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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159502, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265639

RESUMO

Cities are both the primary cause of global climate change and the key to the mitigation agenda. China's unprecedented urbanization has paralleled a growth in energy demand and urban areas have emerged as the crux of CO2 emissions reduction in China. There is a crucial need for policymakers to understand how CO2 emissions scale with city size and adopt economies of scale (cost savings) for mitigation, particularly through a multidimensional lens of city size. This study reveals a set of scaling relations between urban scope 1 CO2 emissions and five dimensions of city size in 340 Chinese cities, including population (POP), built-up area (BA), building height (BH), specific built-up area (SBA), and built-up volume (BV). The findings show that CO2 emissions in Chinese cities scale linearly with POP and BA but sublinearly with BA, SBA, and BV, and more diverse regimes exist across various geographic zones, population hierarchies, administrative hierarchies, and governance contexts. The prevalent sublinear scaling regime between CO2 emissions and SBA and BV demonstrates the potential importance of optimizing the vertical built-up landscapes for establishing a zero­carbon society. Furthermore, the top 10 % and bottom 10 % performance of individual cities in emissions identified by the Scale-Adjusted Metropolitan Indicator (SAMI) (the smaller the better) highlights the imprints of the socioeconomic context (e.g., Low Carbon City Initiative) on the scaling of CO2 emissions in Chinese cities, which is critical for developing decarbonization strategies. Our multidimensional analysis can assist in the local-tailored low-carbon development of Chinese cities.

2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes the measurements of intrinsic capacity in 5 domains across different studies and evaluates the quality of research papers. DESIGN: Scoping review of papers written in English and Chinese published in peer-reviewed journals. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The intrinsic capacity of older adults was assessed using the multidomain structure (Cognition, Locomotion, Psychological, Sensory and Vitality) proposed by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science for papers in English, and CNKI, CBM for papers written in Chinese published until September 13, 2022. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies of multidomain measurements of intrinsic capacity were included. Three independent reviewers appraised the quality of studies, and Cohen's kappa was calculated to determine interrater reliability. Data were listed by author, year, setting, country, age range and number of participants, measurement and calculation of intrinsic capacity, and data acquisition method. RESULTS: We included 53 studies. Twenty-one studies were of high quality, 31 studies were of moderate quality, and 1 study was of low quality. Measurements of intrinsic capacity and derivation of the summative index score were heterogeneous. Intrinsic capacity was usually assessed in 4 or 5 domains. Sensory was the most frequently overlooked domain or subdivided into vision and hearing in some studies. Indicators of vitality were the most heterogeneous. We also found consistency in heterogeneous measurements. The most common measurements of cognition, locomotion, and psychological capacity were the Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Geriatric Depression Scale respectively. Self-reported questionnaires were commonly adopted in sensory domain. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment and grip strength were the most measured indicators of vitality. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The focus on capacity and disease should be balanced to better promote healthy aging in older adults. Heterogeneity of intrinsic capacity measurements underscores the need for consensus about standardized measurements and calculation procedures.

3.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 67: 102717, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334403

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that fatigue at different locations impacts joint angles, angular variability, and coordination variability differently. However, the neuromuscular control aspects underlying these kinematic changes have never been demonstrated. Seventeen young adults (8 males) were recruited. Electromyographic electrodes were placed on: upper trapezius, pectoralis major, anterior and middle deltoid, biceps and triceps brachii, and left and right erector spinae. Subjects performed the repetitive pointing task (RPT) at 1 Hz for 30 s before and after localized fatigue tasks, which consisted of one shoulder, one elbow and one lower back isometric fatiguing protocols until exhaustion in randomized order. Electromyographic amplitude (RMS), variability (SD) and mean power frequency (MnPF) were calculated for each of the pre-fatigue and post-fatigue RPT trials. There were sex × fatigue location interaction effects on upper trapezius RMS (p = 0.038) with males' values increasing the most after shoulder fatigue. Females' triceps brachii RMS was greater compared to males after shoulder, elbow, and trunk fatigue (p = 0.003, p = 0.001 and p = 0.007 respectively). There were sex × fatigue location effects on left erector spinae MnPF (p = 0.011) with males and females' values decreasing the most after trunk fatigue, but more so in males. Results demonstrate that males and females compensate differently during a repetitive pointing task when their elbows, shoulders and trunks are locally fatigued, which could have implications on sex-specific workplace injury risks. See Table 1 for acronyms.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2205299, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366919

