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1.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 206: 111957, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216853

RESUMO

Silicone hydrogel lenses were prepared by copolymerizing PDMS-PEGMA macromer (PGP) with various combinations of DMA, NVP, and PEGMA through UV initiated polymerization process. The resultant PGP macromer were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). Characterization of all the resultant co-polymers included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), optical transparency, contact angle, mechanical properties, zeta potential, protein deposition, and cytotoxicity. The results show that higher content of hydrophilic polymers increased water uptake ability as well as improved hydrophilicity and modulus of silicone hydrogel lenses; however, oxygen permeability decreased with the decrease of PDMS content (145 barrers of PGP to 37 barrers of DP0). In addition, these silicone hydrogel lenses exhibited relatively optical transparency, anti-protein deposition, and non-cytotoxic according to an in vitro L929 fibroblast assay. Therefore, these silicone hydrogel polymers would be applicable for making contact lens.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 40, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trisomy 18 syndrome (Edwards syndrome, ES) is a type of aneuploidy caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 18. Aneuploidy is the leading cause of early pregnancy loss, intellectual disability, and multiple congenital anomalies. The research of trisomy 18 is progressing slowly, and the molecular characteristics of the disease mechanism and phenotype are still largely unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we used the commercial Chromium platform (10× Genomics) to perform sc-ATAC-seq to measure chromatin accessibility in 11,611 single umbilical cord blood cells derived from one trisomy 18 syndrome patient and one healthy donor. We obtained 13 distinct major clusters of cells and identified them as 6 human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell types using analysis tool. Compared with the NC group, the ES group had a lower ratio of T cells to NK cells, the ratio of monocytes/DC cell population did not change significantly, and the ratio of B cell nuclear progenitor and megakaryocyte erythroid cells was higher. The differential genes of ME-0 are enriched in Human T cell leukemia virus 1 infection pathway, and the differential peak genes of ME-1 are enriched in apopotosis pathway. We found that CCNB2 and MCM3 may be vital to the development of trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3, which have been reported to be essential components of the cell cycle and chromatin. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 6 cell populations in cord blood. Disorder in megakaryocyte erythroid cells implicates trisomy 18 in perturbing fetal hematopoiesis. We identified a pathway in which the master differential regulatory pathway in the ME-0 cell population involves human T cell leukemia virus 1 infection, a pathway that is dysregulated in patients with trisomy 18 and which may increase the risk of leukemia in patients with trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3 in progenitor may be vital to the development of trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3, which have been reported to be essential components of the cell cycle and chromatin, may be related to chromosomal abnormalities in trisomy 18.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232014

RESUMO

It remains challenging to promptly inhibit and autonomically heal electrical trees inside insulating dielectrics, which are caused by sustained strong electrical fields and substantially shorten electronic device lifetimes and even cause premature failure of electrical equipment. Therefore, we demonstrate a magnetically targeted ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization functional microcapsule (MTUF-MC) to endow insulating materials with physical and electrical dual-damage self-healing capabilities. Specifically, Fe3O4@SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles, which serve as magnetic targets and UV shields (thereby preventing the healing agent from prematurely triggering), constitute a functional microcapsule shell, ensuring a low dopant concentration and excellent self-healing ability of the epoxy composites without affecting the intrinsic performance of the matrix. By exploiting in situ electroluminescence originating from electrical trees, UV-induced polymerization of healing agent is handily triggered without any applying external stimuli to intelligently, contactlessly, and autonomously self-healing electrical trees inside insulating dielectrics.

4.
Emerg Med J ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel have high COVID-19 risk during resuscitation. The resuscitation protocol for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was modified in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the adjustments in the EMS system affected patients with OHCA remains unclear. METHODS: We analysed data from the Taichung OHCA registry system. We compared OHCA outcomes and rescue records for 622 cases during the COVID-19 outbreak period (1 February to 30 April 2020) with those recorded for 570 cases during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: The two periods did not differ significantly with respect to patient age, patient sex, the presence of witnesses or OHCA location. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation with automated external defibrillators were more common in 2020 (52.81% vs 65.76%, p<0.001%, and 23.51% vs 31.67%, p=0.001, respectively). The EMS response time was longer during the COVID-19 pandemic (445.8±210.2 s in 2020 vs 389.7±201.8 s in 2019, p<0.001). The rate of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation was lower in 2020 (6.49% vs 2.57%, p=0.001); 2019 and 2020 had similar rates of survival discharge (5.96% vs 4.98%). However, significantly fewer cases had favourable neurological function in 2020 (4.21% vs 2.09%, p=0.035). CONCLUSION: EMS response time for patients with OHCA was prolonged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early advanced life support by EMS personnel remains crucial for patients with OHCA.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114404, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246739

