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1.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587399

RESUMO

Catheter-related infection (CRI) is a common nosocomial infection caused by candida albicans during catheter implantation. Typically, biofilms are formed on the outer surface of the catheter and lead to disseminated infections, which are fatal to patients. There are no effective prevention and treatment management in clinics. Therefore, it is urgent to establish an animal model of CRI for the preclinical screening of new strategies for its prevention and treatment. In this study, a polyethylene catheter, a widely used medical catheter, was inserted into the back of the BALB/c mice after hair removal. Candida albicans ATCC MYA-2876 (SC5314) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein was subsequently inoculated on the skin's surface along the catheter. Intense fluorescence was observed on the surface of the catheter under a fluorescent microscope 3 days later. Mature and thick biofilms were found on the surface of the catheter via scanning electron microscopy. These results indicated the adhesion, colonization, and biofilm formation of candida albicans on the surface of the catheter. The hyperplasia of the epidermis and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin specimens indicated the histopathological changes of the CRI-associated skin. To sum up, a mouse CRI model was successfully established. This model is expected to be helpful in the research and development of therapeutic management for candida albicans associated CRI.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Cateteres , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Biofilmes , Antifúngicos
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 132: 111938, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a disease characterized by infection-induced multiorgan dysfunction, which can progress to septic shock if not promptly treated. Early identification of sepsis is crucial for its treatment. However, there are currently limited specific biomarkers for sepsis or septic shock. This study aims to identify potential biomarkers for sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: We analyzed single-cell transcriptomic data of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals, sepsis and septic shock patients, identified differences in gene expression and cell-cell communication between different cell types during disease progression. Moreover, our analyses were further validated with flow cytometry and bulk RNA-seq data. RESULTS: Our study elucidates the alterations in cellular proportions and cell-cell communication among healthy controls, sepsis, and septic shock patients. We identified a specific augmentation in the Resistin signaling within sepsis monocytes, mediated via RETN-CAP1 ligand-receptor pairs. Additionally, we observed enhanced IL16 signaling within monocytes from septic shock patients, mediated through IL16-CD4 ligand-receptor pairs. Subsequently, we confirmed our findings by validating the increase in CAP-1+ monocytes in sepsis and IL16+ monocytes in septic shock in mouse models. And a significant upregulation of CAP-1 and IL16 was also observed in the bulk RNA-seq data from patients with sepsis and septic shock. Furthermore, we identified four distinct clusters of CD14+ monocytes, highlighting the heterogeneity of monocytes in the progress of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our work demonstrates changes in cell-cell communication of healthy controls, sepsis and septic shock, confirming that the molecules CAP-1 and IL16 on monocytes may serve as potential diagnostic markers for sepsis and septic shock, respectively. These findings provide new insights for early diagnosis and stratified treatment of the disease.

3.
Opt Express ; 32(7): 11323-11336, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570982

RESUMO

The lensless camera with incoherent illumination has gained significant research interest for its thin and flexible structure. However, it faces challenges in resolving scenes with a wide depth of field (DoF) due to its depth-dependent point spread function (PSF). In this paper, we present a single-shot method for extending the DoF in Fresnel zone aperture (FZA) cameras at visible wavelengths through passive depth estimation. The improved ternary search method is utilized to determine the depth of targets rapidly by evaluating the sharpness of the back propagation reconstruction. Based on the depth estimation results, a set of reconstructed images focused on targets at varying depths are derived from the encoded image. After that, the DoF is extended through focus stacking. The experimental results demonstrate an 8-fold increase compared with the calibrated DoF at 130 mm depth. Moreover, our depth estimation method is five times faster than the traversal method, while maintaining the same level of accuracy. The proposed method facilitates the development of lensless imaging in practical applications such as photography, microscopy, and surveillance.