RESUMO

Nearly theoretical 100% atomic utilization (supposing each atom could serve as independent sites to play a role in catalyz) of single-atom catalysts (SACs) makes it highly promising for various applications. However, for most SACs, single-atom sites are trapped in a solid carbon matrix, which makes the inner parts hardly available for reaction. Herein, a hollow N-doped carbon confined single-atom Rh (Rh-SACs/HNCR) is developed via a coordination-template method. Both aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping confirm the uniform distribution of Rh single atoms. Owning to the unique hollow structure and effective carbon confinement, excessive conversion from pyridinic/pyrrolic N to graphic N is hindered. As a proof of concept, Rh-SACs/HNCR exhibits superior activity, stability, selectivity, and anti-poisoning capability in formic acid oxidation reaction compared with the counterpart Rh/C, Pd/C, and Pt/C catalysts. This work provides a powerful strategy for synthesizing hollow carbon confined single-atom catalysts apply in various energy-related systems.

5.
Apoptosis ; 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370260

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality and poor prognosis. Many OSCC patients have low response rate to current treatments including immunotherapies largely due to the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Chemotherapy could induce immunogenic cell death (ICD), a type of cell death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis, which has proved to be capable to alter the immune-suppressive TME and beneficial for better anti-tumor effect. GSDME, a key protein of pyroptosis, is however often silenced in tumors due to abnormal methylation. To overcome these limitations, we utilizied methyltransferase inhibitor (decitabine, DAC) to trigger pyroptosis of tumor cells, combined with chemodrug cisplatin (DDP) and immune checkpoints inhibitors to amplify the immunotherapies outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of tumor suppressive effect of GSDME in OSCC. Our investigation demonstrated that stimulation of GSDME expression could improve the sensitivity of chemotherapeutics, activate inflammatory tumor cell pyroptosis and alter the tumor immune-suppressive microenvironment, providing an important perspective for clinical OSCC treatment.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365421

RESUMO

Organic acids secreted by plants, such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, and benzoic acid, can inhibit seed germination and root growth. The effects of root and soil leaching liquor from orchards on the growth of M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under sand culture are studied; the seedlings are sampled at 15, 30, 45, and 60 d. Changes in the amount of root exudates are determined using HPLC. Low concentrations of root leaching liquor (A1) and soil leaching liquor (B1) significantly promoted plant growth and chlorophyll synthesis; high concentrations of root leaching liquor (A6) and soil leaching liquor (B4-6) inhibited growth. Low concentrations of soil leaching liquor had no significant effect on the POD, SOD, and CAT activities. A5-6 and B5-6 significantly decreased Fv/Fm and qP values, respectively, and increased NPQ values. All root and soil leaching liquor treatments inhibited the secretion of gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, and phloridzin, and promoted the secretion of caffeic acid. The root leaching liquor treatments inhibited the secretion of catechin and promoted the secretion of phloretin. The soil leaching liquor treatments promoted the secretion of cinnamic acid. The secretion of other phenolic acids is likely associated with the different concentrations of leaching liquor.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365920

RESUMO

Dealing with the packet-routing problem is challenging in the V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) network environment, where it suffers from the high mobility of vehicles and varied vehicle density at different times. Many related studies have been proposed to apply artificial intelligence models, such as Q-learning, which is a well-known reinforcement learning model, to analyze the historical trajectory data of vehicles and to further design an efficient packet-routing algorithm for V2X. In order to reduce the number of Q-tables generated by Q-learning, grid-based routing algorithms such as the QGrid have been proposed accordingly to divide the entire network environment into equal grids. This paper focuses on improving the defects of these grid-based routing algorithms, which only consider the vehicle density of each grid in Q-learning. Hence, we propose a Software-Defined Directional QGrid (SD-QGrid) routing platform in this paper. By deploying an SDN Control Node (CN) to perform centralized control for V2X, the SD-QGrid considers the directionality from the source to the destination, real-time positions and historical trajectory records between the adjacent grids of all vehicles. The SD-QGrid further proposes the flows of the offline Q-learning training process and the online routing decision process. The two-hop trajectory-based routing (THTR) algorithm, which depends on the source-destination directionality and the movement direction of the vehicle for the next two grids, is proposed as a vehicle node to forward its packets to the best next-hop neighbor node in real time. Finally, we use the real vehicle trajectory data of Taipei City to conduct extensive simulation experiments with respect to four transmission parameters. The simulation results prove that the SD-QGrid achieved an over 10% improvement in the average packet delivery ratio and an over 25% reduction in the average end-to-end delay at the cost of less than 2% in average overhead, compared with two well-known Q-learning grid-based routing algorithms.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(22): e027578, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346048

