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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149214, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333434

RESUMO

Seven cruises were carried out in a bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) farming area and its surrounding waters, North Yellow Sea, from March to November 2017 to study the dynamics of the carbonate system and its controlling factors. Results indicated that the studied parameters were highly variability over a range of spatiotemporal scales, comprehensively forced by various physical and biological processes. Mixing effect and scallop calcification played the most important role in the seasonal variation of total alkalinity (TAlk). For dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in addition to mixing, air-sea exchange and microbial activity, e.g. photosynthesis and microbial respiration processes, had more important effects on its dynamics. Different from the former, the changes of water pHT, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were mainly controlled by the combining of the temperature, air-sea exchange, microbial activity and scallop metabolic activities. In addition, the results indicated that massive scallop farming can significantly increase the DIC/TAlk ratio by reducing the TAlk concentration in seawater, thereby reducing the buffering capacity of the carbonate system in seawater especially for ΩA. Preliminary calculated, ~75.7 and ~45.5 µmol kg-1 of TAlk were removed from the surface and bottom waters respectively in one scallop cultivating cycle. If these carbonates cannot be replenished in time, it is likely to accelerate the acidification process of coastal waters. This study highlighted the control mechanism of the carbonate system under the influence of bay scallop farming, and provided useful information for revealing the potential link between human activities (shelled-mollusc mariculture) and coastal acidification.

2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 7259414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335865

RESUMO

In this paper, based on the improved convolutional neural network, in-depth analysis of the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia, using the U-Net series of deep neural networks to semantically segment the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia, to obtain the new coronary pneumonia area as the foreground and the remaining areas as the background of the binary image, provides a basis for subsequent image diagnosis. Secondly, the target-detection framework Faster RCNN extracts features from the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, obtains a higher-level abstract representation of the data, determines the lesion location of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, and gives its bounding box in the image. By generating an adversarial network to diagnose the lesion area of the CT image of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, obtaining a complete image of the new coronary pneumonia, achieving the effect of the CT image diagnosis of the new coronary pneumonia tumor, and three-dimensionally reconstructing the complete new coronary pneumonia model, filling the current the gap in this aspect, provide a basis to produce new coronary pneumonia prosthesis and improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

3.
Small ; : e2102879, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337859

RESUMO

At present, it is still a great challenge to synthesize refractory Pt-based electrocatalysts with excellent active specific surface area, specific activity, and stability by a simple method. Here, a superfast and solvent-free microwave strategy is reported to synthesize refractory ultrafine (≈3 nm) Pt-lanthanide@Ketjen Black (PtM@KB, M = La, Gd, Tb, Er, Tm, and Yb) alloy with densely packed as efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts in a domestic microwave oven for the first time. The optimized Pt61 La39 @KB delivers excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with a low overpotential of 38 mV (10 mA cm-2 ) and a high TOF value of 44.13 s-1  (100 mV) in 0.5 m H2 SO4 , and performs well in 1.0 m KOH. This method can also be used to grow catalysts on carbon cloth (CC) directly. PtLa@CC shows an overpotential of 99 mV (1000 mA cm-2 ) in 0.5 m H2 SO4 and can maintain activity after 500 h. Theoretical calculations reveal the enhanced stability and activity owing to the higher vacancy formation energy of Pt atoms and the optimized value of ΔGH* . Solvent-free microwave strategy constitutes a significant insight into the development of refractory electrocatalyst with ultrafine size and highly dense, which can also work well at high current densities.