4.
Biomed Eng Online ; 23(1): 38, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After stroke, restoring safe, independent, and efficient walking is a top rehabilitation priority. However, in nearly 70% of stroke survivors asymmetrical walking patterns and reduced walking speed persist. This case series study aims to investigate the effectiveness of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) in enhancing walking ability of persons with chronic stroke. METHODS: Eight participants with hemiparesis after a single, chronic stroke were enrolled. Each participant was assigned to either the Stim group (N = 4, gait training + tSCS) or Control group (N = 4, gait training alone). Each participant in the Stim group was matched to a participant in the Control group based on age, time since stroke, and self-selected gait speed. For the Stim group, tSCS was delivered during gait training via electrodes placed on the skin between the spinous processes of C5-C6, T11-T12, and L1-L2. Both groups received 24 sessions of gait training over 8 weeks with a physical therapist providing verbal cueing for improved gait symmetry. Gait speed (measured from 10 m walk test), endurance (measured from 6 min walk test), spatiotemporal gait symmetries (step length and swing time), as well as the neurophysiological outcomes (muscle synergy, resting motor thresholds via spinal motor evoked responses) were collected without tSCS at baseline, completion, and 3 month follow-up. RESULTS: All four Stim participants sustained spatiotemporal symmetry improvements at the 3 month follow-up (step length: 17.7%, swing time: 10.1%) compared to the Control group (step length: 1.1%, swing time 3.6%). Additionally, 3 of 4 Stim participants showed increased number of muscle synergies and/or lowered resting motor thresholds compared to the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides promising preliminary evidence that using tSCS as a therapeutic catalyst to gait training may increase the efficacy of gait rehabilitation in individuals with chronic stroke. Trial registration NCT03714282 (clinicaltrials.gov), registration date: 2018-10-18.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Marcha/fisiologia , Sobreviventes
5.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592851

RESUMO

Receptor kinases DRUS1 (Dwarf and Runtish Spikelet1) and DRUS2 are orthologues of the renowned Arabidopsis thaliana gene FERONIA, which play redundant roles in rice growth and development. Whether the two duplicated genes perform distinct functions in response to environmental stress is largely unknown. Here, we found that osmotic stress (OS) and ABA increased DRUS1 expression while decreasing DRUS2. When subjected to osmotic stress, the increased DRUS1 in drus2 mutants suppresses the OsIAA repressors, resulting in a robust root system with an increased number of adventitious and lateral roots as well as elongated primary, adventitious, and lateral roots, conferring OS tolerance. In contrast, the decreased DRUS2 in drus1-1 mutants are not sufficient to suppress OsIAA repressors, leading to a feeble root system with fewer adventitious and lateral roots and hindering seminal root growth, rendering OS intolerance. All these findings offer valuable insights into the biological significance of the duplication of two homologous genes in rice, wherein, if one is impaired, the other one is able to continue auxin-signaling-mediated root growth and development to favor resilience to environmental stress, such as water shortage.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563409

RESUMO

A newly discovered trihydroxynaphthalenone derivative, epoxynaphthalenone (1) involving the condensation of ortho-hydroxyl groups into an epoxy structure, and a novel pyrone metabolite characterized as pyroneaceacid (2), were extracted from Talaromyces purpurpgenus, an endophytic fungus residing in Rhododendron molle. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through a comprehensive analysis of their NMR and HRESIMS data. The determination of absolute configurations was accomplished using electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations and CD spectra. Notably, these recently identified metabolites exhibited a moderate inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XOD).