RESUMO

Background Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by progressive left ventricular enlargement and systolic dysfunction, is the most common type of cardiomyopathy and a leading cause of heart failure and cardiac death. Accumulating evidence underscores the critical role of genetic defects in the pathogenesis of DCM, and >250 genes have been implicated in DCM to date. However, DCM is of substantial genetic heterogeneity, and the genetic basis underpinning DCM remains elusive in most cases. Methods and Results By genome-wide scan with microsatellite markers and genetic linkage analysis in a 4-generation family inflicted with autosomal-dominant DCM, a new locus for DCM was mapped on chromosome 15q13.1-q13.3, a 4.77-cM (≈3.43 Mbp) interval between markers D15S1019 and D15S1010, with the largest 2-point logarithm of odds score of 5.1175 for the marker D15S165 at recombination fraction (θ)=0.00. Whole-exome sequencing analyses revealed that within the mapping chromosomal region, only the mutation in the KLF13 gene, c.430G>T (p.E144X), cosegregated with DCM in the family. In addition, sequencing analyses of KLF13 in another cohort of 266 unrelated patients with DCM and their available family members unveiled 2 new mutations, c.580G>T (p.E194X) and c.595T>C (p.C199R), which cosegregated with DCM in 2 families, respectively. The 3 mutations were absent from 418 healthy subjects. Functional assays demonstrated that the 3 mutants had no transactivation on the target genes ACTC1 and MYH7 (2 genes causally linked to DCM), alone or together with GATA4 (another gene contributing to DCM), and a diminished ability to bind the promoters of ACTC1 and MYH7. Add, the E144X-mutant KLF13 showed a defect in intracellular distribution. Conclusions This investigation indicates KLF13 as a new gene predisposing to DCM, which adds novel insight to the molecular pathogenesis underlying DCM, implying potential implications for prenatal prevention and precision treatment of DCM in a subset of patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Humanos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Mutação , Linhagem , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369487

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common solid malignancies worldwide. A large proportion of patients with HCC are diagnosed at advanced stages and are only amenable to systemic therapies. We have witnessed the evolution of systemic therapies from single-agent targeted therapy (sorafenib and lenvatinib) to the combination of a checkpoint inhibitor plus targeted therapy (atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy). Despite remarkable advances, only a small subset of patients can obtain durable clinical benefit, and therefore substantial therapeutic challenges remain. In the past few years, emerging systemic therapies, including new molecular-targeted monotherapies (for example, donafenib), new immuno-oncology monotherapies (for example, durvalumab) and new combination therapies (for example, durvalumab plus tremelimumab), have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In addition, many novel therapeutic approaches with the potential to offer improved treatment effects in patients with advanced HCC, such as sequential combination targeted therapy and next-generation adoptive cell therapy, have also been proposed and developed. In this Review, we summarize the latest clinical advances in the treatment of advanced HCC and discuss future perspectives that might inform the development of more effective therapeutics for advanced HCC.

10.
Light Sci Appl ; 11(1): 321, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323662

RESUMO

High precision neuromodulation is a powerful tool to decipher neurocircuits and treat neurological diseases. Current non-invasive neuromodulation methods offer limited precision at the millimeter level. Here, we report optically-generated focused ultrasound (OFUS) for non-invasive brain stimulation with ultrahigh precision. OFUS is generated by a soft optoacoustic pad (SOAP) fabricated through embedding candle soot nanoparticles in a curved polydimethylsiloxane film. SOAP generates a transcranial ultrasound focus at 15 MHz with an ultrahigh lateral resolution of 83 µm, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional transcranial-focused ultrasound (tFUS). Here, we show effective OFUS neurostimulation in vitro with a single ultrasound cycle. We demonstrate submillimeter transcranial stimulation of the mouse motor cortex in vivo. An acoustic energy of 0.6 mJ/cm2, four orders of magnitude less than that of tFUS, is sufficient for successful OFUS neurostimulation. OFUS offers new capabilities for neuroscience studies and disease treatments by delivering a focus with ultrahigh precision non-invasively.