4.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337871

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of our study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with pulmonary acinar cell carcinoma (PACC). METHODS: PACC patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2016 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The trend in PACC incidence was assessed using joinpoint regression software. Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the independent prognostic factors for OS and DSS. Nomograms to predict survival possibilities were constructed based on the identified independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 2918 patients were identified with PACC. The mean age was 65.2 ± 8.95 years with a female to male of 1.6:1. The incidence of PACC steadily increased by an annual percentage change (APC) of 3.2% (95% CI 2.1-4.4, p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age, gender, race, stage, grade, tumor size, number of positive lymph nodes, surgery, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for survival. Nomograms specifically for PACC were constructed to predict 1- and 5-year OS and DSS possibility, respectively. The concordance index (C-index) and calibration plots showed the established nomograms had robust and accurate performance. CONCLUSION: PACC was rare but the incidence has been steadily increasing over the past four decades. Survival has improved in recent years. Surgery or chemotherapy could provide better OS and DSS. The established nomograms specifically for PACC were robust and accurate in predicting 1- and 5-year OS and DSS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with cardiovascular features, which may be deteriorated in cancer patients. However, cardiac outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19 have not been closely examined. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 1244 patients with COVID-19 from February 1st to August 31st (140 cancer and 1104 non-cancer patients). Demographic and clinical data were obtained and compared between cancer and non-cancer groups. Including the cardiac biomarkers, we also analyzed laboratory findings between these two groups. Risk factors for in hospital mortality were identified by multivariable COX regression models. RESULTS: For cancer group, 56% were in severe and critical status with more diabetes and immune deficiency, while the proportion was 10% for non-cancer group. Cancer patients had increased levels of leukocyte, neutrophil count and BUN (all p<0.01), while lymphocyte count was significantly lower (p<0.001). The most common solid tumor types were gastrointestinal cancer (26%), lung cancer (21%), breast and reproductive cancer (both 19%). There is a rising for cardiac biomarkers, including Pro-BNP, cTnI, MYO, CK-MB, as well as D-Dimer in COVID-19 cancer population, especially in deceased cancer subjects. The 30-day in hospital mortality in cancer group was dramatically raised than that in non-cancer group (12.9% vs. 4.0%, p<0.01). In multivariable COX regression models, fever, disease severity status, underlying diseases were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with cancer relate to deteriorating conditions and poor cardiac outcomes accompanied by a high in-hospital mortality, which warrants more aggressive treatment.

6.
J Drug Target ; : 1-25, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236257

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a regulated cell death pathway which depends on iron. Ferroptosis can be induced by limiting intracellular glutathione (GSH) synthesis, or inhibiting the activity of GPX4, or increasing intracellular accumulation of PE-AA-OOH, all of which involve NADPH. Therefore, NADPH depletion, excessive PE-AA-OOH, and GPX4 deficiency are generally considered to be the main characteristics of ferroptosis. In this research, the novel self-assembly nanomicelles modified by maltose ligand (Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3) with superior nano characteristics were designed and fabricated. Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3 micelles achieved active targeted drug delivery due to the high expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) and high uptake by HepG2 cells. Maltose-polyethylene glycol broke to release RSL3 for inhibiting GPX4 activity when Malt-PEG-Abz@RSL3 micelles entered the cells. Meanwhile, key coenzyme NADPH that participated in synthesis of GSH and Trx(SH)2 was depleted by azobenzene moiety, resulting in decreasing GSH and Trx(SH)2, which dually induced ferroptosis in tumor cells and promoted cell apoptosis.

7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 610, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The change in hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause an adjustment in hindfoot alignment (HFA). However, the relationship between the changes in HKA angle and HFA is still not well studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between HKA angle and hindfoot alignment changes after TKA for varus knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in which 108 patients with varus knee deformities were radiographically and clinically evaluated before and 3 months after TKA. The relationship of change in HFA with correction in HKA angle was investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that the HFA was adjusted significantly by 3 months after TKA (p < 0.001), along with improved American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot score (p < 0.001). Next, a univariate correlation and linear regression analysis showed that the change in HFA was weakly correlated with the change in HKA angle (r=-0.262, ß=-0.14, 95 % CI: -0.23 to -0.04, P = 0.006). Further stratified analysis and interaction tests revealed that age has a distinct effect on the correlation between the changes in HFA and HKA angle. The correlation was dramatically greater in the group under 65 years (r=-0.474, ß=-0.26, 95 % CI: -0.41 to -0.12, P = 0.001), whilst, no correlation was observed in those above 65 years old (r=-0.036, ß=-0.02, 95 % CI: -0.14 to 0.11, P = 0.779). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that correction of HKA after TKA tend to promote adjustment in the hindfoot alignment toward re-balance of the whole lower limb weight-bearing axis. However, this mechanism obviously weakens in elderly patients. Therefore, if apparent hindfoot deformity exists in these patients before TKA, more perioperative intervention is required for hindfoot adjustment, and even HKA undercorrection may be considered.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Tornozelo , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little evidence on managing the proximal aorta of 4.0-4.5 cm during aortic valve replacement (AVR) in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. METHODS: A total of 431 patients between 1993-2019 underwent either an isolated AVR, AVR + concomitant ascending aorta replacement, or aortic root replacement. We divided patients into native root dilation [4.0-4.5 cm, n=121] vs. root control groups [<4.0 cm, n=238], native ascending dilation [4.0-4.5cm, n=50] vs. ascending control groups [<4.0 cm, n=166], or proximal dilation (root or ascending aorta 4.0-4.5 cm, n=160) and proximal control groups (both root and ascending aorta <4.0 cm, n=272). RESULTS: Growth rate was similar between the root dilation and control groups, (both were 0.1 mm/year, p=0.56). The ascending dilation group had an aorta growth rate of 0.0 mm/year after AVR or root replacement, which was significantly different from the ascending control group (0.2 mm/year), p=0.01. Furthermore, growth rate was similar between the proximal dilation (combined root or ascending dilation) and control group (both were 0.1 mm/year, p=0.20). There were only two ascending aortic aneurysm repairs after AVR in the whole cohort. The long-term survival was similar between the root or ascending dilation groups vs. root or ascending control groups, and between the proximal dilation and control groups. Multivariable Cox regression confirmed aortic root or ascending dilation was not a significant risk factor of long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings supported not replacing a 4.0-4.5 cm proximal thoracic aorta, including aortic root and ascending aorta, at the time of AVR for BAV patients.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198485

