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3.
ACS Macro Lett ; : 468-474, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574471

RESUMO

Glycopolymer-based supramolecular glycoassemblies with signal-driven cascade morphological deformation and accessible surface engineering toward bioinspired functional glycomaterials have attracted much attention due to their diverse applications in fundamental and practical scenarios. Herein, we achieved the cascade morphological transformation and surface engineering of a nucleobase-containing polymeric glycovesicle through exploiting the bioinspired complementary multiple hydrogen bonds of complementary nucleobases. First, the synthesized thymine-containing glycopolymers (PGal30-b-PTAm249) are capable of self-assembling into well-defined glycovesicles. Several kinds of amphiphilic adenine-containing block copolymers with neutral, positive, and negative charges were synthesized to engineer the glycovesicles through the multiple hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine. A cascade of morphological transformations from vesicles to ruptured vesicles with tails, to worm-like micelles, and finally to spherical micelles were observed via continuously adding the adenine-containing polymer into the thymine-containing glycovesicles. Furthermore, the surface charge properties of these glyconano-objects can be facilely regulated through incorporating various adenine-containing polymers. This work demonstrates the potential application of a unique bioinspired approach to precisely engineer the morphology and surface properties of glycovesicles for boosting their biological applications.

4.
Dev Cell ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574734

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in early embryonic development, but factors regulating TF action, relationships in signaling cascade, genome-wide localizations, and impacts on cell fate transitions during this process have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we used uliCUT&RUN-seq to delineate a TFAP2C-centered regulatory network, showing that it involves promoter-enhancer interactions and regulates TEAD4 and KLF5 function to mediate cell polarization. Notably, we found that maternal retinoic acid metabolism regulates TFAP2C expression and function by inducing the active demethylation of SINEs, indicating that the RARG-TFAP2C-TEAD4/KLF5 axis connects the maternal-to-zygotic transition to polarization. Moreover, we found that both genomic imprinting and SNP-transferred genetic information can influence TF positioning to regulate parental gene expressions in a sophisticated manner. In summary, we propose a ternary model of TF regulation in murine embryonic development with TFAP2C as the core element and metabolic, epigenetic, and genetic information as nodes connecting the pathways.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589688

RESUMO

Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), an immune checkpoint molecule expressed on activated T cells, functions as a negative regulator of immune responses. Persistent antigen exposure in the tumor microenvironment results in sustained LAG3 expression on T cells, contributing to T cell dysfunction. Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1) has been identified as a major ligand of LAG3, and FGL1/LAG3 interaction forms a novel immune checkpoint pathway that results in tumor immune evasion. In addition, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 7 (USP7) plays a crucial role in cancer development. In this study we investigated the role of USP7 in modulation of FGL1-mediated liver cancer immune evasion. We showed that knockdown of USP7 or treatment with USP7 inhibitor P5091 suppressed liver cancer growth by promoting CD8+ T cell activity in Hepa1-6 xenograft mice and in HepG2 or Huh7 cells co-cultured with T cells, whereas USP7 overexpression produced the opposite effect. We found that USP7 upregulated FGL1 in HepG2 and Huh7 cells by deubiquitination of transcriptional factor PR domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which transcriptionally activated FGL1, and attenuated the CD8+ T cell activity, leading to the liver cancer growth. Interestingly, USP7 could be transcriptionally stimulated by PRDM1 as well in a positive feedback loop. P5091, an inhibitor of USP7, was able to downregulate FGL1 expression, thus enhancing CD8+ T cell activity. In an immunocompetent liver cancer mouse model, the dual blockade of USP7 and LAG3 resulted in a superior antitumor activity compared with anti-LAG3 therapy alone. We conclude that USP7 diminishes CD8+ T cell activity by a USP7/PRDM1 positive feedback loop on FGL1 production in liver cancer; USP7 might be a promising target for liver cancer immunotherapy.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and thyroid dysfunction are frequently observed in the same patient. However, whether they co-occur or exhibit a causal relationship remains uncertain. We aimed to systematically investigate the causal relationship between RA and thyroid function using a large sample and advanced methods. METHODS: Bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed based on RA and six thyroid function traits datasets in the European population. The robustness of the results was demonstrated using multiple MR methods and a series of sensitivity analyses. Multivariable MR using Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA) was performed to adjust for possible competing risk factors. A sensitivity dataset, which included patients with seropositive RA and controls, was used to repeat the analyses. Furthermore, enrichment analysis was employed to discover the underlying mechanism between RA and thyroid functions. RESULTS: A significantly positive causal effect was identified for RA on autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), as well as for AITD on RA (P < 0.001). Further sensitivity analyses showed consistent causal estimates from a variety of MR methods. After removing the outliers, MR-MBA results showed that RA and AITD were independent risk factors in their bi-directional causality, even in the presence of other competing risk factors (Padj < 0.05). Enrichment analysis showed immune cell activation and immune response play crucial roles in them. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate the significant bi-directional causal effect of RA and AITD, which holds even in multiple competing risk factors. Clinical screening for thyroid dysfunction in RA patients deserves further attention, and vice versa.