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598717

RESUMO

Oral ingestion of probiotics is a promising approach to relieving inflammatory disease through regulating the gut microbiota. A newly discovered strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CY12 (LCY12), obtained from cattle-yak milk, displayed numerous probiotic properties. These included enhanced viability in low pH and bile environments, adhesion capabilities, and potent antimicrobial effects. The research aimed to explore the beneficial impacts of the novel LCY12 strain on colitis in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results of the study showed that administration of LCY12 effectively helped to reduce the negative effects of DSS-induced body weight loss, disease activity index score, colon length shortening, loss of goblet cells, and overall histopathological scores in the intestines. Simultaneously, LCY12 administration significantly alleviated intestinal inflammation and safeguarded intestinal barrier integrity by enhancing IL-10 levels, while dampening IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α production. Additionally, LCY12 boosted the presence of tight junction proteins. Furthermore, LCY12 hindered the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway by downregulating TLR4 and MyD88 expression, inactivating phosphorylated IκBα, and preventing translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The LCY12 also increased specific intestinal microbial communities and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Altogether, LCY12 oral administration alleviated colitis induced with DSS in mice by improving intestinal barrier function and regulating inflammatory cytokines, SCFA production, and intestinal microbiota.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2400626, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476058

RESUMO

Engineering porous organic polymers (POPs) into 1D morphology holds significant promise for diverse applications due to their exceptional processability and increased surface contact for enhanced interactions with guest molecules. This article reviews the latest developments in nanofibrous POPs and their derivatives, encompassing porous organic polymer nanofibers, their composites, and POPs-derived carbon nanofibers. The review delves into the design and fabrication strategies, elucidates the formation mechanisms, explores their functional attributes, and highlights promising applications. The first section systematically outlines two primary fabrication approaches of nanofibrous POPs, i.e., direct bulk synthesis and electrospinning technology. Both routes are discussed and compared in terms of template utilization and post-treatments. Next, performance of nanofibrous POPs and their derivatives are reviewed for applications including water treatment, water/oil separation, gas adsorption, energy storage, heterogeneous catalysis, microwave absorption, and biomedical systems. Finally, highlighting existent challenges and offering future prospects of nanofibrous POPs and their derivatives are concluded.

9.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 10(1): 62-68, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450304

RESUMO

Background: This study assessed the effect of standardized efficacy markers on prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) during the induction phase of treatment with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (BCD). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data in 197 newly diagnosed MM patients treated with BCD as front-line regimen at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. Results: There were 107 patients with International Staging System (ISS) III and 51 with paraprotein of light chain. Of these, 77 completed nine cycles of the BCD regimen. As the number of treatment cycles increased, the proportions of serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) tests elevated from 40.39% to 62.22% and 16.75% to 37.78%, respectively. More than 90% of intact immunoglobulin chain MM patients were evaluated for blood M protein per cycle, but that of urinary M protein was less than 60%. The detection rate of urinary M protein in light chain MM was more than 70% per cycle. Patients with a very good partial response (VGPR) had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than those with uncertain VGPR (32 vs. 26 months, p = 0.0336). Of the 141 patients who completed at least four cycles without undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, those who were regularly assessed at every other cycle showed more favorable PFS than those who visited irregularly (27 vs. 22 months, p = 0.059). Conclusion: Urinary M protein detection rate is significantly lower than that in serum, leading to an overestimation of efficacy, premature reduction of treatment intensity, and shortened PFS. Precise response assessments are critical to treatment decisions and clinical diagnoses.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(5): e26854, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463769