11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1012168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387191

RESUMO

Expression of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has been explored in Western cohorts, but it is rarely reported in Eastern cohorts. We aimed to assess the loss of MMR protein expression among Chinese UTUC patients and study its clinicopathological implications. We enrolled 175 UTUC patients at our center and tested the expression of MMR proteins by immunohistochemistry. Then, we explored these patients' clinicopathological characteristics. We found loss of MMR proteins in 19 (10.9%) of 175 patients in our cohort (6 MSH2 and MSH6, 2 MSH6 alone, 6 MSH2 alone, 3 MLH1 and PMS2, and 2 PMS2 alone). Loss of MMR proteins was not a significant prognostic factor of relapse-free survival for these patients. In addition, patients with lower T stage or with bladder cancer history were more likely to have loss of MMR protein expression. At last, two metastatic patients (MSH2 and MSH6 loss; MSH2 loss) with loss of MMR protein experienced tumor recession after several cycles of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. In conclusion, this is the largest Chinese UTUC cohort study to date that explores the loss of MMR protein expression. The rate of MMR loss observed was comparable to that in the Western UTUC cohort, supporting universal UTUC screening in China. Furthermore, a subset of advanced UTUCs with MMR protein loss are probably immunogenic, for whom single or combined immunotherapy may be potential therapeutic options in the future.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 959174, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389243

RESUMO

Stress in life is ubiquitous and unavoidable. Prolonged exposure to severe stress can lead to physical intolerance and impair cognitive function. Non-human primates are considered to be the best animal model for studying cognitive function, especially memory and attention. The finger maze test, with the advantages of short training time and lower cost, is recommended to evaluate learning and memory in non-human primates. In this study, we modified the finger maze test method to evaluate the cognitive function of single-housed cynomolgus monkeys. The flexibility and attention of cynomolgus monkeys were assessed by performing the complex task test and the stranger intrusion interference test, respectively, which increased the difficulty of obtaining rewards, and the ability of long-term memory was also evaluated by the memory test. Furthermore, the changes in cognitive function of the cynomolgus monkeys were tested by using the finger maze test after audio-visual stimulation, and the changes in the cortisol levels during stimulation were also analyzed. We found that, after completing the learning test, there was no significant decrease in their success rate when monkeys processed multitasks at the same time. In the stranger intrusion interference test, all subjects were distracted, but the accuracy did not decrease. The monkeys completed the memory tests in the 1st and 2nd months after the learning tests, with a high success rate. However, the success rate decreased significantly at the end of the 4th month. During audio-visual stimulation, the plasma cortisol level significantly increased in the first 2 months and was maintained at a high level thereafter. One month after audio-visual stimulation, the accuracy of the memory test was significantly reduced, and the total time of distraction was significantly prolonged. In conclusion, chronic audio-visual stimulation can increase blood cortisol levels and impair cognitive function. The modified finger maze test can evaluate many aspects of cognitive function and assess the changes in the cognitive function of adult cynomolgus monkeys under stress.

13.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 899799, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394018

RESUMO

Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most injurious parts of the knee in the biomechanical environment during landing actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower limb differences in movement patterns, muscle forces and ACL forces during drop landing (DL), drop vertical jump (DVJ) and forward vertical jump (FVJ). Methods: Eleven basketball and volleyball female college athletes (Division II and I) were recruited. Landing actions of DL, DVJ and FVJ, kinematics and dynamics data were collected synchronously using a motion capture system. OpenSim was used to calculate the ACL load, knee joint angle and moment, and muscle force. Results: At initial contact, different landing movements influenced knee flexion angle; DL action was significantly less than FVJ action (p = 0.046). Different landing actions affected quadriceps femoris forces; FVJ was significantly greater than DL and DVJ actions (p = 0.002 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, different landing movements had no significant effects on other variables (knee extension moment, knee valgus angle and moment, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces, and ACL forces) (p > 0.050). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the knee valgus, knee valgus moment, and the ACL forces between the three landing actions. However, knee flexion angle, knee extension moments sagittal factors, and quadriceps and gastrocnemius forces are critical factors for ACL injury. The DL action had a significantly smaller knee flexion angle, which may increase the risk of ACL injury, and not recommended to assess the risk of ACL injuries. The FVJ action had a larger knee flexion angle and higher quadriceps femoris forces that were more in line with daily training and competition needs. Therefore, it is recommended to use FVJ action in future studies on risk assessment of ACL injuries and injury prevention in female college athletes.