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot is known as the longevity grass in eastern countries for its warm effect to cure many cold diseases. It has been widely used in medicine, food, bathing, moxibustion, and fumigation for more than two thousand years. Nowadays it even becomes the cultural symbol of the Dragon Boat Festival. In traditional application, A. argyi is considered to be an important hemostatic drug and a common drug for gynecological diseases. In modern application, the Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot essential oil (AAEO) is regarded as the important medicinal substance of A. argyi, and has been made into many health products, forming a large-scale A. argyi industry. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the research status of AAEO and evaluate its application value. The manuscript focuses on the reported extraction methods, chemical components and influencing factors, pharmacological action, and toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the literature search, several databases, such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Elsevier, CNKI, and Wanfang, were searched for key words, including "Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot essential oil," "Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot," "cineole," "caryophyllene," "cyclamen," "borneol," and "camphor." RESULTS: At present, more than 200 kinds of chemical components have been detected in AAEO, including terpenes, ketones (aldehydes), alcohols (phenols), acids (esters), alkanes (olefins) hydrocarbons, and so on. It has great anti-disease-resistant microorganism, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-cancer effects in clinical treatment and has good development potential and application prospects. CONCLUSION: Present review provides an insight into chemical composition, extraction method, quality influencing factors, pharmacological action and toxicological action of AAEO. As an important traditional medicine herb, remarkable efficacy has been demonstrated in comprehensive literature reports, which has shown the great medicinal potential of this plant. However, the toxicity of AAEO cannot be ignored, the exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated.

6.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269724

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Acute mesenteric ischemia resulting in bowel necrosis is a surgical emergency. First identification of acute mesenteric ischemia with FDG PET/CT is uncommon, because patients with bowel ischemia are usually diagnosed by other imaging methods such as CT. Nevertheless, prompt imager recognition of the PET/CT findings of mesenteric ischemia and necrosis is critical for proper triage of the patient to potentially lifesaving interventions. We present a 39-year-old woman with portal vein thrombosis who was sent for 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of a suspected pancreatic head neoplasm but was unexpectedly found to have ischemic and necrotic small bowel secondary to mesenteric venous infarction.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199608

RESUMO

This paper presents a bibliometric overview of the publications in the principal international journal Process Safety and Environmental Protection (PSEP) from 1990 to 2020 retrieved in the Web of Science (WoS) database to explore the evolution in safety and environmental engineering design and practice, as well as experimental or theoretical innovative research. Therefore, based on the WoS database and the visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer software, the bibliometric analysis and scientometric mapping of the literature have been performed from the perspectives of document types, publication and citation distribution over time, leading authors, countries (regions), institutions, the corresponding collaboration networks, most cited publications and references, focused research fields and topics, research trend evolution over time, etc. The paper provides a comprehensive and quantitative overview and significant picture representation for the journal's leading and evolutionary trends by employing specific aforementioned bibliometric analysis factors. In addition, by reviewing the evolutionary trends of the journal and the proposed investigated factors, such as the influential works, main research topics, and the research frontiers, this paper reveals the scientific literature production's main research objectives and directions that could be addressed and explored in future studies.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2101498, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272933