RESUMO

Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) constitute the structural and functional basis for the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and play essential roles in bacterial meningitis. Although the BBB integrity regulation has been under extensive investigation, there is little knowledge regarding the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this event. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of one potential lncRNA, lncRSPH9-4, in meningitic E. coli infection of BMECs. LncRSPH9-4 was cytoplasm located and significantly up-regulated in meningitic E. coli-infected hBMECs. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measurement and Western blot assay demonstrated lncRSPH9-4 overexpression in hBMECs mediated the BBB integrity disruption. By RNA-sequencing analysis, 639 mRNAs and 299 miRNAs were significantly differentiated in response to lncRSPH9-4 overexpression. We further found lncRSPH9-4 regulated the permeability in hBMECs by competitively sponging miR-17-5p, thereby increasing MMP3 expression, which targeted the intercellular tight junctions. Here we reported the infection-induced lncRSPH9-4 aggravated disruption of the tight junctions in hBMECs, probably through the miR-17-5p/MMP3 axis. This finding provides new insights into the function of lncRNAs in BBB integrity during meningitic E. coli infection and provides the novel nucleic acid targets for future treatment of bacterial meningitis.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Meningites Bacterianas/genética , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Microvasos/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198812

RESUMO

In the U.S., e-cigarette companies can apply for permission to use reduced or modified risk messages (MRMs) in their marketing materials. Because e-cigarette marketing materials should have a nicotine addictiveness warning, MRMs and a nicotine warning could appear together-resulting in a conflicting message. When reading a conflicting message, individuals assimilate evidence supporting their pre-existing beliefs and eventually develop stronger beliefs, diverging more from those with different pre-existing beliefs (i.e., polarization). This study examined if exposure to e-cigarette MRMs with a nicotine warning polarizes smokers' initially opposing beliefs about the efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes in reducing smoking-related risks, and if this polarization depends on individuals' need for closure. An online experiment randomized 761 U.S. adult smokers to either three MRMs with a nicotine warning or three control messages. People reported their perceived efficacy of switching completely to e-cigarettes at pre- and posttest and need for closure at pretest. Linear regression showed no polarization effects. Nonetheless, need for closure and pretest efficacy beliefs influenced message response: MRMs with a nicotine warning only enhanced efficacy beliefs of smokers with low pretest efficacy beliefs and low need for closure. Evaluation of e-cigarette mixed communication should consider individuals' motivational and cognitive differences.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 109569, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197824

RESUMO

As one of the most important members of Phthalate esters (PAEs), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in plastics and known as a male reproductive toxicant. Many studies have shown that soybean isoflavones (SI) can rescue the testicular injury caused by DEHP, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because methylation is one of the most important mechanisms for maintaining normal biological functions, we studied whether methylation is involved in testicular injury induced by DEHP and whether SI could counter testicular impairment in peripubertal male Sprague Dawley rats. Compared with the control group, we found that the mRNA levels of testicular Sod2, Gpx1, and Igf-1 significantly decreased in the 900 mg/kg DEHP group (DEHP' group) (P < 0.01); however, in the DEHP + SI group, the mRNA levels of the genes obviously increased compared with the DEHP' group (P < 0.01). Simultaneously, the methylation level changes of testicular Sod2, Gpx1, and Igf-1 were similar to the mRNA levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, DEHP may affect testis and leydig cells via inducing methylation of Sod2, Gpx1, and Igf-1, and SI may rescue the impairments at the methylation level. In summary, SI is supposed to be used in DEHP-induced testicular injury treatment.