14.
Exp Hematol ; 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400314

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia (AA) secondary to radiotherapy presents a difficult situation in the treatment of both the malignant tumor and the AA itself. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of avatrombopag (AVA), a thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA), in patients with AA secondary to chemoradiotherapy. In this retrospective study, patients with malignant tumors who were diagnosed with AA after radiotherapy and chemotherapy and accepted AVA between September 2020 and October 2021 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) were selected. A total of 34 patients were enrolled, including 13 (38.2%) males and the median age was 60 (20-71) years. At a median of 8 (6-18) months follow-up, the overall response rates (ORRs) at 1, 3 and 6 months were 32.4%, 55.9% and 58.8%, respectively, and the complete response (CR) rates were 5.9%, 14.7% and 23.5%, respectively. The median time to respond was 3 (1-6) months. 15.0% of patients relapsed during follow-up, but no clonal evolution was noticed. Mild side effects were observed in 17.6% of patients without drug withdrawal. At the end of follow-up, 17.6% of patients had tumors relapsed. Four patients died, 3 from tumor relapse and 1 from cerebral hemorrhage. The ORR and CRR did not correlate with eltrombopag (ELT) prior to AVA (p>0.05) but increased when the total exposure of AVA increased (p=0.011), and the threshold for AVA response was a cumulative dose above 3000mg (p=0.013). AVA yielded good response and tolerance in patients treated for AA secondary to chemoradiotherapy and a higher dose may correlate with a better response.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 859(Pt 1): 160210, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395845

RESUMO

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a vital reactive carbonyl compound, which plays an important role in the photochemical process and atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, the current studies on the quantification of HCHO impacts on atmospheric photochemistry in southeast coastal areas of China with an obvious upward trend of ozone remain scarce and unclear, thus limiting the full understanding of formation mechanism and control strategy of photochemical pollution. Here, systematic field campaigns were conducted at a typical coastal urban site with good air quality to reveal HCHO mechanism and effects on O3 pollution mechanism during spring and autumn, when photochemical pollution events still frequently appeared. Positive Matrix Factorization model results showed that secondary photochemical formation made the largest contributions to HCHO (69 %) in this study. Based on the photochemical model, the HCHO loss rates in autumn were significantly higher than those in spring (P < 0.05), indicating that strong photochemical conditions constrain high HCHO levels in certain situations. HCHO mechanism increased the ROx concentrations by 36 %, and increased net O3 production rates by 31 %, manifesting that the reduction of HCHO and its precursors' emissions would effectively mitigate O3 pollution. Therefore, the pollution characteristics and photochemical effects of HCHO provided significant guidance for future photochemical pollution control in relatively clean areas.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 223(Pt A): 821-829, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347376

RESUMO

A suitable carrier for flax lignans using Soybean protein isolated (SPI) - κ-carrageenan (KC) hydrogels was developed. The effects of KC concentration on the stability of hydrogels were investigated, as well as water holding capacity (WHC), syneresis and morphological changes. A solid-like gel network and viscoelasticity of composite hydrogels were confirmed by rheological behavior test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed a dense and uniform structure for hydrogels with the optimum KC concentration (0.6 %). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curves suggested lignan might interact with SPI and KC by hydrogen bonding or hydrophobic effects. The release of flax lignans in hydrogels was followed with Fick diffusion in simulated gastric fluids (SGF) and non-Fickian diffusion in simulated intestinal fluids (SIF), respectively. The cumulative release rate of flax lignan in complex gels (46.00 %) was lower than that of pure SPI hydrogels (77.43 %) at the end of digestion. The results indicated that KC protected the protein by hindering the accession of digestive enzymes into the hydrogels, thus resulting in a reduction of gel matrix erosion and lignan release during digestion. These findings shield a light on SPI-KC hydrogels as carriers for water-soluble bioactive compounds in food and pharmaceutical industries.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 981403, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387869

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the application value of a generally trained artificial intelligence (AI) automatic diagnosis system in the malignancy diagnosis of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions (FPTL), including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), adenomatoid hyperplasia nodule (AHN) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and compare the diagnostic performance with radiologists of different experience levels. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 607 patients with 699 thyroid nodules that included 168 malignant nodules by using postoperative pathology as the gold standard, and compared the diagnostic performances of three radiologists (one junior, two senior) and that of AI automatic diagnosis system in malignancy diagnosis of FPTL in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, respectively. Pairwise t-test was used to evaluate the statistically significant difference. Results: The accuracy of the AI system in malignancy diagnosis was 0.71, which was higher than the best radiologist in this study by a margin of 0.09 with a p-value of 2.08×10-5. Two radiologists had higher sensitivity (0.84 and 0.78) than that of the AI system (0.69) at the cost of having much lower specificity (0.35, 0.57 versus 0.71). One senior radiologist showed balanced sensitivity and specificity (0.62 and 0.54) but both were lower than that of the AI system. Conclusions: The generally trained AI automatic diagnosis system can potentially assist radiologists for distinguishing FTC from other FPTL cases that share poorly distinguishable ultrasonographical features.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
18.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359981

