effectively promotes macrophage M2 phenotypic polarization. Finally, RNA sequencing results reveal that the synergistic effects of ES and graphene microgrooves inhibit the macrophage actin polymerization and the downstream PI3K signaling pathway, thereby influencing the phenotypic transition. Our results demonstrate the potential of graphene-based microgrooves and ES to synergistically modulate macrophage polarization, offering promising applications in regenerative medicine.

18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 276: 116277, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604061

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a common fungal toxin frequently detected in food and human plasma samples. Currently, the physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model plays an active role in dose translation and can improve and enhance the risk assessment of toxins. In this study, the PBTK model of OTA in rats and humans was established based on knowledge of OTA-specific absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) in order to better explain the disposition of OTA in humans and the discrepancies with other species. The models were calibrated and optimized using the available kinetic and toxicokinetic (TK) data, and independent test datasets were used for model evaluation. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses and population simulations were performed to characterize the extent to which variations in physiological and specific chemical parameters affected the model output. Finally, the constructed models were used for dose extrapolation of OTA, including the rat-to-human dose adjustment factor (DAF) and the human exposure conversion factor (ECF). The results showed that the unbound fraction (Fup) of OTA in plasma of rat and human was 0.02-0.04% and 0.13-4.21%, respectively. In vitro experiments, the maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of OTA in rat and human liver microsomes were 3.86 and 78.17 µg/g min-1, 0.46 and 4.108 µg/mL, respectively. The predicted results of the model were in good agreement with the observed data, and the models in rats and humans were verified. The PBTK model derived a DAF of 0.1081 between rats and humans, whereas the ECF was 2.03. The established PBTK model can be used to estimate short- or long-term OTA exposure levels in rats and humans, with the capacity for dose translation of OTA to provide the underlying data for risk assessment of OTA.

19.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241240938, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of sildenafil on acute pulmonary embolism (APE) using a rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and sildenafil groups. The sham and PTE groups received normal saline once daily via gavage for 14 consecutive days, whereas the sildenafil group received sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg/day) once daily via gavage for 14 consecutive days. Autologous emboli were prepared from blood samples collected from the left femoral artery of rats in each group on day 13, and autologous emboli were injected into the jugular vein cannula of rats in the PTE and sildenafil groups on day 14. Sham-treated rats received the same volume of saline. Right systolic ventricular pressure (RVSP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) were used to assess pulmonary embolism, and western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect relevant markers. RESULTS: The Rho kinase signaling pathway was significantly activated in rats with APE, and sildenafil significantly inhibited this activation. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil protected against APE through inhibiting Rho kinase activity, thereby reducing pulmonary vasoconstriction and decreasing elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. These findings might provide new ideas for the clinical treatment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Embolia Pulmonar , Ratos , Animais , Citrato de Sildenafila/farmacologia , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Quinases Associadas a rho , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hemodinâmica , Artéria Pulmonar
20.
Sleep Med Rev ; 75: 101928, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614049

RESUMO

The sleep quality of lowlanders in hypoxic environments has become increasingly important with an increase in highland and alpine activities. This study aimed to identify the effects of acute exposure to hypoxia on the sleep structure of lowlanders and to analyze the changes in sleep indicators at varying levels of hypoxia. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty-three studies were screened and included in the quantitative analysis. The results showed that acute exposure to hypoxia reduced sleep quality in lowlanders. Post-sleep arousal events and the percentage of N1 were significantly increased, whereas total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and the percentage of N3 and rapid eye movement sleep were significantly decreased in hypoxic environments. Acute exposure to hypoxia had the greatest negative impact on wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO). In addition, a larger decrease in sleep efficiency and higher increase in the percentages of N1 and WASO were observed when lowlanders were exposed to higher levels of hypoxia. This study clarifies the quantitative effects of acute hypoxic exposure on sleep in lowlanders based on original studies and explains the sleep disorders faced by lowlanders in hypoxic environments.

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