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI), as a common oxidative stress-related renal disease, causes high mortality in clinics annually, and many other clinical diseases, including the pandemic COVID-19, have a high potential to cause AKI, yet only rehydration, renal dialysis, and other supportive therapies are available for AKI in the clinics. Nanotechnology-mediated antioxidant therapy represents a promising therapeutic strategy for AKI treatment. However, current enzyme-mimicking nanoantioxidants show poor biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as non-specific ROS level regulation, further potentially causing deleterious adverse effects. Herein, the authors report a novel non-enzymatic antioxidant strategy based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -PVP nanosheets (TPNS) with excellent biocompatibility and great chemical reactivity toward multiple ROS for AKI treatment. These TPNS nanosheets exhibit enzyme/ROS-triggered biodegradability and broad-spectrum ROS scavenging ability through the readily occurring redox reaction between Ti3 C2 and various ROS, as verified by theoretical calculations. Furthermore, both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that TPNS can serve as efficient antioxidant platforms to scavenge the overexpressed ROS and subsequently suppress oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response through inhibition of NF-κB signal pathway for AKI treatment. This study highlights a new type of therapeutic agent, that is, the redox-mediated non-enzymatic antioxidant MXene nanoplatforms in treatment of AKI and other ROS-associated diseases.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geriatric hip fracture patients receiving clopidogrel are a surgical challenge. In China, most of these patients undergo delayed surgical treatment after clopidogrel withdrawal for at least 5 to 7 days. However, delayed surgery is associated with increased complications and mortality in the older adults. This retrospective paralleled comparison study investigated the safety of early surgery for geriatric hip fracture patients within 5 days of clopidogrel withdrawal. METHODS: Acute hip fracture patients (≥65 years) who were hospitalized in the orthogeriatric co-management ward of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital between November 2016 and April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients taking clopidogrel before injury and discontinued <5 days before surgery constituted the clopidogrel group. The control group constituted 60 patients not taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs and matched 1:1 with the clopidogrel group for sex, fracture type, operative procedure, and time from injury to operation (±10 h). The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss and the secondary outcomes were transfusion requirement, complications, and mortality. The Student's t test or Wilcoxon signed rank sum test was used for continuous variables and the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. RESULTS: Age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and percentage undergoing general anesthesia were comparable between the groups (P > 0.050). The percentages of patients with coronary heart disease (61.7% vs. 18.3%; P < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease (45.0% vs. 15.0%; P < 0.010) were significantly higher in the clopidogrel vs. control groups, respectively. The median clopidogrel discontinuation time before operation was 73.0 (range: 3.0-120.0) h. There was no significant difference in the estimated perioperative blood loss between the clopidogrel group (median: 745 mL) and control group (median: 772 mL) (P = 0.866). The intra-operative transfusion rate was higher in the clopidogrel group (22/60, 36.7%) than that in the control group (12/60, 20.0%) (P < 0.050). However, there was no significant difference in the blood transfusion rate during the entire perioperative period (26/60, 43.3% vs. 20/60, 33.3%; clopidogrel group vs. control group, respectively; P > 0.050). There was no significant difference in perioperative complications, and 30-day and 1-year mortality rates between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early hip fracture surgery is safe for elderly patients within 5 days of clopidogrel withdrawal, without increased perioperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, complications, and mortality compared with patients not taking antiplatelet drugs.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208767

RESUMO

Promoting fluid transportation in porous media has important applications in energy, pedology, bioscience, etc. For this purpose, one effective way is to prevent swelling through surface modification; however, it is far from enough in real cases, such as ultra-low permeability reservoirs and tight oils. In this study, we considered the comprehensive effects of inhibiting clay swelling, flocculation performance, reducing water clusters and interfacial tension and developed a series of imidazole-based tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids (ILs) with different lengths of alkyl chains. Through measurements of anti-swelling rates, XRD, SEM, 17O NMR, molecular dynamics simulation, zeta potential, flocculation evaluation, interfacial tension and a core flooding experiment based on ultra-low permeability reservoirs, the relationships between the molecular structure and physicochemical properties of ILs have been revealed. Interestingly, one of the selected ILs, imidazole-based tetrafluoroborate ILs (C8-OMImBF4), shows excellent performance, which is helpful to design an effective strategy in promoting fluid transportation in narrow spaces.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Imidazóis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Água/química , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Modelos Teóricos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Difração de Raios X
11.
eNeuro ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281981

RESUMO

The term "memory strength" generally refers to how well one remembers something but more precisely it contains multiple modalities, such as how easily, how accurately, how confidently and how vividly we remember it. In human, these modalities of memory strength are dissociable. In this study, we asked whether we can isolate a behavioral component that is dissociable from others in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks in mice, which potentially reflect a modality of memory strength. Using a virus-mediated inducible method, we ablated immature neurons in the dentate gyrus in mice after we trained the mice with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks normally. In memory retrieval tests, these ablated mice initially show intact performance. However, the ablated mice ceased learned behavior prematurely within a trial compared with control mice. In addition, the ablated mice showed shorter duration of individual episodes of learned behavior. Both affected behavioral measurements point to persistence of learned behavior. Thus, the effect of the post-learning manipulation showed dissociation between initial performance and persistence of learned behavior. These two behavioral components are likely to reflect different brain functions and be mediated by separate mechanisms, which might represent different modalities of memory strength. These simple dissociable measurements in widely used behavioral paradigms would be useful to understand detailed mechanisms underlying the expression of learned behavior and potentially different modalities of memory strength in mice. We also discuss a potential role that immature neurons in the dentate gyrus may play in persistence of learned behavior.Significance statementWe use the term "memory strength" both in everyday life and research settings. Memory strength generally means how well we remember something. However, depending on context, its meaning is varied; it can mean how easily, accurately, vividly and/or confidently we remember it. These different modalities of memory strength are generally correlated but is known to be partly independent. In this study, we asked whether such independent or dissociable behavioral components exist in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks in mice. We provide evidence that initial performance and persistence of learned behavior during memory retrieval tests are dissociable in three memory tasks. Such dissociable components would be helpful to study different modalities of memory strength and their underlying mechanisms in mice in future studies.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4247, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253727