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are generally added in considerable amounts to food as a food additive. Oral exposure to TiO2 NPs could induce intestinal damage, especially in obese individuals with a high-fat diet. The probiotic Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) exhibits good resistance in the gastrointestinal system and is beneficial to intestinal health. In this study, B. coagulans was used to treat intestinal damage caused by TiO2 NPs in high-fat-diet mice via two intervention methods: administration of TiO2 NPs and B. coagulans simultaneously and administration of TiO2 NPs followed by that of B. coagulans. The intervention with B. coagulans was found to reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. A 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that B. coagulans had increased the diversity of gut microbiota and optimized the composition of gut microbiota. Fecal metabolomics analysis indicated that B. coagulans had restored the homeostasis of sphingolipids and amino acid metabolism. The intervention strategy of administering TiO2 NPs followed by B. coagulans was found to be more effective. In conclusion, B. coagulans could alleviate intestinal damage induced by TiO2 NPs in high-fat-diet mice TiO2B. coagulans. Our results suggest a new avenue for interventions against intestinal damage induced by TiO2 NPs.

19.
Mater Today Bio ; 17: 100469, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340590

RESUMO

Recurrent low back pain after spinal surgeries, such as lumbar laminectomy, is a major complication of excessive epidural fibrosis. Although multiple preclinical and clinical methods have been aimed at ameliorating epidural fibrosis, their safety and efficacy remain largely unclear. Single implanted electrospun fibrous membranes provide physical barriers that can decrease tissue fibrosis after surgery; however, they also trigger local inflammation due to the implantation of a foreign body, thus subsequently attenuating their anti-fibrosis properties. Here, we designed a strategy that permits easy incorporation of mefloquine into polylactic acid membranes, and stable long-term mefloquine release, to potentially improve anti-fibrosis effects and relieve or prevent low back pain. The electrospun fibrous membranes grafted with mefloquine showed a well-controlled early temporary peak release, and secondary drug release occurred smoothly over several weeks. Histopathological and histomorphometric results indicated that the drug-loaded membranes had excellent anti-fibrosis effects after laminectomy in rats. Inflammation and neovascularization at the surgical site indicated that the mefloquine-grafted electrospun fibrous membranes provided sustained anti-inflammatory outcomes while effectively alleviating associated neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. In summary, our study indicated that polylactic acid-mefloquine grafted electrospun fibrous membranes may be a potential local agent to mitigate epidural fibrosis and support sensory neurological function after laminectomy, thereby potentially improving patients' postoperative outcomes.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 979816, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340704

RESUMO

Background: The relationship of trunk balance with head posture and plantar pressure is unknown in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Objective: To investigate the relationship of trunk balance with head posture and plantar pressure by analyzing the imaging data of patients with AIS. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was performed on 80 AIS patients who had whole spine frontal and lateral radiographs, and the imaging parameters were measured and analyzed. Results: The coronal trunk imbalance rate was 67.5%, the trunk offset direction was towards left in 65 cases and right in 15 cases, and the head offset direction was towards left in 66 cases and right in 14 cases. The sagittal trunk imbalance rate was 57.25%. The distance of apical vertebrae and head offset in the coronal trunk balance group was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than that in the imbalance group. The apical vertebrae offset distance and head offset distance were positively correlated with the tilt angle of trunk (r = 0.484 and 0.642, respectively, P < 0.05). The difference in the percentage of pressure load on the left and right foot was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the coronal imbalance group than that in the balance group.The center of pressure (COP) sway area was significantly (P < 0.05) larger in the overall trunk imbalance group (both coronal and sagittal imbalance) than in the balanced group. Conclusion: Most AIS patients have trunk imbalance which is severer on the coronal than on the sagittal plane. AIS patients with trunk imbalance show more significant local deformities, greater head offset, greater COP sway area, and decreased head and standing stability.

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