7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300852, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573993

RESUMO

Cancer treatment often creates logistic conflicts with everyday life priorities; however, these challenges and how they are subjectively experienced have been largely unaddressed in cancer care. Our goal was to describe time and logistic requirements of cancer care and whether and how they interfered with daily life and well-being. We conducted interviews with 20 adults receiving cancer-directed treatment at a single academic cancer center. We focused on participants' perception of the time, effort, and energy-intensiveness of cancer care activities, organization of care requirements, and preferences in how to manage the logistic burdens of their cancer care. Participant interview transcripts were analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Burdens related to travel, appointment schedules, healthcare system navigation, and consequences for relationships had roots both at the system-level (e.g. labs that were chronically delayed, protocol-centered rather than patient-centered bureaucratic requirements) and in individual circumstances (e.g. greater stressors among those working and/or have young children versus those who are retired) that determined subjective burdensomeness, which was highest among patients who experienced multiple sources of burdens simultaneously. Our study illustrates how objective burdens of cancer care translate into subjective burden depending on patient circumstances, emphasizing that to study burdens of care, an exclusive focus on objective measures does not capture the complexity of these issues. The complex interplay between healthcare system factors and individual circumstances points to clinical opportunities, for example helping patients to find ways to meet work and childcare requirements while receiving care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pacientes , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Neoplasias/terapia
8.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 44(2): 205-221, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575219

RESUMO

Microscopic examination of esophageal biopsies is essential to diagnose eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Eosinophil inflammation is the basis for the diagnosis, but additional abnormalities may contribute to persistent symptoms and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Both peak eosinophil count and assessments of additional features should be included in pre-therapy and post-therapy pathology reports. Pathologic abnormalities identified in esophageal biopsies of EoE are reversible in contrast to esophageal strictures.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastrite , Humanos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Eosinófilos , Biópsia
9.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 44(2): 369-381, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575230

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID), such as eosinophilic gastritis (EoG), eosinophilic enteritis, and eosinophilic colitis (EoC), are chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by persistent gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated levels of activated eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract. EoG and eosinophilic duodenitis (EoD) are strongly associated with food allergen triggers and TH2 inflammation, whereas EoC shows minimal transcriptomic overlap with other EGIDs. The level of expression of certain genes associated with TH2 immune response is associated with certain histopathologic findings of EoG, EoD, and EoC. Current immune therapy for EoG depletes tissue eosinophilia with persistence of other histopathologic features of disease.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Esofagite Eosinofílica , Gastrite , Humanos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/terapia , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/terapia , Inflamação
10.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 339, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cetaceans, having experienced prolonged adaptation to aquatic environments, have undergone evolutionary changes in their respiratory systems. This process of evolution has resulted in the emergence of distinctive phenotypic traits, notably the abundance of elastic fibers and thickened alveolar walls in their lungs, which may facilitate alveolar collapse during diving. This structure helps selective exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, while minimizing nitrogen exchange, thereby reducing the risk of DCS. Nevertheless, the scientific inquiry into the mechanisms through which these unique phenotypic characteristics govern the diving behavior of marine mammals, including cetaceans, remains unresolved. RESULTS: This study entails an evolutionary analysis of 42 genes associated with pulmonary fibrosis across 45 mammalian species. Twenty-one genes in cetaceans exhibited accelerated evolution, featuring specific amino acid substitutions in 14 of them. Primarily linked to the development of the respiratory system and lung morphological construction, these genes play a crucial role. Moreover, among marine mammals, we identified eight genes undergoing positive selection, and the evolutionary rates of three genes significantly correlated with diving depth. Specifically, the SFTPC gene exhibited convergent amino acid substitutions. Through in vitro cellular experiments, we illustrated that convergent amino acid site mutations in SFTPC contribute positively to pulmonary fibrosis in marine mammals, and the presence of this phenotype can induce deep alveolar collapse during diving, thereby reducing the risk of DCS during diving. CONCLUSIONS: The study unveils pivotal genetic signals in cetaceans and other marine mammals, arising through evolution. These genetic signals may influence lung characteristics in marine mammals and have been linked to a reduced risk of developing DCS. Moreover, the research serves as a valuable reference for delving deeper into human diving physiology.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Humanos , Cetáceos/genética , Cetáceos/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1334772, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571956