RESUMO

Background: Studies have been inconclusive on the risk for hemorrhage in patients with a history of aspirin use who underwent emergency external ventricular drainage (EVD)/intracranial pressure (ICP) probe placement. The aim of this study was to explore hemorrhage-related risk factors in order to reduce the risk for hemorrhage in these patients. Methods: Between July 2014 and July 2020, patients were retrospectively divided into EVD/ICP-related hemorrhage and non-hemorrhage groups. The collected data included age, gender, major diagnosis, medical history, imaging examinations, conventional coagulation test data, thromboelastography with platelet mapping (TEG-PM), surgical procedures and discharge conditions. Results: In total 94 patients, 21 in the hemorrhage group (15 males, 6 females) and 73 in the non-hemorrhage group (52 males, 21 females) were included. The majority of hemorrhages were recorded in EVD patients (19/21; 90.5%). Platelet AA pathway inhibition rate of ≥75% (sensitivity: 79.45% specificity: 52.38%) (P = 0.014) and SBP ≥125 mmHg (P = 0.006) were significantly related to hemorrhage. When the platelet AA pathway inhibition rate was ≥75% and the during-procedure SBP was ≥125 mmHg, the hemorrhage rate was significantly higher (83.3%) than with SBP <125 mmHg (6.7%) (P < 0.001). When the inhibition rate was <75%, there were no significant differences in the hemorrhage rates between the during-procedure SBP ≥125 mmHg group (17.2%) and the SBP <125 mmHg group (13.2%) (P > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a platelet AA pathway inhibition rate ≥75% (OR = 5.183, 95% CI: 1.683-15.960) and during-procedure SBP ≥125 mmHg (OR = 4.609, 95% CI: 1.466-14.484) were independent risk factors for EVD/ICP-related hemorrhage. Conclusion: Patients with long-term aspirin therapy, a platelet AA pathway inhibition rate ≥75% and during-procedure SBP ≥125 mmHg had a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage, which could be reduced by adjusting the SBP to <125 mmHg.

11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469752

RESUMO

Phytochemical study on 90% ethanol extract from the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. resulted into the isolation of three undescribed triterpenoids, juglansmanoids A-C (1-3). Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated components were evaluated in vitro for anti-hyaluronidase activities. As a result, triterpenoid 1 exhibited potent anti-hyaluronidase activity (IC50 = 9.78 µg/ml) three times more than the positive control drug oleanolic acid (IC50 = 40.12 µg/ml).

12.
Hand Surg Rehabil ; : 101679, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical application and efficacy of transplantation of free composite flaps supplied by radial osteocutaneous branch of the dorsal branch of the anterior interosseous artery for reconstructing bone and skin defects in the hand. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anatomically, the radial osteocutaneous branch of the dorsal branch of the anterior interosseous artery has constant collateral anastomoses which can provide a large dorsoradial flap from the dorsum of the forearm. This flap was used for reconstruction in five cases of cutaneous and phalangeal defects. RESULTS: Reconstruction was successful in all five cases, with consolidated phalanx and good cosmetic results. All donor sites could be closed directly. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction with dorsoradial forearm flaps is a reliable procedure which causes minimal trauma. Thus, it is an ideal approach for repairing cutaneous and phalangeal defects.

13.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 36(1): 17-24, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455371

RESUMO

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing annually and metastasis is the principal cause of death in patients with CRC, with the liver being the most frequently affected site. Many studies have shown a strong interplay between the gut flora, particularly Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis, and the development of gut tumors. Some strains can induce gut inflammation and produce toxins that directly harm gut epithelial cells, ultimately accelerating the onset and progression of CRC. However, little clinical evidence exists on the specific interplay between the gut microflora and colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM). Some research showed the existence of viable F. nucleatum in distant metastasis of CRC. Subsequently, gut microbiota products, such as lipopolysaccharides, sodium butyrate, and protein cathepsin K, were also found to affect the development of CRC. This article summarizes the mechanism and research status of the interplay between gut microflora and CRLM, discusses the importance of gut microflora in the treatment of CRLM, and proposes a new approach to understanding the mechanism of CRLM and potential treatments for the microbiome. It is anticipated that the gut microbiota will be a formidable therapeutic and prophylactic tool for treating and preventing CRLM.

14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(3): e13754, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476031