12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197827

RESUMO

An 80-year-old man presented with a fast expanding 9.5 cm mycotic arch pseudoaneurysm. The right axillary and femoral arteries were cannulated. Through sternotomy, A reverse zone 2 arch replacement was performed with a 28-mm rifampin-soaked Dacron graft with circulatory arrest. A 30-millimeter Coda balloon was used to occlude the descending aorta and the lower body was perfused through the femoral artery. The infected pseudoaneurysm was debrided and irrigated. A separate 28-mm rifampin-soaked Dacron was anastomosed to the proximal-descending aorta. The left subclavian artery was anastomosed to the proximal Dacron graft. Finally, the proximal and distal Dacron grafts were anastomosed together.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276647

RESUMO

High levels of soybean oil (SO) in fish diets enriched with linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) could induce strong inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying LA-induced inflammation in the liver of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) has not been elucidated. Based on previous research, autophagy has been considered a new pathway to relieve inflammation. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the role of autophagy in regulating LA-induced inflammation in the liver of large yellow croaker in vivo and in vitro. The results of the present study showed that activation of autophagy in liver or hepatocytes could significantly reduce the gene expression of proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1ß (IL1ß). The results of the present study also showed that inhibition of autophagy could upregulate the gene expression of proinflammatory factors and downregulate the gene expression of anti-inflammatory factors in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, autophagy could alleviate LA-induced inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vivo and in vitro, while inhibition of autophagy obtained the opposite results. In conclusion, our study shows that autophagy could regulate inflammation and alleviate LA-induced inflammation in the liver of large yellow croaker in vivo and in vitro for the first time, which may offer considerable benefits to the aquaculture industry and human health.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282057

RESUMO

We intend to evaluate the differences of the clinical characteristics, cytokine profiles and immunological features in patients with different severity of COVID-19, and to develop novel nomograms based on inflammatory cytokines or lymphocyte subsets for the differential diagnostics for severe or critical and non-severe COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively studied 254 COVID-19 patients, 90 of whom were severe or critical patients and 164 were non-severe patients. Severe or critical patients had significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than non-severe patients as well as lower levels of lymphocyte subsets. Significantly positive correlations between cytokine profiles were observed, while they were all significantly negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Two effective nomograms were developed according to two multivariable logistic regression cox models based on inflammatory cytokine profiles and lymphocyte subsets separately. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics of two nomograms were 0.834 (95% CI: 0.779-0.888) and 0.841 (95% CI: 0.756-0.925). The bootstrapped-concordance indexes of two nomograms were 0.834 and 0.841 in training set, and 0.860 and 0.852 in validation set. Calibration curves and decision curve analyses demonstrated that the nomograms were well calibrated and had significantly more clinical net benefits. Our novel nomograms can accurately predict disease severity of COVID-19, which may facilitate the identification of severe or critical patients and assist physicians in making optimized treatment suggestions.

15.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 116, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281571

RESUMO

Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Meningitic E. coli infection is often accompanied by an elevated blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. BBB is the structural and functional barrier composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, and pericytes, and we have previously shown that astrocytes-derived TGFß1 physiologically maintained the BBB permeability by triggering a non-canonical hedgehog signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Here, we subsequently demonstrated that meningitic E. coli infection could subvert this intercellular communication within BBB by attenuating TGFBRII/Gli2-mediated such signaling. By high-throughput screening, we identified E. coli α-hemolysin as the critical determinant responsible for this attenuation through Sp1-dependent TGFBRII reduction and triggering Ca2+ influx and protein kinase A activation, thus leading to Gli2 suppression. Additionally, the exogenous hedgehog agonist SAG exhibited promising protection against the infection-caused BBB dysfunction. Our work revealed a hedgehog-targeted pathogenic mechanism during meningitic E. coli-caused BBB disruption and suggested that activating hedgehog signaling within BBB could be a potential protective strategy for future therapy of bacterial meningitis.

16.
Transpl Immunol ; 68: 101435, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216759

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation that characterized by high mortality. We presented a case of aGVHD after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient suffered from fever, oral ulcer, rashes and diarrhea and had a co-infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis for cluster of differentiation (CD3) cells and skin biopsy indicated aGVHD. His regimens included high dose of steroids, ruxolitinib, basiliximab, local liver radiotherapy and antibiotics prophylaxis, with the withdrawal of tacrolimus and MMF. Unfortunately, he developed an acute rejection followed by cytomegalovirus infection and lung infection. Soon afterwards he was sent to "isolation ward" due to high suspicion for clinical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fortunately, He was excluded from COVID-19 after nucleic acid and antibody tests. Though closely contact with other COVID-19 patients for a month, the patient was not affected with COVID-19 through his careful protective measures. Finally, the patient recovered after antiviral and antifungal treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient recovered from aGVHD as a close contact.