RESUMO

Background: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) ranks among the most prevalent thyroid diseases, with inflammatory cytokines playing a decisive role in its pathophysiological process. However, the causal relationship between the inflammatory cytokines and AITD remains elusive. Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to elucidate the causal connection between AITD and 41 inflammatory cytokines. Genetic variations associated with inflammatory cytokines were sourced from the FinnGen biobank, whereas a comprehensive meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) yielded data on Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Regarding the MR analysis, the inverse variance-weighted, MR-Egger, and weighted median methods were utilized. Additionally, sensitivity analysis was conducted using MR-Egger regression, MR-pleiotropy residual sum, and outliers. Results: Seven causal associations were identified between inflammatory cytokines and AITD. High levels of tumor necrosis factor-ß and low levels of stem cell growth factor-ß were indicative of a higher risk of GD. In contrast, high levels of interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70), IL-13, and interferon-γ and low levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α suggested a higher risk of HD. Moreover, 14 causal associations were detected between AITD and inflammatory cytokines. GD increases the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß, MCP-1, monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), stromal cell-derived factor-1α, platelet-derived growth factor BB, ß-nerve growth factor, IL-2ra, IL-4, and IL-17 in blood, whereas HD increases the levels of MIG, IL-2ra, IP-10, and IL-16 levels. Conclusion: Our bidirectional MR analysis revealed a causal relationship between inflammatory cytokines and AITD. These findings offer valuable insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AITD.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Doença de Hashimoto , Humanos , Interferon gama , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 12: 1376936, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559814

RESUMO

Introduction: Gene-edited pigs have become prominent models for studying human disease mechanisms, gene therapy, and xenotransplantation. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology is a widely employed tool for generating gene-edited pigs. Nevertheless, delivering CRISPR/Cas9 to pre-implantation embryos has traditionally posed challenges due to its reliance on intricate micromanipulation equipment and specialized techniques, resulting in high costs and time-consuming procedures. This study aims to introduce a novel one-step approach for generating genetically modified pigs by transducing CRISPR/Cas9 components into pre-implantation porcine embryos through oviductal injection of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV). Methods: We first used rAAV-1, rAAV-6, rAAV-8, rAAV-9 expressing EGFP to screen for rAAV serotypes that efficiently target porcine embryos, and then, to achieve efficient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 in vivo for a short period, we packaged sgRNAs targeting the GHR genes to self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV), and Cas9 proteins to single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV). The efficiency of porcine embryos -based editing was then validated in vitro. The feasibility of this one-step method to produce gene-edited pigs using rAAV-CRISPR/Cas9 oviductal injection into sows within 24 h of conception was then validated. Results: Our research firstly establishes the efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 to pig zygotes, both in vivo and in vitro, using rAAV6. Successful gene editing in pigs was achieved through oviductal injection of rAAV-CRISPR/Cas9. Conclusion: This method circumvents the intricate procedures involved in in vitro embryo manipulation and embryo transfers, providing a straightforward and cost-effective approach for the production of gene-edited pigs.

13.
ACS Nano ; 18(13): 9500-9510, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477715

RESUMO

Morphing textiles, crafted using electrochemical artificial muscle yarns, boast features such as adaptive structural flexibility, programmable control, low operating voltage, and minimal thermal effect. However, the progression of these textiles is still impeded by the challenges in the continuous production of these yarn muscles and the necessity for proper structure designs that bypass operation in extensive electrolyte environments. Herein, a meters-long sheath-core structured carbon nanotube (CNT)/nylon composite yarn muscle is continuously prepared. The nylon core not only reduces the consumption of CNTs but also amplifies the surface area for interaction between the CNT yarn and the electrolyte, leading to an enhanced effective actuation volume. When driven electrochemically, the CNT@nylon yarn muscle demonstrates a maximum contractile stroke of 26.4%, a maximum contractile rate of 15.8% s-1, and a maximum power density of 0.37 W g-1, surpassing pure CNT yarn muscles by 1.59, 1.82, and 5.5 times, respectively. By knitting the electrochemical CNT@nylon artificial muscle yarns into a soft fabric that serves as both a soft scaffold and an electrolyte container, we achieved a morphing textile is achieved. This textile can perform programmable multiple motion modes in air such as contraction and sectional bending.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(29): 3966-3969, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501379