RESUMO

This study examined the levels of soluble CD146 (sCD146) in plasma samples from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and assessed the relationship between sCD146 and the severity of COPD. A total of 97 COPD patients were recruited from 20 medical centers in Jiangsu, China, including 13 stable subjects and 84 exacerbated subjects. The plasma sCD146 level in exacerbated subjects (28.77 ± 10.80 ng/mL) was significantly lower than that in stable subjects (38.84 ± 15.00 ng/mL). In the high sCD146 group, the proportion of subjects with modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores of 0-1 was higher, the proportion of subjects with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 4 was lower, and the proportion of subjects with ≥1 hospitalizations in the past year was lower. The plasma sCD146 level was negatively correlated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score (r = -0.2664, p = 0.0087). Logistic regression analysis showed that sCD146 was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that sCD146 combined with sex, age, pulmonary function, and acute exacerbations in the past year had clinical value for the accurate identification of AECOPD, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.908 (95% CI: 0.810-1.000, p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma sCD146 and S100A9 (r = -0.3939, p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Biomarcadores , Fatores de Risco , Hospitalização , Progressão da Doença
15.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473661

RESUMO

Resonator-enhanced electro-optical (EO) combs could generate a series of comb lines with high coherence and stability. Recently, EO comb based on thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) has begun to show great potential thanks to the high second-order nonlinearity coefficient of lithium niobate crystal. Here we demonstrate that EO comb envelope engineering based on mode crossing induced a quality factor reduction in the TFLN racetrack microcavity both in the numerical simulation and experiment. Our method paves the way for the generation of EO combs with an arbitrary envelope.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464082

RESUMO

Neuromodulation is a powerful tool for fundamental studies in neuroscience and potential treatments of neurological disorders. Both photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) effects have been harnessed for non-genetic high-precision neural stimulation. Using a fiber-based device excitable by a nanosecond pulsed laser and a continuous wave laser for PA and PT stimulation, respectively, we systematically investigated PA and PT neuromodulation at the single neuron level. Our results show that to achieve the same level of cell activation recorded by Ca2+ imaging the laser energy needed for PA neurostimulation is 1/40 of that needed for PT stimulation. The threshold energy for PA stimulation is found to be further reduced in neurons overexpressing mechano-sensitive channels, indicating direct involvement of mechano-sensitive channels in PA stimulation. Electrophysiology study of single neurons upon PA and PT stimulation was performed by patch clamp recordings. Electrophysiological features stimulated by PA are distinct from those induced by PT, confirming that PA and PT stimulations operate through distinct mechanisms. These insights offer a foundation for rational design of more efficient and safer non-genetic neural modulation approaches.

17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasively and accurately predicting subcarinal lymph node metastasis (SLNM) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains challenging. This study was designed to develop and validate a tumor and subcarinal lymph nodes (tumor-SLNs) dual-region computed tomography (CT) radiomics model for predicting SLNM in NSCLC. METHODS: This retrospective study included NSCLC patients who underwent lung resection and SLNs dissection between January 2017 and December 2020. The radiomic features of the tumor and SLNs were extracted from preoperative CT, respectively. Ninety machine learning (ML) models were developed based on tumor region, SLNs region, and tumor-SLNs dual-region. The model performance was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) and validated internally by fivefold cross-validation. RESULTS: In total, 202 patients were included in this study. ML models based on dual-region radiomics showed good performance for SLNM prediction, with a median AUC of 0.794 (range, 0.686-0.880), which was superior to those of models based on tumor region (median AUC, 0.746; range, 0.630-0.811) and SLNs region (median AUC, 0.700; range, 0.610-0.842). The ML model, which is developed by using the naive Bayes algorithm and dual-region features, had the highest AUC of 0.880 (range of cross-validation, 0.825-0.937) among all ML models. The optimal logistic regression model was inferior to the optimal ML model for predicting SLNM, with an AUC of 0.727. CONCLUSIONS: The CT radiomics showed the potential for accurately predicting SLNM in NSCLC patients. The ML model with dual-region radiomic features has better performance than the logistic regression or single-region models.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 390(11): 994-1008, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent hemolytic anemia and a lack of oral treatments are challenges for patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria who have received anti-C5 therapy or have not received complement inhibitors. Iptacopan, a first-in-class oral factor B inhibitor, has been shown to improve hemoglobin levels in these patients. METHODS: In two phase 3 trials, we assessed iptacopan monotherapy over a 24-week period in patients with hemoglobin levels of less than 10 g per deciliter. In the first, anti-C5-treated patients were randomly assigned to switch to iptacopan or to continue anti-C5 therapy. In the second, single-group trial, patients who had not received complement inhibitors and who had lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels more than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range received iptacopan. The two primary end points in the first trial were an increase in the hemoglobin level of at least 2 g per deciliter from baseline and a hemoglobin level of at least 12 g per deciliter, each without red-cell transfusion; the primary end point for the second trial was an increase in hemoglobin level of at least 2 g per deciliter from baseline without red-cell transfusion. RESULTS: In the first trial, 51 of the 60 patients who received iptacopan had an increase in the hemoglobin level of at least 2 g per deciliter from baseline, and 42 had a hemoglobin level of at least 12 g per deciliter, each without transfusion; none of the 35 anti-C5-treated patients attained the end-point levels. In the second trial, 31 of 33 patients had an increase in the hemoglobin level of at least 2 g per deciliter from baseline without red-cell transfusion. In the first trial, 59 of the 62 patients who received iptacopan and 14 of the 35 anti-C5-treated patients did not require or receive transfusion; in the second trial, no patients required or received transfusion. Treatment with iptacopan increased hemoglobin levels, reduced fatigue, reduced reticulocyte and bilirubin levels, and resulted in mean LDH levels that were less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range. Headache was the most frequent adverse event with iptacopan. CONCLUSIONS: Iptacopan treatment improved hematologic and clinical outcomes in anti-C5-treated patients with persistent anemia - in whom iptacopan showed superiority to anti-C5 therapy - and in patients who had not received complement inhibitors. (Funded by Novartis; APPLY-PNH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04558918; APPOINT-PNH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04820530.).