RESUMO

The gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis belongs to the ancient, enigmatic gnetophyte lineage. It is a unique desert plant with extreme longevity and two ever-elongating leaves. We present a chromosome-level assembly of its genome (6.8 Gb/1 C) together with methylome and transcriptome data to explore its astonishing biology. We also present a refined, high-quality assembly of Gnetum montanum to enhance our understanding of gnetophyte genome evolution. The Welwitschia genome has been shaped by a lineage-specific ancient, whole genome duplication (~86 million years ago) and more recently (1-2 million years) by bursts of retrotransposon activity. High levels of cytosine methylation (particularly at CHH motifs) are associated with retrotransposons, whilst long-term deamination has resulted in an exceptionally GC-poor genome. Changes in copy number and/or expression of gene families and transcription factors (e.g. R2R3MYB, SAUR) controlling cell growth, differentiation and metabolism underpin the plant's longevity and tolerance to temperature, nutrient and water stress.

13.
Arch Toxicol ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251499

RESUMO

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Although overall survival (OS) of TACE-treated patients has been evidently prolonged, not all unresectable HCC patients can benefit from TACE. Genome-wide association studies identified multiple HCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is still unclear how lncRNAs and their functional SNPs impact therapeutic responses of TACE. In the study, we hypothesized that the functional lncRNA H19 SNP(s) might impact H19 expression and, thus, prognosis of TACE-treated HCC patients. We found that the H19 rs3741219 SNP was significantly associated with OS of HCC patients received TACE. Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that the rs3741219 CC genotype was associated with longer OS and a 37% decreased death risk compared with the TT carriers after TACE therapy (P = 0.001). Interestingly, the rs3741219 T-to-C change led to allelic down-regulation of lncRNA H19 expression via creating the binding sites of miR-146b-3p and miR-1539. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that miR-146b-3p and miR-1539 could markedly silence the rs3741219 C-allelic H19 expression but not lncRNA H19 with the T allele. Consistently, there was significantly reduced expression of lncRNA H19 in HCC and normal tissues of the C allele carriers compared with the H19 levels in patients with the T allele. Knock-down of lncRNA H19 significantly promoted the anti-viability efficiency of oxaliplatin (the main chemotherapy drug used in TACE) to HCC cells. In view of these results, we assume that lncRNA H19 might be a potential therapeutic target for unresectable HCC patients.

14.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(13): 2835-2841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220311

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis is the main reason for the death of most cancer patients. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in numerous types of cancer. CXCR4 selectively binds with stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), also known as C-X-C family chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) (CXCL12/SDF-1), which induced tumor proliferation and metastasis. Recently, the use of conventional cancer treatments had some limitation; bacteria treatment for cancer becomes a trend that overcomes these limitations. Plenty of studies show that Salmonella has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity. The current study aimed to investigate Salmonella suppresses CXCR4 protein expression and tumor cell migration ability in B16F10 melanoma and LL2 lung carcinoma cells. Salmonella reduced CXCR4 protein expression through downregulating Protein Kinase-B (Akt)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. In cells transfected with constitutively active Akt plasmids, a reverse effect of Salmonella-induced inhibition of CXCR4 was observed. Tumor cells have chemotactic response to CXCL12 in migration assay, and we found that Salmonella reduced tumor chemotactic response after CXCL12 treatment. The C57BL/6 mice were intravenously injected with B16F10 and LL2 cells pre-incubated with or without Salmonella, the tumor size and lung weight of Salmonella group had obviously decreased, indicating anti-metastatic effect that confirmed the findings from the in vitro experiments.