RESUMO

Herein, a facile strategy was established to build mechanoresponsive luminogens with high sensitivity to substituents and positional effects. Even in slightly different structures, distinct optical phenomena, including fluorescence efficiency and mechano-responsive properties, were clearly present. Outstanding mechanical-induced emission enhancement (5-100 times) properties and reversibility makes for promising applications in pressure sensors and OLEDs.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(13): e37577, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552063

RESUMO

Sleep quality is among the common complication in patients on dialysis and serious affect their health and quality of life; however, other associated risk factors are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors affecting sleep quality in patients on dialysis. Data were collected from 260 patients who met the inclusion criteria at out hospital from May 2023 to October 2023. Questionnaires were completed by patients, and biochemical indicators were obtained from past medical records. Univariate and multifactor analyses were used to find factors influencing sleep quality in patients on dialysis. Simple linear regression results showed that female, type of kidney primary disease, high systolic blood pressure (SBP), pruritus, pruritus frequency, restless legs syndrome (RLS), anxiety, and depression were associated with poor sleep quality. Blood biochemical parameters showed that low sodium and calcium levels and high ferritin levels were associated with poor sleep quality. Multiple linear regression statistics showed that female, pruritus, RLS, high SBP, depression, and high ferritin levels were associated with poor sleep quality. This study showed that female, chronic nephritis syndrome, high SBP, pruritus, RLS, low mood. and high ferritin levels were associated with poor sleep quality. Future development of individual nursing and targeted therapies is key to improving sleep quality in patients on dialysis.


Assuntos
Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Feminino , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade do Sono , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/epidemiologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/etiologia , Prurido/epidemiologia , Prurido/etiologia , Ferritinas , Sono
16.
J Cheminform ; 16(1): 29, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475916

RESUMO

Chemical structure segmentation constitutes a pivotal task in cheminformatics, involving the extraction and abstraction of structural information of chemical compounds from text-based sources, including patents and scientific articles. This study introduces a deep learning approach to chemical structure segmentation, employing a Vision Transformer (ViT) to discern the structural patterns of chemical compounds from their graphical representations. The Chemistry-Segment Anything Model (ChemSAM) achieves state-of-the-art results on publicly available benchmark datasets and real-world tasks, underscoring its effectiveness in accurately segmenting chemical structures from text-based sources. Moreover, this deep learning-based approach obviates the need for handcrafted features and demonstrates robustness against variations in image quality and style. During the detection phase, a ViT-based encoder-decoder model is used to identify and locate chemical structure depictions on the input page. This model generates masks to ascertain whether each pixel belongs to a chemical structure, thereby offering a pixel-level classification and indicating the presence or absence of chemical structures at each position. Subsequently, the generated masks are clustered based on their connectivity, and each mask cluster is updated to encapsulate a single structure in the post-processing workflow. This two-step process facilitates the effective automatic extraction of chemical structure depictions from documents. By utilizing the deep learning approach described herein, it is demonstrated that effective performance on low-resolution and densely arranged molecular structural layouts in journal articles and patents is achievable.

17.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-7, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506144

RESUMO

The cohesin complex is a ring-shaped protein structure involved in DNA repair and chromosomal segregation. Studies have showed that genomic alterations in the cohesin complex members are among the initial occurrences in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAG2 is the most commonly mutated and best-studied member of the cohesin complex in AML and mutations in this gene have been associated with adverse outcomes and are diagnostically relevant. However, the exact role of mutations in other members of the cohesin complex in the development of myeloid neoplasia is controversial. In this single institution study, we retrospectively reviewed data from the molecular profiles of 1,381 AML patients and identified 14 patients with mutations in RAD21, another member of the cohesin complex. We evaluated the frequency, mutational profile, clinico-pathologic features, and prognostic impact of RAD21 in this cohort. This study showed that RAD21-mutated AML often associates with monocytic differentiation, CD7 expression, co-existing mutations in epigenetic regulators, a normal karyotype, and poor prognosis. Our findings provide additional insights into the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genomic profile of RAD21 mutation-positive AML and suggest that RAD21 mutations should be evaluated for independent prognostic significance in AML.