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica , Fator B do Complemento , Inativadores do Complemento , Hemoglobinas , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Humanos , Administração Oral , Anemia Hemolítica/complicações , Complemento C5/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator B do Complemento/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/administração & dosagem , Inativadores do Complemento/efeitos adversos , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Biomater Sci ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498328

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks among the most prevalent cancers globally, demanding innovative therapeutic strategies. Immunotherapy, a promising avenue, employs cancer vaccines to activate the immune system against tumors. However, conventional approaches fall short of eliciting robust responses within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where CRC originates. Harnessing the potential of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine (CpG), we developed layered nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer assembly method to co-deliver these agents. ATRA, crucial for gut immunity, was efficiently encapsulated alongside CpG within these nanoparticles. Administering these ATRA@CpG-NPs, combined with ovalbumin peptide (OVA), effectively inhibited orthotopic CRC growth in mice. Our approach leveraged the inherent benefits of ATRA and CpG, demonstrating superior efficacy in activating dendritic cells, imprinting T cells with gut-homing receptors, and inhibiting tumor growth. This mucosal adjuvant presents a promising strategy for CRC immunotherapy, showcasing the potential for targeting gut-associated immune responses in combating colorectal malignancies.

20.
Comput Biol Med ; 172: 108290, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503097

RESUMO

Generative Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved significant success in various natural language processing tasks, including Question-Answering (QA) and dialogue systems. However, most models are trained on English data and lack strong generalization in providing answers in Chinese. This limitation is especially evident in specialized domains like traditional Chinese medical QA, where performance suffers due to the absence of fine-tuning and high-quality datasets. To address this, we introduce MedChatZH, a dialogue model optimized for Chinese medical QA based on transformer decoder with LLaMA architecture. Continued pre-training on a curated corpus of Chinese medical books is followed by fine-tuning with a carefully selected medical instruction dataset, resulting in MedChatZH outperforming several Chinese dialogue baselines on a real-world medical dialogue dataset. Our model, code, and dataset are publicly available on GitHub (https://github.com/tyang816/MedChatZH) to encourage further research in traditional Chinese medicine and LLMs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Povo Asiático , Idioma , Encaminhamento e Consulta
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