15.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(13): 2981-2989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220326

RESUMO

Salmonella causes salmonellosis, is a facultative anaerobe and is one of the common Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella has anti-tumor potential and tumor-targeting activity. The heparin sulfate on cell surfaces can be cleaved by heparanase that is an endo-ß-D-glucuronidase. Heparanase can destroy the extracellular matrix and is involved in tumor metastasis and angiogenic activity. Previously, Salmonella was demonstrated to inhibit tumor metastasis. It remains unclear whether Salmonella inhibits metastasis by regulating heparanase. The expression of heparanase in Salmonella-treated tumor cells was found to be decreased. Transwell and wound-healing assays demonstrated the inhibition of cell migration after Salmonella treatment. Salmonella was found to influence the levels of phosphate-protein kinase B (P-AKT) and phosphate-extracellular regulated protein kinases (P-ERK), which are involved in heparanase expression. Salmonella reduced the heparanase expression induced upregulating PERK and PAKT signaling pathways. The mice bearing an experimental metastasis tumor model was used to evaluate the anti-tumor metastatic effects of Salmonella. Compared with the control group, Salmonella significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules and enhanced survival. The results of our study indicate that Salmonella plays a vital role in the inhibition of tumor metastasis through the downregulation of heparanase.

16.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225600

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The inflammatory response plays a key role in the pathological process of DN. As the most deeply studied inflammasome, NLRP3 should not be overlooked in DN. Its abnormal activation accelerates DN progression. In this review, we summarize our understanding of the structural composition and activation factors of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, the relationship between NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and the potential of the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target for DN will also be discussed.

17.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215440

RESUMO

This paper investigates the consensus problem for a class of multi-agent systems with P-one-sided Lipschitz nonlinearity. This nonlinearity offers a significant extension to application range of existing consensus control protocol design methods, which removes the assumption of the quadratic inner-boundedness. To solve this problem, a strongly connected graph topology is applied within the consensus protocol design framework. Moreover, the leader-following scenario is addressed under the graph topology. Under the above objectives, sufficient conditions are employed to yield consensus. Two examples are performed to illustrate the properties.

18.
J Card Surg ; 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cardiac tumor. It is characterized by poor prognosis, and current treatment approaches are not effective. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old female with 35 weeks pregnancy experienced chest tightness and shortness of breath for 1 month. She was diagnosed with primary cardiac angiosarcoma. Delivery of fetus was performed early to treat the mother. The patient underwent resection of the tumor then she was treated with chemotherapy. However, the tumor recurred 11 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Angiosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor explaining recurrence of the tumor recurred after surgery. Cardiac angiosarcoma should be treated through a comprehensive treatment plan, comprising surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy approaches.

19.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(7): 682-689, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, rapidly obtaining accurate information of patient symptoms and their progression is crucial and vital. Although the early studies in China have illustrated that the representative symptoms of COVID-19 include (dry) cough, fever, headache, fatigue, gastrointestinal discomfort, dyspnea, and muscle pain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that olfactory and taste disorder are related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we conduct this study to review the present literature about the correlation between anosmia or dysgeusia and COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search in 2020 of the electronic journal databases, mainly PubMed or Web of Science, was performed using the keywords COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with hyposmia, anosmia, dysgeusia, olfactory disorder, or olfactory dysfunction. The country, study period, case number, inpatient or outpatient medical visit, evaluation method (subjective complaints of dysfunction or objective evaluation), and occurrence rate of olfactory or gustatory function were reviewed. RESULTS: Many studies reported that the recoverable olfactory or gustatory dysfunction may play an important role as the early clinical symptom of COVID-19. It is associated with better prognosis, although further investigation and validation should be carried out. CONCLUSION: Studies have shown that smell and taste disturbances may represent an early symptom of COVID-19 and healthcare professionals must be very vigilant when managing patients with these symptoms. In the pandemic era, this implies testing for COVID-19 by healthcare workers with full personal protective equipment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos
20.
J Med Chem ; 64(13): 8992-9009, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132534

RESUMO

Glycine-N-methyl transferase (GNMT) downregulation results in spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of GNMT inhibits the proliferation of liver cancer cell lines and prevents carcinogen-induced HCC, suggesting that GNMT induction is a potential approach for anti-HCC therapy. Herein, we used Huh7 GNMT promoter-driven screening to identify a GNMT inducer. Compound K78 was identified and validated for its induction of GNMT and inhibition of Huh7 cell growth. Subsequently, we employed structure-activity relationship analysis and found a potent GNMT inducer, K117. K117 inhibited Huh7 cell growth in vitro and xenograft in vivo. Oral administration of a dosage of K117 at 10 mpk (milligrams per kilogram) can inhibit Huh7 xenograft in a manner equivalent to the effect of sorafenib at a dosage of 25 mpk. A mechanistic study revealed that K117 is an MYC inhibitor. Ectopic expression of MYC using CMV promoter blocked K117-mediated MYC inhibition and GNMT induction. Overall, K117 is a potential lead compound for HCC- and MYC-dependent cancers.

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