18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1345586, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515756

RESUMO

Introduction: T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires provide valuable insights into complex human diseases, including cancers. Recent advancements in immune sequencing technology have significantly improved our understanding of TCR repertoire. Some computational methods have been devised to identify cancer-associated TCRs and enable cancer detection using TCR sequencing data. However, the existing methods are often limited by their inadequate consideration of the correlations among TCRs within a repertoire, hindering the identification of crucial TCRs. Additionally, the sparsity of cancer-associated TCR distribution presents a challenge in accurate prediction. Methods: To address these issues, we presented DeepLION2, an innovative deep multi-instance contrastive learning framework specifically designed to enhance cancer-associated TCR prediction. DeepLION2 leveraged content-based sparse self-attention, focusing on the top k related TCRs for each TCR, to effectively model inter-TCR correlations. Furthermore, it adopted a contrastive learning strategy for bootstrapping parameter updates of the attention matrix, preventing the model from fixating on non-cancer-associated TCRs. Results: Extensive experimentation on diverse patient cohorts, encompassing over ten cancer types, demonstrated that DeepLION2 significantly outperformed current state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient, and area under the curve (AUC). Notably, DeepLION2 achieved impressive AUC values of 0.933, 0.880, and 0.763 on thyroid, lung, and gastrointestinal cancer cohorts, respectively. Furthermore, it effectively identified cancer-associated TCRs along with their key motifs, highlighting the amino acids that play a crucial role in TCR-peptide binding. Conclusion: These compelling results underscore DeepLION2's potential for enhancing cancer detection and facilitating personalized cancer immunotherapy. DeepLION2 is publicly available on GitHub, at https://github.com/Bioinformatics7181/DeepLION2, for academic use only.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Humanos , Peptídeos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/genética
19.
Zool Res ; 45(2): 439-450, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485511

RESUMO

As highly social animals, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins ( Sousa chinensis) exhibit community differentiation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the external and internal factors influencing these dynamics, as well as their spatiotemporal variations, is still limited. In the present study, variations in the social structure of an endangered Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in Xiamen Bay, China, were monitored over two distinct periods (2007-2010 and 2017-2019) to analyze the effects of habitat utilization and the composition of individuals within the population. In both periods, the population demonstrated a strikingly similar pattern of social differentiation, characterized by the division of individuals into two main clusters and one small cluster. Spatially, the two primary clusters occupied the eastern and western waters, respectively, although the core distribution area of the eastern cluster shifted further eastward between the two periods. Despite this distribution shift, the temporal stability of the social structure and inter-associations within the eastern cluster remained unaffected. A subset of 16 individuals observed in both periods, comprising 51.6% and 43.2% of the population in each respective period, emerged as a foundational element of the social structure and may be responsible for sustaining social structure stability, especially during the 2007-2010 period. These observations suggest that the composition of dominant individuals, an internal factor, had a more substantial influence on the formation of the social network than changes in habitat use, an external factor. Consequently, the study proposes distinct conservation measures tailored to each of the two main clusters.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Ecossistema , China
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol ; 37(1): 101533, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490763

RESUMO

The diversity of genetic and genomic abnormalities observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reflects the complexity of these hematologic neoplasms. The detection of cytogenetic and molecular alterations is fundamental to diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment of AML. Chromosome rearrangements are well established in the diagnostic classification of AML, as are some gene mutations, in several international classification systems. Additionally, the detection of new mutational profiles at relapse and identification of mutations in the pre- and post-transplant settings are illuminating in understanding disease evolution and are relevant to the risk assessment of AML patients. In this review, we discuss recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, as well as the detection of recurrent mutations, within the context of a normal karyotype, and in the setting of chromosome abnormalities. Two new classification schemes from the WHO and ICC are described, comparing these classifications in terms of diagnostic criteria and entity definition in AML. Finally, we discuss ways in which genomic sequencing can condense the detection of gene mutations and chromosome abnormalities into a single assay.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Mutação , Genômica , Análise Citogenética
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