17.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236979

RESUMO

Attention-based deep multiple-instance learning (MIL) has been applied to many machine-learning tasks with imprecise training labels. It is also appealing in hyperspectral target detection, which only requires the label of an area containing some targets, relaxing the effort of labeling the individual pixel in the scene. This article proposes an L1 sparsity-regularized attention multiple-instance neural network (L1-attention MINN) for hyperspectral target detection with imprecise labels that enforces the discrimination of false-positive instances from positively labeled bags. The sparsity constraint applied to the attention estimated for the positive training bags strictly complies with the definition of MIL and maintains better discriminative ability. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on both simulated and real-field hyperspectral (subpixel) target detection tasks, where advanced performance has been achieved over the state-of-the-art comparisons, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method for target detection from imprecisely labeled hyperspectral data.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209073

RESUMO

This research includes two studies testing whether the Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs predict tobacco use intentions differently between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people. Focusing on cigarette smoking, Study 1 (n = 1808 U.S. adult current smokers) found that the perceived health threat and perceived benefits of smoking differently predicted intentions to continue smoking between heterosexual and LGB smokers. The perceived health threat of smoking had a weaker negative relationship and perceived benefits of smoking had a stronger positive relationship with smoking intentions among LGB smokers than heterosexual smokers. Focusing on vaping, Study 2 (n = 2801 U.S. adults) found that the perceived health threat and perceived barriers of vaping differentially predicted vaping intentions between heterosexual and LGB individuals. The perceived health threat of vaping only negatively predicted vaping intentions among heterosexual people. Perceived barriers to vaping had a stronger negative relationship with intentions to vape among LGB people than among heterosexual people. Our finding suggests that compared to perceptions of tobacco-related health consequences (perceived heath threat), behavioral perceptions (perceived benefits and barriers) may have stronger impacts on tobacco use intentions among LGB people. Thus, efforts focusing on reducing tobacco-related disparities among the LGB community should address perceived benefits and barriers of tobacco use.

19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 174366, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314706

RESUMO

Carboplatin treatment is associated with potential benefits in practice in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. In order to enhance its anti-tumor effects, new concepts for successful combination therapy are needed. Here, we interestingly found that the combination treatment of carboplatin with the Chk1 inhibitor AZD7762 synergistically inhibits TNBC cell growth in multiple TNBC cell lines in vitro. Mechanistically, we proved that prolonged carboplatin-treated induce cell mitotic arrest, and cells would fail to initiate the G2-M transition following the inhibition of the Chk1 pathway, leading to accumulation of DNA lesions. With this drug-in-combination treatment, the incidence of mitotic catastrophes including spindle multipolarity and cytokinesis failure is remarkably enhanced, which subsequently drives tumor cells multinucleation, polyploidization and apoptosis. Thus, our findings not only propose Chk1 as a therapeutic target for combination therapy with DNA-damaging agents such as carboplatin in TNBC, but also highlight that the induction of mitotic catastrophe could be considered as an alternative strategy for TNBC therapy.

20.
Maturitas ; 150: 30-36, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274073

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the age- and sex-specific risk of urogenital infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. A self-controlled case series was conducted using annual national patient sample datasets from 2016 and 2017. Patients who were treated with SGLT2 inhibitors and who received antimicrobials for urogenital infections were included in the study. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of urogenital infections during SGLT2 inhibitor exposure were compared with those in the non-exposure period. A total of 2,949 patients were included in the analysis, and 71.2% of the patients were women aged ≥ 50 years. Stratified analysis by age and sex showed that only women ≥ 50 years showed a significant increase in the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37) and genital infections (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.28-1.62). The highest risk of UTI risk was observed 8-14 days after initiating SGLT2 inhibitor therapy (IRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08), and after 15-28 days for genital infections (IRR 2.11, 95% CI 1.66-2.67) in women ≥ 50. SGLT2 inhibitors increase the risk of urogenital infections in T2DM patients, especially in women aged ≥ 50 years. Monitoring of urogenital infections in women aged ≥ 50 years, especially during the first month after starting SGLT2 inhibitors, is recommended.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Urinárias/induzido quimicamente
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